molecules-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Lignocellulosic Biomass"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecular Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alejandro Rodríguez
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Science, Universidad de Córdoba, Building Marie-Curie, Campus of Rabanales, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: biorefinery; cellulose; lignin; lignocellulosic residues; nanocellulose; biobased; biomaterials; paper
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Eduardo Espinosa
Website
Co-Guest Editor
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Science, Universidad de Córdoba, Building Marie-Curie, Campus of Rabanales, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: biorefinery; lignocellulosic materials; nanocellulose; biomaterials; papermaking
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable development, circular economy, reuse, recycle, valorize, produce rationally, etc., are all concepts that must be part of our daily lives. Their continuing development in most sectors of society can ensure an improved quality of life, both now and for future generations.

In maintaining this process, the scientific community plays a very important role in generating the basic knowledge that gives rise to technology and allows developments in the laboratory to be transferred to society. The integral valorization of lignocellulosic biomass is a fundamental pillar of sustainable development. Given the origin of this biomass, as well as its composition, lignocellulosic biomass is a vast resource. In fact, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, and the extracts they contain, can be applied in multiple sectors: paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals, food, and energy, to name but a few.

In creating this Special Issue, focused on the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass, we aim to establish an invaluable source of information that will serve as a reference for other researchers.

Prof. Dr. Alejandro Rodríguez
Dr. Eduardo Espinosa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomass
  • biorefinery
  • pretreatment
  • cellulose
  • hemicellulose
  • lignin
  • nanocellulose
  • biopolymers
  • natural compounds
  • chemicals
  • paper industry
  • energy
  • biobased materials
  • biocomposites
  • drug delivery
  • food industry
  • lignocellulose
  • 3D packaging

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Copper Adsorption on Lignin for the Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5577; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235577 - 27 Nov 2020
Abstract
Lignin is currently an underutilized part of biomass; thus, further research into lignin could benefit both scientific and commercial endeavors. The present study investigated the potential of kraft lignin as a support material for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from [...] Read more.
Lignin is currently an underutilized part of biomass; thus, further research into lignin could benefit both scientific and commercial endeavors. The present study investigated the potential of kraft lignin as a support material for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gaseous streams, such as biogas. The removal of H2S was enabled by copper ions that were previously adsorbed on kraft lignin. Copper adsorption was based on two different strategies: either directly on lignin particles or by precipitating lignin from a solution in the presence of copper. The H2S concentration after the adsorption column was studied using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry, while the mechanisms involved in the H2S adsorption were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was determined that elemental sulfur was obtained during the H2S adsorption in the presence of kraft lignin and the differences relative to the adsorption on porous silica as a control are discussed. For kraft lignin, only a relatively low removal capacity of 2 mg of H2S per gram was identified, but certain possibilities to increase the removal capacity are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose in Adhesive Systems for the Production of Wood-Based Panels
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4846; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204846 - 21 Oct 2020
Abstract
Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose (MFC) is a new type of bio-based additive, coming from wood cellulose. It can compete and substitute oil derived chemicals in several application fields. In the present work, the use of micro-fibrillated cellulose, in waterborne adhesive systems applied in the manufacture [...] Read more.
Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose (MFC) is a new type of bio-based additive, coming from wood cellulose. It can compete and substitute oil derived chemicals in several application fields. In the present work, the use of micro-fibrillated cellulose, in waterborne adhesive systems applied in the manufacture of composite wood-based panels was evaluated. Research was conducted to test the potential of improving the performance of wood-based panel types such as particleboard, waferboard or randomly-oriented strand board and plywood, by the application of MFC and the substitution of conventional and non-renewable chemical compounds. The approaches followed to introduce MFC into the adhesive systems were three, i.e., MFC 2% suspension added during the adhesive resin synthesis, MFC 10% paste admixed with the already prepared adhesive resin and MFC 2% suspension admixed with the already prepared resin. It was found that MFC improves not only the performance of the final wood panel products but also the behaviour of the applied adhesive polymer colloids (e.g., rheology improvement), especially when admixed with the already prepared resins. Moreover, it was proven that when MFC is introduced into the adhesive resin system, there is a possibility of decreasing the resin consumption, by maintaining the board performance. MFC’s robustness to pH, shear and temperature makes it a highly interesting new additive for adhesive producers. In addition, its natural origin can give adhesive producers the opportunity to move over to more environmentally friendly product solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Acquisition of Torrefied Biomass from Jerusalem Artichoke Grown in a Closed Circular System Using Biogas Plant Waste
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3862; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173862 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of biogas plant waste on the physiological activity, growth, and yield of Jerusalem artichoke and the energetic usefulness of the biomass obtained in this way after the torrefaction process. The use of waste [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of biogas plant waste on the physiological activity, growth, and yield of Jerusalem artichoke and the energetic usefulness of the biomass obtained in this way after the torrefaction process. The use of waste from corn grain biodigestion to methane as a biofertilizer, used alone or supplemented with Apol-humus and Stymjod, caused increased the physiological activity, growth, and yield of Jerusalem artichoke plants and can limit the application of chemical fertilizers, whose production and use in agriculture is harmful for the environment. The experiment, using different equipment, exhibited the high potential of Jerusalem artichoke fertilized by the methods elaborated as a carbonized solid biofuel after the torrefaction process. The use of a special design of the batch reactor using nitrogen, Thermogravimetric analysis, Differential thermal analysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and combustion of Jerusalem artichoke using TG-MS showed a thermo-chemical conversion mass loss on a level of 30% with energy loss (torgas) on a level of 10%. Compared to research results on other energy crops and straw biomass, the isothermal temperature of 245 °C during torrefaction for the carbonized solid biofuel of Jerusalem artichoke biomass fertilized with biogas plant waste is relativlely low. An SEM-EDS analysis of ash from carbonized Jerusalem artichoke after torrefaction was performed after its combustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Optimization with Response Surface Methodology of Microwave-Assisted Conversion of Xylose to Furfural
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3574; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163574 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
The production of furfural from renewable sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, has gained great interest within the concept of biorefineries. In lignocellulosic materials, xylose is the most abundant pentose, which forms the hemicellulosic part. One of the key steps in the production of [...] Read more.
The production of furfural from renewable sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, has gained great interest within the concept of biorefineries. In lignocellulosic materials, xylose is the most abundant pentose, which forms the hemicellulosic part. One of the key steps in the production of furfural from biomass is the dehydration reaction of the pentoses. The objective of this work was to assess the conditions under which the concentration of furfural is maximized from a synthetic, monophasic, and homogeneous xylose medium. The experiments were carried out in a microwave reactor. FeCl3 in different proportions and sulfuric acid were used as catalysts. A two-level, three-factor experimental design was developed for this purpose. The results were further analyzed through a second experimental design and optimization was performed by response surface methodology. The best operational conditions for the highest furfural yield (57%) turned out to be 210 °C, 0.5 min, and 0.05 M FeCl3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Biosurfactants on Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Pretreated Softwood
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163559 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is inhibited by non-productive adsorption of cellulases to lignin, and that is particularly problematic with lignin-rich materials such as softwood. Although conventional surfactants alleviate non-productive adsorption, using biosurfactants in softwood hydrolysis has not been reported. In this study, [...] Read more.
The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is inhibited by non-productive adsorption of cellulases to lignin, and that is particularly problematic with lignin-rich materials such as softwood. Although conventional surfactants alleviate non-productive adsorption, using biosurfactants in softwood hydrolysis has not been reported. In this study, the effects of four biosurfactants, namely horse-chestnut escin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipid, and saponins from red and white quinoa varieties, on the enzymatic saccharification of steam-pretreated spruce were investigated. The used biosurfactants improved hydrolysis, and the best-performing one was escin, which led to cellulose conversions above 90%, decreased by around two-thirds lignin inhibition of Avicel hydrolysis, and improved hydrolysis of pretreated spruce by 24%. Red quinoa saponins (RQS) addition resulted in cellulose conversions above 80%, which was around 16% higher than without biosurfactants, and it was more effective than adding rhamnolipid or white quinoa saponins. Cellulose conversion improved with the increase in RQS addition up to 6 g/100 g biomass, but no significant changes were observed above that dosage. Although saponins are known to inhibit yeast growth, no inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of hydrolysates produced with RQS addition was detected. This study shows the potential of biosurfactants for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated softwood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Horticultural Plant Residues as New Source for Lignocellulose Nanofibers Isolation: Application on the Recycling Paperboard Process
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143275 - 18 Jul 2020
Abstract
Horticultural plant residues (tomato, pepper, and eggplant) were identified as new sources for lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF). Cellulosic pulp was obtained from the different plant residues using an environmentally friendly process, energy-sustainable, simple, and with low-chemical reagent consumption. The chemical composition of the obtained [...] Read more.
Horticultural plant residues (tomato, pepper, and eggplant) were identified as new sources for lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF). Cellulosic pulp was obtained from the different plant residues using an environmentally friendly process, energy-sustainable, simple, and with low-chemical reagent consumption. The chemical composition of the obtained pulps was analyzed in order to study its influence in the nanofibrillation process. Cellulosic fibers were subjected to two different pretreatments, mechanical and TEMPO(2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-piperidin-1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation, followed by high-pressure homogenization to produce different lignocellulose nanofibers. Then, LCNF were deeply characterized in terms of nanofibrillation yield, cationic demand, carboxyl content, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability. The suitability of each raw material to produce lignocellulose nanofibers was analyzed from the point of view of each pretreatment. TEMPO-mediated oxidation was identified as a more effective pretreatment to produce LCNF, however, it produces a decrease in the thermal stability of the LCNF. The different LCNF were added as reinforcing agent on recycled paperboard and compared with the improving produced by the industrial mechanical beating. The analysis of the papersheets’ mechanical properties shows that the addition of LCNF as a reinforcing agent in the paperboard recycling process is a viable alternative to mechanical beating, achieving greater reinforcing effect and increasing the products’ life cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Direct Silanization Protocol for Dialdehyde Cellulose
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102458 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cellulose derivatives have many potential applications in the field of biomaterials and composites, in addition to several ways of modification leading to them. Silanization in aqueous media is one of the most promising routes to create multipurpose and organic–inorganic hybrid materials. Silanization has [...] Read more.
Cellulose derivatives have many potential applications in the field of biomaterials and composites, in addition to several ways of modification leading to them. Silanization in aqueous media is one of the most promising routes to create multipurpose and organic–inorganic hybrid materials. Silanization has been widely used for cellulosic and nano-structured celluloses, but was a problem so far if to be applied to the common cellulose derivative “dialdehyde cellulose” (DAC), i.e., highly periodate-oxidized celluloses. In this work, a straightforward silanization protocol for dialdehyde cellulose is proposed, which can be readily modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. After thermal treatment and freeze-drying, the resulting product showed condensation and cross-linking, which was studied with infrared spectroscopy and 13C and 29Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking involves both links of the hydroxyl group of the oxidized cellulose with the silanol groups (Si-O-C) and imine-type bonds between the amino group and keto functions of the DAC (-HC=N-). The modification was achieved in aqueous medium under mild reaction conditions. Different treatments cause different levels of hydrolysis of the organosilane compound, which resulted in diverse condensed silica networks in the modified dialdehyde cellulose structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Production and Mechanical Characterisation of TEMPO-Oxidised Cellulose Nanofibrils/β-Cyclodextrin Films and Cryogels
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102381 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
Wood-based TEMPO-oxidised cellulose nanofibrils (toCNF) are promising materials for biomedical applications. Cyclodextrins have ability to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules and are considered as a method to bring new functionalities to these materials. Water sorption and mechanical properties are also key properties [...] Read more.
