molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dimitrios Bikiaris
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
Interests: synthesis and characterization of polyesters; development of biobased polymers; biodegradable polymers; polymer composites and nanocomposites; synthesis and characterization of copolymers; polymer blends; recycling of polymers with various techniques; modification of natural polymers; polymer for wastewater treatment pollutant removal; polymers for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications; drug–polymer solid dispersions; drug targeting; drug nanoencapsulation and microencapsulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Dimitrios G. Papageorgiou
Website
Guest Editor
School of Materials and National Graphene Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Interests: graphene and graphene-based polymer nanocomposites; mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites comprising of 2D fillers; polymers; micromechanics; Raman spectroscopy; processing–structure–property relationships; hybrid nanocomposites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymer-based composites and nanocomposites have been at the forefront of research for the past decades as a result of their multifunctionality and the unique opportunities they offer for utilization in a number of applications. The later ones include high-performance automotive and aerospace components, advanced energy storage and electronic devices, gas/liquid barriers, sensors, consumer goods and others.  

In this Special Issue, the emphasis will be on the processing–structure–property relationships, as well as trends in the enhancement of the individual properties of the composites and nanocomposites. Contributions on all types of polymers (elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosets, blends, copolymers and others) are welcome. Some of the topics include, but are not limited to innovative production methods for polymer nanocomposites, the functionalization of inorganic fillers for the enhancement of the polymer–matrix interface, continuous fibre composites, bio-based nanocomposites, hybrid nanocomposites and the subsequent reinforcing mechanisms in each case. Authors are also encouraged to highlight the potential applications of the produced composites in a number of areas such as: micro- and nano-electronics (nanotransistors, nanodiods, plasma displays, OLED, etc.), energy (conductive materials, batteries, full sells, solar shells), life sciences (drug delivery and tissue regeneration), fabrics, automotive and aerospace, construction materials, fire retardancy, packaging, environmental protection, membranes, lightweight sensors, anticorrosion and UV protecting coatings, adhesives, injection molded products, sport, etc. Reviews articles by experts in the field will also be welcome.  

As Guest Editors, we hope that this Special Issue will be of interest for the majority of Molecules readers and will serve as a stimulus to further progress research in the field of polymer composites and nanocomposites.

Prof. Dimitrios Bikiaris
Dr. Dimitrios G. Papageorgiou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polymer composites
  • Nanocomposites
  • Nanoparticles
  • Inorganic fillers
  • Fibre-reinforced composites
  • Bio-composites
  • Hybrid nanocomposites
  • Thermal properties
  • Mechanical properties
  • Electrical properties

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Use of Thermal Black as Eco-Filler in Thermoplastic Composites and Hybrids for Injection Molding and 3D Printing Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071517 - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
Thermal black (TB) is one of the purest and cleanest forms of carbon black (CB) commercially available. TB is manufactured by the decomposition of natural gas in the absence of oxygen while the common furnace CB is derived from the burning of organic [...] Read more.
Thermal black (TB) is one of the purest and cleanest forms of carbon black (CB) commercially available. TB is manufactured by the decomposition of natural gas in the absence of oxygen while the common furnace CB is derived from the burning of organic oil. TB has a larger particle size, a lower surface area, and lower level of particle aggregation, while being the most eco-friendly grade among the CB family. This study is the first-time evaluation of TB as filler in composites and hybrids based on thermoplastics such as polypropylene (PP), polyamide 6 (PA6), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). TB loadings in composites were varied from 1 up to 40 wt. % and, in hybrids, the TB was used in combination with carbon fibers (CFs) at total contents up to 20 wt. %. TB-containing composites and hybrids based on PA6 and ABS were also extruded in filaments, used in 3D printing, and the obtained 3D printed parts were characterized. TB provided a very high loadability in thermoplastics while preserving their viscosity and performance. TB can replace a fraction of expensive CFs in composites without important changes in the composites’ performance. The composites and hybrids exhibited electrical resistivity and good mechanical and thermal properties when compared to commercial compounds, while enabling significant cost savings. TB also showed to be an excellent coloring agent. TB proved to be an outstanding eco-filler for compounds to be used in injection molding and 3D printing technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Facile Synthesis of Graphene from Waste Tire/Silica Hybrid Additives and Optimization Study for the Fabrication of Thermally Enhanced Cement Grouts
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040886 - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
This work evaluates the effects of newly designed graphene/silica hybrid additives on the properties of cementitious grout. In the hybrid structure, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) obtained from waste tire was used to improve the thermal conductivity and reduce the cost and environmental impacts by [...] Read more.
This work evaluates the effects of newly designed graphene/silica hybrid additives on the properties of cementitious grout. In the hybrid structure, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) obtained from waste tire was used to improve the thermal conductivity and reduce the cost and environmental impacts by using recyclable sources. Additionally, functionalized silica nanoparticles were utilized to enhance the dispersion and solubility of carbon material and thus the hydrolyzable groups of silane coupling agent were attached to the silica surface. Then, the hybridization of GNP and functionalized silica was conducted to make proper bridges and develop hybrid structures by tailoring carbon/silica ratios. Afterwards, special grout formulations were studied by incorporating these hybrid additives at different loadings. As the amount of hybrid additive incorporated into grout suspension increased from 3 to 5 wt%, water uptake increased from 660 to 725 g resulting in the reduction of thermal conductivity by 20.6%. On the other hand, as the concentration of GNP in hybrid structure increased, water demand was reduced, and thus the enhancement in thermal conductivity was improved by approximately 29% at the same loading ratios of hybrids in the prepared grout mixes. Therefore, these developed hybrid additives showed noticeable potential as a thermal enhancement material in cement-based grouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Highly Loaded Cellulose/Poly (butylene succinate) Sustainable Composites for Woody-Like Advanced Materials Application
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010121 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
We report the manufacturing and characterization of poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and micro cellulose (MCC) woody-like composites. These composites can be applied as a sustainable woody-like composite alternative to conventional fossil polymer-based wood-plastic composites (WPC). The PBS/MCC composites were prepared by using a [...] Read more.
We report the manufacturing and characterization of poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and micro cellulose (MCC) woody-like composites. These composites can be applied as a sustainable woody-like composite alternative to conventional fossil polymer-based wood-plastic composites (WPC). The PBS/MCC composites were prepared by using a melt blending of 70 wt% of MCC processed from bleached softwood. MCC was modified to enhance dispersion and compatibility by way of carbodiimide (CDI), polyhydroxy amides (PHA), alkyl ester (EST), (3-Aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS), maleic acid anhydride (MAH), and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI). The addition of filler into PBS led to a 4.5-fold improvement of Young’s modulus E for the MCC composite, in comparison to neat PBS. The 1.6-fold increase of E was obtained for CDI modified composition in comparison to the unmodified MCC composite. At room temperature, the storage modulus E′ was found to improve by almost 4-fold for the APTMS composite. The EST composite showed a pronounced enhancement in viscoelasticity properties due to the introduction of flexible long alkyl chains in comparison to other compositions. The glass transition temperature was directly affected by the composition and its value was −15 °C for PBS, −30 °C for EST, and −10 °C for MAH composites. FTIR indicated the generation of strong bonding between the polymer and cellulose components in the composite. Scanning electron microscopy analysis evidenced the agglomeration of the MCC in the PBS/MCC composites. PMDI, APTMS, and CDI composites were characterized by the uniform dispersion of MCC particles and a decrease of polymer crystallinity. MCC chemical modification induced the enhancement of the thermal stability of MCC composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Composite Membranes of Poly(ε-caprolactone) with Bisphosphonate-Loaded Bioactive Glasses for Potential Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3067; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173067 - 23 Aug 2019
Abstract
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a bioresorbable synthetic polyester with numerous biomedical applications. PCL membranes show great potential in guided tissue regeneration because they are biocompatible, occlusive and space maintaining, but lack osteoconductivity. Therefore, two different types of mesoporous bioactive glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2 [...] Read more.
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a bioresorbable synthetic polyester with numerous biomedical applications. PCL membranes show great potential in guided tissue regeneration because they are biocompatible, occlusive and space maintaining, but lack osteoconductivity. Therefore, two different types of mesoporous bioactive glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5 and SiO2-SrO-P2O5) were synthesized and incorporated in PCL thin membranes by spin coating. To enhance the osteogenic effect of resulting membranes, the bioglasses were loaded with the bisphosphonate drug ibandronate prior to their incorporation in the polymeric matrix. The effect of the composition of the bioglasses as well as the presence of absorbed ibandronate on the physicochemical, cell attachment and differentiation properties of the PCL membranes was evaluated. Both fillers led to a decrease of the crystallinity of PCL, along with an increase in its hydrophilicity and a noticeable increase in its bioactivity. Bioactivity was further increased in the presence of a Sr substituted bioglass loaded with ibandronate. The membranes exhibited excellent biocompatibility upon estimation of their cytotoxicity on Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (WJ-SCs), while they presented higher osteogenic potential in comparison with neat PCL after WJ-SCs induced differentiation towards bone cells, which was enhanced by a possible synergistic effect of Sr and ibandronate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Crystallization of Polytetrafluoroethylene in a Wide Range of Cooling Rates: Nucleation and Diffusion in the Presence of Nanosilica Clusters
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091797 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a polymer that displays exceptional properties. This synthetic fluoropolymer is also known to crystallize very fast upon cooling. The present work highlights for the first time the influence of nanosilica clusters on PTFE crystallization at fast cooling rates (up to [...] Read more.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a polymer that displays exceptional properties. This synthetic fluoropolymer is also known to crystallize very fast upon cooling. The present work highlights for the first time the influence of nanosilica clusters on PTFE crystallization at fast cooling rates (up to 5000 K·s−1). The silica was synthesized from aqueous silicate solution and the surface modification was performed using TriEthoxyFluoroSilane (TEFS). In order to understand the crystallization behavior of PTFE/silica nanocomposite at a fast cooling rate, the measurements were carried out by Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC). The data were consequently combined with the measurements performed by conventional Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Interestingly, the results displayed variation of the crystallization behavior for the nanocomposite at fast cooling rates compared to slow cooling rates. The differences in crystal morphologies were then observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after slow and fast cooling rates. Finally, the effective activation energies (Eα) obtained from the crystallization under various cooling rates were combined in order to obtain one set of Hoffman-Lauritzen parameters. This procedure allowed us to show that the crystallization of PTFE in the presence of silica is promoted or hampered according to the cooling rates employed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Novel Photocatalytic Nanocomposite Made of Polymeric Carbon Nitride and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050874 - 01 Mar 2019
Abstract
Semiconducting polymers are promising materials for photocatalysis, batteries, fuel applications, etc. One of the most useful photocatalysts is polymeric carbon nitride (PCN), which is usually produced during melamine condensation. In this work, a novel method of obtaining a PCN nanocomposite, in which PCN [...] Read more.
Semiconducting polymers are promising materials for photocatalysis, batteries, fuel applications, etc. One of the most useful photocatalysts is polymeric carbon nitride (PCN), which is usually produced during melamine condensation. In this work, a novel method of obtaining a PCN nanocomposite, in which PCN forms an amorphous layer coating on oxide nanoparticles, is presented. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis (MHS) was used to synthesize a homogeneous mixture of nanoparticles consisting of 80 wt.% AlOOH and 20 wt.% of ZrO2. The nanopowders were mechanically milled with melamine, and the mixture was annealed in the temperature range of 400–600 °C with rapid heating and cooling. The above procedure lowers PCN formation to 400 °C. The following nanocomposite properties were investigated: band gap, specific surface area, particle size, morphology, phase composition, chemical composition, and photocatalytic activity. The specific surface of the PCN nanocomposite was as high as 70 m2/g, and the optical band gap was 3 eV. High photocatalytic activity in phenol degradation was observed. The proposed simple method, as well as the low-cost preparation procedure, permits the exploitation of PCN as a polymer semiconductor photocatalytic material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
MEG Effects on Hydrolysis of Polyamide 66/Glass Fiber Composites and Mechanical Property Changes
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040755 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Polyamide66 (PA66) hydrolysis affects the mechanical properties of Polyamide66/glass fiber (PA66/GF) composites. We investigated the effects of monoethylene glycol (MEG) on the degree of hydrolysis and mechanical properties of four different commercial PA66/glass fiber composites. Using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS), we identified the [...] Read more.
Polyamide66 (PA66) hydrolysis affects the mechanical properties of Polyamide66/glass fiber (PA66/GF) composites. We investigated the effects of monoethylene glycol (MEG) on the degree of hydrolysis and mechanical properties of four different commercial PA66/glass fiber composites. Using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS), we identified the byproducts of PA66 composite hydrolysis: carboxylic acid and alkylamine substances. The degree of hydrolysis increased as the immersion time in MEG increased. However, the tensile and flexural properties decreased due to hydrolysis. The tensile strength decreased by 42–45%; however, elongation increased by 23–63%. When PA66 absorbs MEG at 130 °C, the materials molecular chains’ bonding force decreased, resulting in increased elongation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Biobased Poly(ethylene furanoate) Polyester/TiO2 Supported Nanocomposites as Effective Photocatalysts for Anti-inflammatory/Analgesic Drugs
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030564 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the present study, polymer supported nanocomposites, consisting of bio-based poly(ethylene furanoate) polyester and TiO2 nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated as effective photocatalysts for anti-inflammatory/analgesic drug removal. Nanocomposites were prepared by the solvent evaporation method containing 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% [...] Read more.
In the present study, polymer supported nanocomposites, consisting of bio-based poly(ethylene furanoate) polyester and TiO2 nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated as effective photocatalysts for anti-inflammatory/analgesic drug removal. Nanocomposites were prepared by the solvent evaporation method containing 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% TiO2 and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thin films of them have been prepared by the melt press and optimization of the photocatalytic procedure was conducted for the most efficient synthesized photocatalyst. Finally, mineralization was evaluated by means of Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction and ion release, while the transformation products (TPs) generated during the photocatalytic procedure were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Gel/PVA-Modified Super-Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2982; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112982 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)/gelatin (gel)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanoparticles were designed and synthesized by the co-precipitation method and further modified with gel and PVA. These nanoparticles were used for the removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were rich in [...] Read more.
Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)/gelatin (gel)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanoparticles were designed and synthesized by the co-precipitation method and further modified with gel and PVA. These nanoparticles were used for the removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were rich in different functional groups for chemisorption and showed effective adsorption properties. The adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the SPIONs/gel and SPIONs/gel/PVA materials were investigated with respect to pH, adsorption kinetics, and adsorption isotherms. The adsorption data was fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips models at the optimum pH 5.2 (±0.2) over 60 min; SPIONs/gel showed maximum adsorption capacities of 47.594 mg/g and 40.559 mg/g for Cu(II) and Zn(II); SPIONs/gel/PVA showed those of 56.051 mg/g and 40.865 mg/g, respectively. The experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order model, indicating that the process followed chemical monolayer adsorption. In addition, the SPIONs/gel/PVA showed better stability and Cu(II) adsorption efficiency than SPIONs/gel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of High Pressure Treatment on Poly(lactic acid)/Nano–TiO2 Composite Films
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102621 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The microstructure, thermal properties, mechanical properties and oxygen and water vapor barrier properties of a poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/nano-TiO2 composite film before and after high pressure treatment were studied. Structural analysis showed that the functional group structure of the high pressure treated composite [...] Read more.
The microstructure, thermal properties, mechanical properties and oxygen and water vapor barrier properties of a poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/nano-TiO2 composite film before and after high pressure treatment were studied. Structural analysis showed that the functional group structure of the high pressure treated composite film did not change. It was found that the high pressure treatment did not form new chemical bonds between the nanoparticles and the PLA. The micro-section of the composite film after high pressure treatment became very rough, and the structure was depressed. Through the analysis of thermal and mechanical properties, high pressure treatment can not only increase the strength and stiffness of the composite film, but also increase the crystallinity of the composite film. Through the analysis of barrier properties, it is found that the barrier properties of composite films after high pressure treatment were been improved by the applied high pressure treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites with Enhanched Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop