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Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2022) | Viewed by 38222

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Analysis and Evaluation of Food Quality, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 122 Str., 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Interests: food analysis; food rheology; food additives; polysaccharides; starch; honey
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Dietetics and Food Studies, Faculty of Science & Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: chemical and biochemical modifications of polysaccharides; starch; dietary fiber; resistant starch resistant dextrins; prebiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polysaccharides are an important group of natural polymers used in living organisms as a building and reserve material. This group is characterized by great diversity in terms of structure, place of occurrence and properties. Due to their complex nature and the resulting diversified physicochemical properties, polysaccharides play an important role in food production. They are a naturally occurring energy component in many foodstuffs, and at the same time, they play a structural role. Polysaccharides are commonly used as food ingredients and additives added to food during technological processes. They are also widely used as thickeners and gelling, emulsifying, filling and stabilizing substances. Their use has a positive effect on the structure, sensory characteristics and physical stability of many food products. Many natural polysaccharides are also subjected to various types of modifications in order to improve their functional properties. The health aspects related to the presence of polysaccharides in food are also important. Some of them are the basis of fat substitutes in the production of energy-reduced food, others possess prebiotic properties, and others still are individual fractions of dietary fiber, positively influencing many functions of the human body. Traditional polysaccharides, characteristic of foodstuffs, are also widely used outside direct food production, in industries related to food production and distribution, such as biotechnology or the production of biodegradable and active packaging.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to identify and review the latest research findings on polysaccharides present in food and used in the food and related industries. We cordially invite you to contribute to this Special Issue in the form of both review articles and original research results. They can cover all aspects related to food polysaccharides, including structure, properties, analysis, modifications, practical applications and impacts on human health.

Prof. Dr. Lesław Juszczak
Prof. Dr. Janusz Kapusniak
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food polysaccharides
  • food gums
  • food additives
  • dietary fiber
  • structure
  • properties
  • functions
  • application
  • bioactivity

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1272 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Dough Properties and Baking Performance of Panned Bread: The Function of Maltodextrins and Natural Gums
by Abdulmajeed A. AbuDujayn, Abdellatif A. Mohamed, Mohamed Saleh Alamri, Shahzad Hussain, Mohamed A. Ibraheem, Akram A. Abdo Qasem, Ghalia Shamlan and Nashi K. Alqahtani
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4326
Abstract
The effectiveness of hydrocolloids (2% maximum in various combinations) from various sources, including maltodextrins (MD) with polymerization degree (DP) 18 and ziziphus gum (ZG), on the dough properties and quality of panned bread, as well as the possibility of using them to delay [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of hydrocolloids (2% maximum in various combinations) from various sources, including maltodextrins (MD) with polymerization degree (DP) 18 and ziziphus gum (ZG), on the dough properties and quality of panned bread, as well as the possibility of using them to delay the bread staling process, have been investigated after 24, 72, and 96 h of storage. By evaluating the pasting capabilities of wheat flour slurry, dough properties, and the final product, the effects of the ziziphus gum (ZG) and maltodextrins (MD) were ascertained. A TA-TXT texture analyzer, a texture profile analysis test, and Micro-doughLab were used to evaluate the dough mixing properties. Additionally, a hedonic sensory evaluation of the overall acceptance of the bread, as well as its texture, aroma, taste, and color, was done. It is clear that MD had a more distinct impact than ZG on the way dough was mixed, the texture of the gel, and the finished product. The combination of MD and ZG significantly altered the bread’s physical characteristics and its aging over time. The decreased peak viscosity and noticeably smaller setback of wheat flour gels, which corresponded to lower gel hardness, serve as evidence of reduced amylose retrogradation. At 2%, MD outperformed ZG in terms of increasing water absorption, dough stability, and bread loaf volume. With the exception of the blend that included three times as much MD as ZG, all mixes, including the control, exhibited an increase in bread firmness as a function of time after storage. Overall, the panelists liked (score of 5 and above) the bread made with mixes that had either MD or ZG, or a combination of both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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13 pages, 6347 KiB  
Article
Separation and Structural Characterization of a Novel Exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans
by Zhang Li, Jianhua Li, Xuan Xu, Zhen Luo, Jiayi Sun, Hongyun Wang, Chunyan Liu, Xiuwen Ni, Jianqi Sun, Jun Xu and Kaoshan Chen
Molecules 2022, 27(22), 7756; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27227756 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
The present study aims to analyze the structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans (EPS2-1). For this purpose, EPS2-1 was purified through DEAE-52, Sephadex G-100, and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The structural characterization of EPS2-1 was analyzed using high-performance [...] Read more.
The present study aims to analyze the structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans (EPS2-1). For this purpose, EPS2-1 was purified through DEAE-52, Sephadex G-100, and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The structural characterization of EPS2-1 was analyzed using high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results revealed that EPS2-1 is composed of mannose (Man), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), arabinose (Ara), and Fucose (Fuc), and possesses a molecular weight of 32.803 kDa. The backbone of EPS2-1 comprised →2)-α-D-Manp-(1→ and →3)-β-D-Galp-(1→, linked with the O-6 position of (→2,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→) of the main chain is branch α-D-Manp-(1→6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, linked with the O-6 positions of (→3)-β-D-Galp-(1→) of the main chain are branches →4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ and →3)-β-D-Galp-(1→, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that EPS2-1 also shows free radical scavenging activity and iron ion reducing ability. At the same time, EPS2-1 could inhibit the proliferation of MFC cells and increase the cell viability of RAW264.7 cells. Our results suggested that EPS2-1 is a novel polysaccharide, and EPS2-1 has antioxidant activity. In addition, EPS2-1 may possess potential immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. This study promoted the application of EPS2-1 as the functional ingredients in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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13 pages, 3099 KiB  
Article
Lentinus edodes Polysaccharides Alleviate Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
by Yiwen Zhang, Yanfei Cui, Yanbo Feng, Fengping Jiao and Le Jia
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7328; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217328 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a kind of lung disease with acute dyspnea, pulmonary inflammation, respiratory distress, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accompanied by the mid- and end-stage characteristics of COVID-19, clinically. It is imperative to find non-toxic natural substances on preventing ALI and [...] Read more.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a kind of lung disease with acute dyspnea, pulmonary inflammation, respiratory distress, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accompanied by the mid- and end-stage characteristics of COVID-19, clinically. It is imperative to find non-toxic natural substances on preventing ALI and its complications. The animal experiments demonstrated that Lentinus edodes polysaccharides (PLE) had a potential role in alleviating ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, which was manifested by reducing the levels of serum lung injury indicators (C3, hs-CRP, and GGT), reducing the levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) in the lung. Furthermore, PLE had the typical characteristics of pyran-type linked by β-type glycosidic linkages. The conclusions indicated that PLE could be used as functional foods and natural drugs in preventing ALI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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19 pages, 1888 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Structural Characterization, and Hypoglycemic Activities In Vitro of Polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii
by Pin Gong, Hui Long, Yuxi Guo, Siyuan Wang, Fuxin Chen and Xuefeng Chen
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 7140; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207140 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
Pleurotus eryngii (PE) is an edible mushroom with high nutritional value. Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (PEPs) are one of the main active ingredients and manifest a great variety of biological activities. This study mainly focused on the chemical characterization and biological activities of PEPs, [...] Read more.
Pleurotus eryngii (PE) is an edible mushroom with high nutritional value. Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (PEPs) are one of the main active ingredients and manifest a great variety of biological activities. This study mainly focused on the chemical characterization and biological activities of PEPs, which were separated into two fractions (named WPS and P-1). WPS is mainly dominated by β-glycosidic bonds and contains α-glycosidic bonds, and P-1 only contains α-glycosidic bonds. The molecular weights of WPS and P-1 were 4.5 × 105 Da and 2.2 × 104 Da. The result of GC indicated that two the fractions were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, with a ratio of 0.35:0.24:0.45:0.24:28.78:1.10 for WPS and 0.95:0.64:0.66:1.84:60.69:0.67 for P-1. The advanced structure studies indicated that the two fractions had no triple-helical structure, where WPS had a dense structure and P-1 had a loose structure. In addition, the antioxidant activity of WPS surpassed P-1, and the two fractions also exhibited a high hypoglycemic activity via inhibiting α-glycosidase activities and promoting the expression of PI3K-AKT signaling pathway based on in vitro assay and cell experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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17 pages, 4182 KiB  
Article
Effects of Auricularia auricula Polysaccharides on Gut Microbiota Composition in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
by Nannan Liu, Mengyin Chen, Juanna Song, Yuanyuan Zhao, Pin Gong and Xuefeng Chen
Molecules 2022, 27(18), 6061; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27186061 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
In previous studies, Auriculariaauricula polysaccharides (AAP) has been found to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that AAP achieves remission by altering the gut microbiota in mice with type 2 diabetes. [...] Read more.
In previous studies, Auriculariaauricula polysaccharides (AAP) has been found to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that AAP achieves remission by altering the gut microbiota in mice with type 2 diabetes. We successfully constructed a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) combined with streptozotocin (STZ), following which fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and oral glucose tolerance test (OTGG) were observed to decrease significantly after 5 weeks of AAP intervention. Furthermore, AAP enhanced the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) to alleviate the oxidative stress injury. AAP-M (200 mg/kg/d) displayed the best improvement effect. Moreover, 16S rRNA results showed that AAP decreased the abundance of Firmicutes and increased that of Bacteroidetes. The abundance of beneficial genera such as Faecalibaculum, Dubosiella, Alloprevotella, and those belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae was increased due to the intake of AAP. AAP could reduced the abundance of Desulfovibrio, Enterorhabdus, and Helicobacter. In all, these results suggest that AAP can improve the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism by regulating the structure of the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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18 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
Effect of Soil Type and Application of Ecological Fertilizer Composed of Ash from Biomass Combustion on Selected Physicochemical, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Potato Starch
by Karolina Pycia, Ewa Szupnar-Krok, Małgorzata Szostek, Renata Pawlak and Lesław Juszczak
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4318; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134318 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of soil type and the application of fertilizer composed of ashes from biomass combustion to potatoes on selected physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of potato starches isolated by using the laboratory method. Potatoes [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of soil type and the application of fertilizer composed of ashes from biomass combustion to potatoes on selected physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of potato starches isolated by using the laboratory method. Potatoes were grown in Haplic Luvisol (HL) and Gleyic Chernozem (GC) soil and fertilized with different doses of biomass combustion ash (D1–D6) with different mineral contents. The thermodynamic characteristics of gelatinization and retrogradation were identified by DSC. The analyses of rheological properties included the determination of the gelatinization characteristics by using the RVA method, flow curves, and assessment of the viscoelastic properties of starch gels. It was found that the starches tested contained from 24.7 to 29.7 g/100 g d.m. amylose, and the clarity of 1% starch pastes ranged from 59% to 68%. The gelatinization characteristics that were determined showed statistically significant differences between the starches analyzed in terms of the tested factors. The value of maximum viscosity and final viscosity varied, respectively, in the range of 2017–2404 mPa·s and 2811–3112 mPa·s, respectively. The samples of the potato starches studied showed a non-Newtonian flow, shear thinning, and the phenomenon of thixotropy. After cooling, the starch gels showed different viscoelastic properties, all of which were weak gels (tan δ = G″/G′ > 0.1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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14 pages, 3325 KiB  
Article
Structural Characteristics, Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Activities of Polysaccharide from Siraitia grosvenorii
by Pin Gong, Yuxi Guo, Xuefeng Chen, Dandan Cui, Mengrao Wang, Wenjuan Yang and Fuxin Chen
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4192; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134192 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
The structural characterization, the in vitro antioxidant activity, and the hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (SGP-1-1) isolated from Siraitia grosvenorii (SG) were studied in this paper. SGP-1-1, whose molecular weight is 19.037 kDa, consisted of Gal:Man:Glc in the molar ratio of 1:2.56:4.90. According [...] Read more.
The structural characterization, the in vitro antioxidant activity, and the hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (SGP-1-1) isolated from Siraitia grosvenorii (SG) were studied in this paper. SGP-1-1, whose molecular weight is 19.037 kDa, consisted of Gal:Man:Glc in the molar ratio of 1:2.56:4.90. According to the results of methylation analysis, GC–MS, and NMR, HSQC was interpreted as a glucomannan with a backbone composed of 4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-, α-D-Glcp-(1→4)-, and 4)-Manp-(1 residues. α-1,6 linked an α-D-Galp branch, and α-1,6 linked an α-D-Glcp branch. The study indirectly showed that SGP-1-1 has good in vitro hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities and that these activities may be related to the fact that the SGP-1-1’s monosaccharide composition (a higher proportion of Gal and Man) is the glycosidic-bond type (α- and β-glycosidic bonds). SGP-1-1 could be used as a potential antioxidant and hypoglycemic candidate for functional and nutritional food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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13 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties and Anticoagulant Activity of Purified Heteropolysaccharides from Laminaria japonica
by Tingting Li, Haiqiong Ma, Hong Li, Hao Tang, Jinwen Huang, Shiying Wei, Qingxia Yuan, Xiaohuo Shi, Chenghai Gao, Shunli Mi, Longyan Zhao, Shengping Zhong and Yonghong Liu
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27093027 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
Laminaria japonica is widely consumed as a key food and medicine. Polysaccharides are one of the most plentiful constituents of this marine plant. In this study, several polysaccharide fractions with different charge numbers were obtained. Their physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities were determined [...] Read more.
Laminaria japonica is widely consumed as a key food and medicine. Polysaccharides are one of the most plentiful constituents of this marine plant. In this study, several polysaccharide fractions with different charge numbers were obtained. Their physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities were determined by chemical and instrumental methods. The chemical analysis showed that Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJPs) and the purified fractions LJP0, LJP04, LJP06, and LJP08 mainly consisted of mannose, glucuronic acid, galactose, and fucose in different mole ratios. LJP04 and LJP06 also contained minor amounts of xylose. The polysaccharide fractions eluted by higher concentration of NaCl solutions showed higher contents of uronic acid and sulfate group. Biological activity assays showed that LJPs LJP06 and LJP08 could obviously prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), indicating that they had strong anticoagulant activity. Furthermore, we found that LJP06 exerted this activity by inhibiting intrinsic factor Xase with higher selectivity than other fractions, which may have negligible bleeding risk. The sulfate group may play an important role in the anticoagulant activity. In addition, the carboxyl group and surface morphology of these fractions may affect their anticoagulant activities. The results provide information for applications of L. japonica polysaccharides, especially LJP06 as anticoagulants in functional foods and therapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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13 pages, 1803 KiB  
Article
Effect of Long-Term Potato Starch Retention with Citric Acid on Its Properties
by Małgorzata Kapelko-Żeberska, Marta Meisel, Krzysztof Buksa, Artur Gryszkin, Antoni Szumny, Bogna Latacz, Bartosz Raszewski and Tomasz Zięba
Molecules 2022, 27(8), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27082454 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine changes in the properties of starch triggered by its long-lasting (1, 2, 4, 7, 10, or 14 days) retention with citric acid (5 g/100 g) at a temperature of 40 °C. The starch citrates obtained under laboratory [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine changes in the properties of starch triggered by its long-lasting (1, 2, 4, 7, 10, or 14 days) retention with citric acid (5 g/100 g) at a temperature of 40 °C. The starch citrates obtained under laboratory conditions had a low degree of substitution, as confirmed via NMR and HPSEC analyses. The prolonging time of starch retention with citric acid at 40 °C contributed to its increased esterification degree (0.05–0.11 g/100 g), swelling power (30–38 g/g), and solubility in water (19–35%) as well as to decreased viscosity of the starch pastes. Starch heating with citric acid under the applied laboratory conditions did not affect the course of DSC thermal characteristics of starch pasting. The low-substituted starch citrates exhibited approximately 15% resistance to amylolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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14 pages, 9360 KiB  
Article
The Thermal Characteristics, Sorption Isotherms and State Diagrams of the Freeze-Dried Pumpkin-Inulin Powders
by Anna Stępień, Mariusz Witczak and Teresa Witczak
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072225 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Powders based on plant raw materials have low storage stability due to their sorption and thermal properties and generate problems during processing. Therefore, there is a need to find carrier agents to improve their storage life as well as methods to evaluate their [...] Read more.
Powders based on plant raw materials have low storage stability due to their sorption and thermal properties and generate problems during processing. Therefore, there is a need to find carrier agents to improve their storage life as well as methods to evaluate their properties during storage. Water adsorption isotherms and thermal characteristics of the pumpkin powder with various inulin additions were investigated in order to develop state diagrams. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtained glass transition lines, freezing curves and maximal-freeze-concentration conditions. The glass transition lines were developed using the Gordon–Taylor model. Freezing data were modeled employing the Clausius–Clapeyron equation and its development–Chen model. The glass transition temperature of anhydrous material (Tgs) and characteristic glass transition temperature of maximum-freeze-concentration (Tg′) increased with growing inulin additions. Sorption isotherms of the powders were determined at 25 °C by the static-gravimetric method and the experimental data was modeled with four different mathematical models. The Peleg model was the most adequate to describe the sorption data of the pumpkin–inulin powders. Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) monolayer capacity decreased with increasing inulin concentration in the sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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19 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Hydroponic Potato Plant Cultivation on Selected Properties of Starch Isolated from Its Tubers
by Marta Liszka-Skoczylas, Wiktor Berski, Mariusz Witczak, Łukasz Skoczylas, Iwona Kowalska, Sylwester Smoleń, Paweł Szlachcic and Marcin Kozieł
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27030856 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Starch is a natural polysaccharide for which the technological quality depends on the genetic basis of the plant and the environmental conditions of the cultivation. Growing plants under cover without soil has many advantages for controlling the above-mentioned conditions. The present research focuses [...] Read more.
Starch is a natural polysaccharide for which the technological quality depends on the genetic basis of the plant and the environmental conditions of the cultivation. Growing plants under cover without soil has many advantages for controlling the above-mentioned conditions. The present research focuses on determining the effect of under cover hydroponic potato cultivation on the physicochemical properties of accumulated potato starch (PS). The plants were grown in the hydroponic system, with (greenhouse, GH) and without recirculation nutrient solution (foil tunnel, FT). The reference sample was PS isolated from plants grown in a tunnel in containers filled with mineral soil (SO). The influence of the cultivation method on the elemental composition of the starch molecules was noted. The cultivation method also influenced the protein and amylose content of the PS. Considering the chromatic parameters, PS-GH and PS-FT were brighter and whiter, with a tinge of blue, than PS-SO. PS-SO was also characterized by the largest average diameters of granules, while PS-GH had the lowest crystallinity. PS-SO showed a better resistance to the combined action of elevated temperature and shear force. There was a slight variation in the gelatinization temperature values. Additionally, significant differences for enthalpy and the retrogradation ratio were observed. The cultivation method did not influence the glass transition and melting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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10 pages, 2591 KiB  
Article
Effect of Oat β-Glucan on the Rheological Characteristics and Microstructure of Set-Type Yogurt
by Xiaoqing Qu, Yuliya Nazarenko, Wei Yang, Yuanyang Nie, Yongsheng Zhang and Bo Li
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4752; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164752 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
The oat β-glucan (OG) was added into set-type yogurt as a functional ingredient, in order to evaluate effects on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of set-type yogurt. When the OG concentration increased from 0 to 0.3%, the WHC gradually increased. At 0.3% OG, [...] Read more.
The oat β-glucan (OG) was added into set-type yogurt as a functional ingredient, in order to evaluate effects on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of set-type yogurt. When the OG concentration increased from 0 to 0.3%, the WHC gradually increased. At 0.3% OG, the set-type yogurt had the highest WHC of 94.67%. Additionally, the WHC continuously decreased, reaching the lowest WHC (about 80%) at 0.5% OG. When 0.3% OG was added, the highest score of sensory evaluation was about 85. The rheological result showed that the fermentation process went through the changes as follows: solid → liquid → solid → liquid. The addition of 0.3% OG decreased the fermentation time of set-type yogurt by about 16 min, making yogurt more inclined to be liquid. The acidity of set-type yogurt with OG was slightly higher. The result of microstructure showed that the addition of OG destroyed the three-dimensional network structure of yogurt, and some spherical aggregate particles could be clearly observed at 0.3% OG. Overall, this study provided a theoretical basis for the application of OG in set-type yogurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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14 pages, 2927 KiB  
Article
Structural and Biological Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Lotus Leaves: Effects of Drying Techniques
by Wei Li, Ding-Tao Wu, Fen Li, Ren-You Gan, Yi-Chen Hu and Liang Zou
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4395; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154395 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
In the present study, the influence of five drying techniques on the structural and biological properties of polysaccharides from lotus leaves (LLPs) was investigated. Results revealed that the yields, contents of basic chemical components, molecular weights, and molar ratios of compositional monosaccharides of [...] Read more.
In the present study, the influence of five drying techniques on the structural and biological properties of polysaccharides from lotus leaves (LLPs) was investigated. Results revealed that the yields, contents of basic chemical components, molecular weights, and molar ratios of compositional monosaccharides of LLPs varied by different drying technologies. Low molecular weight distributions were observed in polysaccharides obtained from lotus leaves by hot air drying (LLP-H), microwave drying (LLP-M), and radio frequency drying (LLP-RF), respectively. The high contents of bound polyphenolics were measured in LLP-H and LLP-M, as well as polysaccharides obtained from lotus leaves by vacuum drying (LLP-V). Furthermore, both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of LLPs were similar, indicating that drying technologies did not change their basic chemical structures. Besides, all LLPs exhibited obvious biological properties, including in vitro antioxidant capacities, antiglycation activities, and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase. Indeed, LLP-H exhibited higher 2,2-azidobisphenol (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging ability (IC50 values, LLP-H, 0.176 ± 0.004 mg/mL; vitamin C, 0.043 ± 0.002 mg/mL) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrate phenyl) hydrazine radical scavenging ability (IC50 values, LLP-H, 0.241 ± 0.007 mg/mL; butylated hydroxytoluene, 0.366 ± 0.010 mg/mL) than others, and LLP-M exerted stronger antiglycation (IC50 values, LLP-M, 1.023 ± 0.053 mg/mL; aminoguanidine, 1.744 ± 0.080 mg/mL) and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase (IC50 values, LLP-M, 1.90 ± 0.02 μg/mL; acarbose, 724.98 ± 16.93 μg/mL) than others. These findings indicate that both hot air drying and microwave drying can be potential drying techniques for the pre-processing of lotus leaves for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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Review

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18 pages, 2122 KiB  
Review
Influencing Factors on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Tea Polysaccharides
by Ting Hu, Peng Wu, Jianfeng Zhan, Weixin Wang, Junfeng Shen, Chi-Tang Ho and Shiming Li
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3457; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113457 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2947
Abstract
Tea polysaccharides (TPSs) are one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with various biological activities such as hypoglycemic effect, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory. The bioactivities of TPSs are directly associated with their structures such as chemical composition, molecular weight, glycosidic linkages, and [...] Read more.
Tea polysaccharides (TPSs) are one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with various biological activities such as hypoglycemic effect, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory. The bioactivities of TPSs are directly associated with their structures such as chemical composition, molecular weight, glycosidic linkages, and conformation among others. To study the relationship between the structures of TPSs and their bioactivities, it is essential to elucidate the structure of TPSs, particularly the fine structures. Due to the vast variation nature of monosaccharide units and their connections, the structure of TPSs is extremely complex, which is also affected by several major factors including tea species, processing technologies of tea and isolation methods of TPSs. As a result of the complexity, there are few studies on their fine structures and chain conformation. In the present review, we aim to provide a detailed summary of the multiple factors influencing the characteristics of TPS chemical structures such as variations of tea species, degree of fermentation, and preparation methods among others as well as their applications. The main aspects of understanding the structural difference of TPSs and influencing factors are to assist the study of the structure and bioactivity relationship and ultimately, to control the production of the targeted TPSs with the most desired biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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15 pages, 1426 KiB  
Review
The Use of Megamolecular Polysaccharide Sacran in Food and Biomedical Applications
by Lisa Efriani Puluhulawa, I Made Joni, Ahmed Fouad Abdelwahab Mohammed, Hidetoshi Arima and Nasrul Wathoni
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113362 - 2 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3470
Abstract
Natural polymer is a frequently used polymer in various food applications and pharmaceutical formulations due to its benefits and its biocompatibility compared to synthetic polymers. One of the natural polymer groups (i.e., polysaccharide) does not only function as an additive in pharmaceutical preparations, [...] Read more.
Natural polymer is a frequently used polymer in various food applications and pharmaceutical formulations due to its benefits and its biocompatibility compared to synthetic polymers. One of the natural polymer groups (i.e., polysaccharide) does not only function as an additive in pharmaceutical preparations, but also as an active ingredient with pharmacological effects. In addition, several natural polymers offer potential distinct applications in gene delivery and genetic engineering. However, some of these polymers have drawbacks, such as their lack of water retention and elasticity. Sacran, one of the high-molecular-weight natural polysaccharides (megamolecular polysaccharides) derived from Aphanothece sacrum (A. sacrum), has good water retention and elasticity. Historically, sacran has been used as a dietary food. Moreover, sacran can be applied in biomedical fields as an active material, excipient, and genetic engineering material. This article discusses the characteristics, extraction, isolation procedures, and the use of sacran in food and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application)
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