Wood-based TEMPO-oxidised cellulose nanofibrils (toCNF) are promising materials for biomedical applications. Cyclodextrins have ability to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules and are considered as a method to bring new functionalities to these materials. Water sorption and mechanical properties are also key properties for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this work, we report the modification with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) of toCNF samples with different carboxyl contents viz. 756 ± 4 µmol/g and 1048 ± 32 µmol/g. The modification was carried out at neutral and acidic pH (2.5) to study the effect of dissociation of the carboxylic acid group. Films processed by casting/evaporation at 40 °C and cryogels processed by freeze-drying were prepared from βCD modified toCNF suspensions and compared with reference samples of unmodified toCNF. The impact of modification on water sorption and mechanical properties was assessed. It was shown that the water sorption behaviour for films is driven by adsorption, with a clear impact of the chemical makeup of the fibres (charge content, pH, and adsorption of cyclodextrin). Modified toCNF cryogels (acidic pH and addition of cyclodextrins) displayed lower mechanical properties linked to the modification of the cell wall porosity structure. Esterification between βCD and toCNF under acidic conditions was performed by freeze-drying, and such cryogels exhibited a lower decrease in mechanical properties in the swollen state. These results are promising for the development of scaffold and films with controlled mechanical properties and added value due to the ability of cyclodextrin to form an inclusion complex with active principle ingredient (API) or growth factor (GF) for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Barley Straw Fibers as Reinforcement in Fully Biobased Polyethylene Composites: Macro and Micro Mechanics of the Flexural Strength
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092242 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Awareness on deforestation, forest degradation, and its impact on biodiversity and global warming, is giving rise to the use of alternative fiber sources in replacement of wood feedstock for some applications such as composite materials and energy production. In this category, barley straw [...] Read more.
Awareness on deforestation, forest degradation, and its impact on biodiversity and global warming, is giving rise to the use of alternative fiber sources in replacement of wood feedstock for some applications such as composite materials and energy production. In this category, barley straw is an important agricultural crop, due to its abundance and availability. In the current investigation, the residue was submitted to thermomechanical process for fiber extraction and individualization. The high content of holocellulose combined with their relatively high aspect ratio inspires the potential use of these fibers as reinforcement in plastic composites. Therefore, fully biobased composites were fabricated using barley fibers and a biobased polyethylene (BioPE) as polymer matrix. BioPE is completely biobased and 100% recyclable. As for material performance, the flexural properties of the materials were studied. A good dispersion of the reinforcement inside the plastic was achieved contributing to the elevate increments in the flexural strength. At a 45 wt.% of reinforcement, an increment in the flexural strength of about 147% was attained. The mean contribution of the fibers to the flexural strength was assessed by means of a fiber flexural strength factor, reaching a value of 91.4. The micromechanical analysis allowed the prediction of the intrinsic flexural strength of the fibers, arriving up to around 700 MPa, and coupling factors between 0.18 and 0.19, which are in line with other natural fiber composites. Overall, the investigation brightness on the potential use of barley straw residues as reinforcement in fully biobased polymer composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Biocomposites of Bio-Polyethylene Reinforced with a Hydrothermal-Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pulp and Coupled with a Bio-Based Compatibilizer
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092158 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bio-polyethylene (BioPE, derived from sugarcane), sugarcane bagasse pulp, and two compatibilizers (fossil and bio-based), were used to manufacture biocomposite filaments for 3D printing. Biocomposite filaments were manufactured and characterized in detail, including measurement of water absorption, mechanical properties, thermal stability and decomposition temperature [...] Read more.
Bio-polyethylene (BioPE, derived from sugarcane), sugarcane bagasse pulp, and two compatibilizers (fossil and bio-based), were used to manufacture biocomposite filaments for 3D printing. Biocomposite filaments were manufactured and characterized in detail, including measurement of water absorption, mechanical properties, thermal stability and decomposition temperature (thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to assess the fracture area of the filaments after mechanical testing. Increases of up to 10% in water absorption were measured for the samples with 40 wt% fibers and the fossil compatibilizer. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing the fraction of bagasse fibers from 0% to 20% and 40%. The suitability of the biocomposite filaments was tested for 3D printing, and some shapes were printed as demonstrators. Importantly, in a cradle-to-gate life cycle analysis of the biocomposites, we demonstrated that replacing fossil compatibilizer with a bio-based compatibilizer contributes to a reduction in CO2-eq emissions, and an increase in CO2 capture, achieving a CO2-eq storage of 2.12 kg CO2 eq/kg for the biocomposite containing 40% bagasse fibers and 6% bio-based compatibilizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fully Biobased Epoxy Resins from Fatty Acids and Lignin
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051158 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The use of renewable resources for plastic production is an imperious need for the reduction of the carbon footprint and the transition towards a circular economy. With that goal in mind, fully biobased epoxy resins have been designed and prepared by combining epoxidized [...] Read more.
The use of renewable resources for plastic production is an imperious need for the reduction of the carbon footprint and the transition towards a circular economy. With that goal in mind, fully biobased epoxy resins have been designed and prepared by combining epoxidized linseed oil, lignin, and a biobased diamine derived from fatty acid dimers. The aromatic structures in lignin provide hardness and strength to an otherwise flexible and breakable epoxy resin. The curing of the system was investigated by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The influence of the different components on the thermo-mechanical properties of the epoxy resins was analyzed by DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile tests. As the content of lignin in the resin increases, so does the glass transition, the Young’s modulus, and the onset of thermal degradation. This correlation is non-linear, and the higher the percentage of lignin, the more pronounced the effect. All the components of the epoxy resin being commodity chemicals, the present system provides a realistic opportunity for the preparation of fully biorenewable resins at an industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Optimized Bioproduction of Itaconic and Fumaric Acids Based on Solid-State Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Biomass
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051070 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The bioproduction of high-value chemicals such as itaconic and fumaric acids (IA and FA, respectively) from renewable resources via solid-state fermentation (SSF) represents an alternative to the current bioprocesses of submerged fermentation using refined sugars. Both acids are excellent platform chemicals with a [...] Read more.
The bioproduction of high-value chemicals such as itaconic and fumaric acids (IA and FA, respectively) from renewable resources via solid-state fermentation (SSF) represents an alternative to the current bioprocesses of submerged fermentation using refined sugars. Both acids are excellent platform chemicals with a wide range of applications in different market, such as plastics, coating, or cosmetics. The use of lignocellulosic biomass instead of food resources (starch or grains) in the frame of a sustainable development for IA and FA bioproduction is of prime importance. Filamentous fungi, especially belonging to the Aspergillus genus, have shown a great capacity to produce these organic dicarboxylic acids. This study attempts to develop and optimize the SSF conditions with lignocellulosic biomasses using A. terreus and A. oryzae to produce IA and FA. First, a kinetic study of SSF was performed with non-food resources (wheat bran and corn cobs) and a panel of pH and moisture conditions was studied during fermentation. Next, a new process using an enzymatic cocktail simultaneously with SSF was investigated in order to facilitate the use of the biomass as microbial substrate. Finally, a large-scale fermentation process was developed for SSF using corn cobs with A. oryzae; this specific condition showed the best yield in acid production. The yields achieved were 0.05 mg of IA and 0.16 mg of FA per gram of biomass after 48 h. These values currently represent the highest reported productions for SSF from raw lignocellulosic biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Biorefinery of Biomass of Agro-Industrial Banana Waste to Obtain High-Value Biopolymers
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3829; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173829 - 23 Aug 2020
Abstract
On a worldwide scale, food demand is increasing as a consequence of global population growth. This makes companies push their food supply chains’ limits with a consequent increase in generation of large amounts of untreated waste that are considered of no value to [...] Read more.
On a worldwide scale, food demand is increasing as a consequence of global population growth. This makes companies push their food supply chains’ limits with a consequent increase in generation of large amounts of untreated waste that are considered of no value to them. Biorefinery technologies offer a suitable alternative for obtaining high-value products by using unconventional raw materials, such as agro-industrial waste. Currently, most biorefineries aim to take advantage of specific residues (by either chemical, biotechnological, or physical treatments) provided by agro-industry in order to develop high-value products for either in-house use or for sale purposes. This article reviews the currently explored possibilities to apply biorefinery-known processes to banana agro-industrial waste in order to generate high-value products out of this residual biomass source. Firstly, the Central and Latin American context regarding biomass and banana residues is presented, followed by advantages of using banana residues as raw materials for the production of distinct biofuels, nanocellulose fibers, different bioplastics, and other high-value products Lastly, additional uses of banana biomass residues are presented, including energy generation and water treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Electrosynthesis of Biobased Chemicals Using Carbohydrates as a Feedstock
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3712; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163712 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
The current climate awareness coupled with increased focus on renewable energy and biobased chemicals have led to an increased demand for such biomass derived products. Electrosynthesis is a relatively new approach that allows a shift from conventional fossil-based chemistry towards a new model [...] Read more.
The current climate awareness coupled with increased focus on renewable energy and biobased chemicals have led to an increased demand for such biomass derived products. Electrosynthesis is a relatively new approach that allows a shift from conventional fossil-based chemistry towards a new model of a real sustainable chemistry that allows to use the excess renewable electricity to convert biobased feedstock into base and commodity chemicals. The electrosynthesis approach is expected to increase the production efficiency and minimize negative health for the workers and environmental impact all along the value chain. In this review, we discuss the various electrosynthesis approaches that have been applied on carbohydrate biomass specifically to produce valuable chemicals. The studies on the electro-oxidation of saccharides have mostly targeted the oxidation of the primary alcohol groups to form the corresponding uronic acids, with Au or TEMPO as the active electrocatalysts. The investigations on electroreduction of saccharides focused on the reduction of the aldehyde groups to the corresponding alcohols, using a variety of metal electrodes. Both oxidation and reduction pathways are elaborated here with most recent examples. Further recommendations have been made about the research needs, choice of electrocatalyst and electrolyte as well as upscaling the technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Development of ‘Lignin-First’ Approaches for the Valorization of Lignocellulosic Biomass
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122815 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Currently, valorization of lignocellulosic biomass almost exclusively focuses on the production of pulp, paper, and bioethanol from its holocellulose constituent, while the remaining lignin part that comprises the highest carbon content, is burned and treated as waste. Lignin has a complex structure built [...] Read more.
Currently, valorization of lignocellulosic biomass almost exclusively focuses on the production of pulp, paper, and bioethanol from its holocellulose constituent, while the remaining lignin part that comprises the highest carbon content, is burned and treated as waste. Lignin has a complex structure built up from propylphenolic subunits; therefore, its valorization to value-added products (aromatics, phenolics, biogasoline, etc.) is highly desirable. However, during the pulping processes, the original structure of native lignin changes to technical lignin. Due to this extensive structural modification, involving the cleavage of the β-O-4 moieties and the formation of recalcitrant C-C bonds, its catalytic depolymerization requires harsh reaction conditions. In order to apply mild conditions and to gain fewer and uniform products, a new strategy has emerged in the past few years, named ‘lignin-first’ or ‘reductive catalytic fractionation’ (RCF). This signifies lignin disassembly prior to carbohydrate valorization. The aim of the present work is to follow historically, year-by-year, the development of ‘lignin-first’ approach. A compact summary of reached achievements, future perspectives and remaining challenges is also given at the end of the review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop