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Topical Collection "Novel Drug Candidates for Anticancer Therapy: Design, Preliminary Evaluations, and Further Developments"

A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Editors

Dr. Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Website1 Website2
Collection Editor
Formerly head of the Department of Organic Chemistry (FS), University of Mons-UMONS, 7000 Mons, Belgium
Interests: heterocycles; microwave-induced synthesis; medicinal chemistry; green chemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Annie Mayence
Website
Collection Editor
Formerly professor at the Haute Ecole Provinciale de Hainaut-Condorcet, 7330 Saint-Ghislain, Belgium
Interests: medicinal chemistry; organic synthesis; parasitic diseases; orphan drugs
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Tien L. Huang *
Website
Former Guest Editor
Formerly professor at Division of Basic and Pharmaceutical sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
Interests: medicinal chemistry; organic chemistry; anti-opportunistic agents; anti-parasitic agents; prodrugs
* One of the founding Collection Editors and Collection Editor up to 6 March 2015

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Developing novel cancer therapeutics is essential for treating cancer, a complex, multi-factorial disease that is dreaded worldwide. Although significant advances have been made in recent years in preventing and treating cancer, the mortality rate is still unacceptably high. Many of the current chemotherapeutics are limited by significant side effects, unpredictable efficacies or acquired resistances. Recent discoveries concerning the pathogenesis and biology of cancer have unraveled new, strategic cellular targets for drug intervention. This has allowed the rational development of novel cancer therapeutics. For this Special Issue, we invite the submission of manuscripts that focus on the design, synthesis, evaluation, and further development of investigational agents (including natural products) as potential cancer chemotherapeutics.

Dr. Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Dr. Annie Mayence
Dr. Tien L. Huang
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • anticancer activity
  • anticancer agents
  • antiproliferative effects
  • antitumor activity
  • apoptosis
  • cancer cells
  • chemotherapy
  • cytotoxicity
  • oncology
  • tumor cells

Published Papers (103 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014

Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of Benzylsulfone Coumarin Derivatives as Anti-Cancer Agents
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4034; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224034 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this work, a series of benzylsulfone coumarin derivatives 5a5o were synthesized and characterized. Kinase inhibitory activity assay indicated that most of the compounds showed considerable activity against PI3K. Anti-tumor activity studies of the active compounds were also carried out in [...] Read more.
In this work, a series of benzylsulfone coumarin derivatives 5a5o were synthesized and characterized. Kinase inhibitory activity assay indicated that most of the compounds showed considerable activity against PI3K. Anti-tumor activity studies of the active compounds were also carried out in vitro on the Hela, HepG2, H1299, HCT-116, and MCF-7 tumor cell lines by MTS assay. The structure–activity relationships (SARs) of these compounds were analyzed in detail. Compound 5h exhibited the most potent activities against the mentioned cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 18.12 to 32.60 μM, followed by 5m with IC50 values of 29.30–42.14 μM. Furthermore, 5h and 5m clearly retarded the migration of Hela cells in vitro. Next, an in silico molecular docking study was conducted to evaluate the binding models of 5h and 5m towards PI3Kα and PI3Kβ. Collectively, the above findings suggested that compounds 5h and 5m might be promising PI3K inhibitors deserving further investigation for cancer treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Benzoxaboroles—Novel Autotaxin Inhibitors
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3419; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193419 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Autotaxin (ATX) is an extracellular enzyme that hydrolyses lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which has a role in the mediation of inflammation, fibrosis and cancer. ATX is a drug target that has been the focus of many research groups during the last [...] Read more.
Autotaxin (ATX) is an extracellular enzyme that hydrolyses lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which has a role in the mediation of inflammation, fibrosis and cancer. ATX is a drug target that has been the focus of many research groups during the last ten years. To date, only one molecule, Ziritaxestat (GLPG1690) has entered the clinic; it is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Other small molecules, with different binding modes, have been investigated as ATX inhibitors for cancer including compounds possessing a boronic acid motif such as HA155. In this work, we targeted new, improved inhibitors of ATX that mimic the important interactions of boronic acid using a benzoxaborole motif as the acidic warhead. Furthermore, we aimed to improve the plasma stability of the new compounds by using a more stable core spacer than that embedded in HA155. Compounds were synthesized, evaluated for their ATX inhibitory activity and ADME properties in vitro, culminating in a new benzoxaborole compound, 37, which retains the ATX inhibition activity of HA155 but has improved ADME properties (plasma protein binding, good kinetic solubility and rat/human plasma stability). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drug Repurposing as an Antitumor Agent: Disulfiram-Mediated Carbonic Anhydrase 12 and Anion Exchanger 2 Modulation to Inhibit Cancer Cell Migration
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3409; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183409 - 19 Sep 2019
Abstract
Disulfiram has been used in the treatment of alcoholism and exhibits an anti-tumor effect. However, the intracellular mechanism of anti-tumor activity of Disulfiram remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the modulatory role of Disulfiram via oncogenic factor carbonic anhydrase CA12 and [...] Read more.
Disulfiram has been used in the treatment of alcoholism and exhibits an anti-tumor effect. However, the intracellular mechanism of anti-tumor activity of Disulfiram remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the modulatory role of Disulfiram via oncogenic factor carbonic anhydrase CA12 and its associated transporter anion exchanger AE2 in lung cancer cell line A549. The surface expression of CA12 and AE2 were decreased by Disulfiram treatment with a time-dependent manner. Disulfiram treatment did not alter the expression of Na+-bicarbonate cotransporters, nor did it affect autophagy regulation. The chloride bicarbonate exchanger activity of A549 cells was reduced by Disulfiram treatment in a time-dependent manner without change in the resting pH level. The expression and activity of AE2 and the expression of CA12 were also reduced by Disulfiram treatment in the breast cancer cell line. An invasion assay and cell migration assay revealed that Disulfiram attenuated the invasion and migration of A549 cells. In conclusion, the attenuation of AE2 and its supportive enzyme CA12, and the inhibitory effect on cell migration by Disulfiram treatment in cancer cells provided the molecular evidence supporting the potential of Disulfiram as an anticancer agent. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Design and Synthesis of Benzimidazole-Chalcone Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3259; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183259 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Numerous reports have shown that conjugated benzimidazole derivatives possess various kinds of biological activities, including anticancer properties. In this report, we designed and synthesized 24 new molecules comprising a benzimidazole ring, arene, and alkyl chain-bearing cyclic moieties. The results showed that the N [...] Read more.
Numerous reports have shown that conjugated benzimidazole derivatives possess various kinds of biological activities, including anticancer properties. In this report, we designed and synthesized 24 new molecules comprising a benzimidazole ring, arene, and alkyl chain-bearing cyclic moieties. The results showed that the N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives bearing an alkyl chain and a nitrogen-containing 5- or 6-membered ring enhanced the cytotoxic effects on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3) cell lines. Among the 24 synthesized compounds, (2E)-1-(1-(3-morpholinopropyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2 -yl)-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-one) (23a) reduced the proliferation of MCF-7 and OVCAR-3 cell lines demonstrating superior outcomes to those of cisplatin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Evaluation, and Mechanism Study of New Tepotinib Derivatives as Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061173 - 25 Mar 2019
Abstract
Inspired by the potent inhibition activity of the c-Met (mesenchymal−epithelial transition factor) inhibitor Tepotinib, a series of new Tepotinib derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to act as antiproliferative agents to find the leading compounds with good activity and limited side [...] Read more.
Inspired by the potent inhibition activity of the c-Met (mesenchymal−epithelial transition factor) inhibitor Tepotinib, a series of new Tepotinib derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to act as antiproliferative agents to find the leading compounds with good activity and limited side effects. Among them, compound 31e exhibited potent antiproliferative activity (IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) = 0.026 μΜ) against hepatic carcinoma 97H (human liver cancer cell) cells and, importantly, had very low inhibitory activity against normal cells. A mechanism study demonstrated that 31e induced G1 phase (First growth phase or G indicating gap) arrest, inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Met and its downstream signaling component, Akt (Protein Kinase B), and also inhibited the migration of hepatic carcinoma 97H cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis, and Molecular Docking Study of Novel Heterocycles Incorporating 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moiety as Potential Antimicrobial and Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061066 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
A new series of 5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial, antitumor, and DHFR inhibition activity. Compounds 9, 10, 13, and 16 showed strong and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity comparable to Amoxicillin and Fluconazole as positive antibiotic [...] Read more.
A new series of 5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial, antitumor, and DHFR inhibition activity. Compounds 9, 10, 13, and 16 showed strong and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity comparable to Amoxicillin and Fluconazole as positive antibiotic and antifungal controls, respectively. Compounds 6, 14, and 15 exhibited antitumor activity against four human cancer cell lines, CCRF-CEM leukemia, HCT-15 colon, PC-3 prostate, and UACC-257 melanoma cell lines using Doxorubicin as a reference drug. Compounds 10, 13, 14, and 15 proved to be the most active DHFR inhibitors with an IC50 range of 0.04 ± 0.82–1.00 ± 0.85 µM, in comparison with Methotrexate (IC50 = 0.14 ± 1.38 µM). The highly potent DHFR inhibitors shared a similar molecular docking mode and made a critical hydrogen bond and arene‒arene interactions via Ser59 and Phe31 amino acid residues, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Bispidinone Derivative 3,7-Bis-[2-(S)-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionyl]-1,5-diphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one Dihydrochloride Induces an Apoptosis-Mediated Cytotoxic Effect on Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030524 - 31 Jan 2019
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex, heterogeneous disease with a dismal prognosis. Current therapies have failed to improve survival outcomes, urging the need for discovery of novel targeted treatments. Bispidinone derivatives have yet to be investigated as cytotoxic agents against PC cells. The [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex, heterogeneous disease with a dismal prognosis. Current therapies have failed to improve survival outcomes, urging the need for discovery of novel targeted treatments. Bispidinone derivatives have yet to be investigated as cytotoxic agents against PC cells. The cytotoxic effect of four bispidinone derivatives (BisP1: 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one; BisP2: 3,7-bis-(2-(S)-amino-4-methylsulfanylbutyryl)-1,5-diphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one dihydrochloride; BisP3: [2-{7-[2-(S)-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionyl]-9-oxo-1,5-diphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-yl}-1-(S)-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-2-oxoethyl]-carbamic acid tertbutyl ester; BisP4: 3,7-bis-[2-(S)-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionyl]-1,5-diphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one dihydrochloride) was assessed against PC cell lines (MiaPaca-2, CFPAC-1 and BxPC-3). Cell viability was assessed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) colorimetric assay, while apoptotic cell death was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Initial viability screening revealed significant cytotoxic activity from BisP4 treatment (1 µM–100 µM) on all three cell lines, with IC50 values for MiaPaca-2, BxPC-3, and CFPAC-1 16.9 µM, 23.7 µM, and 36.3 µM, respectively. Cytotoxic treatment time-response (4 h, 24 h, and 48 h) revealed a 24 h treatment time was sufficient to produce a cytotoxic effect on all cell lines. Light microscopy evaluation (DAPI staining) of BisP4 treated MiaPaca-2 PC cells revealed dose-dependent characteristic apoptotic morphological changes. In addition, flow cytometry confirmed BisP4 induced apoptotic cell death induction of activated caspase-3/-7. The bispidinone derivative BisP4 induced an apoptosis-mediated cytotoxic effect on MiaPaca-2 cell lines and significant cytotoxicity on CFPAC-1 and BxPC-3 cell lines. Further investigations into the precise cellular mechanisms of action of this class of compounds are necessary for potential development into pre-clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis, Anticancer Evaluation and Molecular Modeling of Novel Estrogen Derivatives
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030416 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
A series of estrone derivatives 38 was designed and synthesized using estrone arylmethylenes 2a,b as starting materials and their structures were confirmed by different spectral data and elemental analyses. All the newly synthesized compounds exhibited potent in vitro and [...] Read more.
A series of estrone derivatives 38 was designed and synthesized using estrone arylmethylenes 2a,b as starting materials and their structures were confirmed by different spectral data and elemental analyses. All the newly synthesized compounds exhibited potent in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activities against breast cancer cell lines. In addition, all compounds were subjected to in vitro and in vivo inhibition assays for EGFR and VEGFR-2 kinases as well as p53 ubiquitination activity to obtain more details about their mechanism of action. Based on the promising results, a molecular docking study was investigated for the most representative compound 5a against the two targets, EGFR and VEGFR-2 kinases, to assess its binding affinity, hoping to rationalize and obtain potent anticancer agents in the future. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2019, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014

Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies of Novel Macrocyclic Pentapeptides as Anticancer Multi-Targeted Kinase Inhibitors
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102416 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 22
Abstract
A series of macrocyclic pyrido-pentapeptide candidates 26 were synthesized by using N,N-bis-[1-carboxy-2-(benzyl)]-2,6-(diaminocarbonyl)pyridine 1a,b as starting material. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established by IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and MS spectral data and [...] Read more.
A series of macrocyclic pyrido-pentapeptide candidates 26 were synthesized by using N,N-bis-[1-carboxy-2-(benzyl)]-2,6-(diaminocarbonyl)pyridine 1a,b as starting material. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established by IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and MS spectral data and elemental analysis. The in-vitro cytotoxicity activity was investigated for all compounds against MCF-7 and HepG-2 cell lines and the majority of the compounds showed potent anticancer activity against the tested cell lines in comparison with the reference drugs. Out of the macrocyclic pyrido-pentapeptide based compounds, 5c showed encouraging inhibitory activity on MCF-7 and HepG-2 cell lines with IC50 values 9.41 ± 1.25 and 7.53 ± 1.33 μM, respectively. Interestingly, 5c also demonstrated multitarget profile and excellent inhibitory activity towards VEGFR-2, CDK-2 and PDGFRβ kinases. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies of the compound 5c revealed its possible binding modes into the active sites of those kinases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Molecular Docking and Anticancer Activity of Diflunisal Derivatives as Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081969 - 06 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Cyclooxygenase enzymes play a vital role in inflammatory pathways in the human body. Apart from their relation with inflammation, the additional involvement of COX-2 enzyme with cancer activity was recently discovered. In some cancer types the level of COX-2 enzyme is increased indicating [...] Read more.
Cyclooxygenase enzymes play a vital role in inflammatory pathways in the human body. Apart from their relation with inflammation, the additional involvement of COX-2 enzyme with cancer activity was recently discovered. In some cancer types the level of COX-2 enzyme is increased indicating that this enzyme could be a suitable target for cancer therapy. Based on these findings, we have synthesized some new diflunisal thiosemicarbazides and 1,2,4-triazoles and tested them against androgen-independent prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3), colon carcinoma (HCT-116), human breast cancer (T47D), breast carcinoma (MCF7) and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell lines. Specifically, the diflunisal and thiosemicarbazide functionality are combined during the synthesis of original compounds anticipating a potency enhancement. Compounds 6, 10, 15 and 16 did not show cytotoxic effects for the HEK293 cell line. Among them, compounds 15 and 16 demonstrated anticancer activity for the breast cancer cell line T47D, whereas compounds 6 and 10 which are thiosemicarbazide derivatives displayed anti-tumourigenic activity against the PC-3 cell line, consistent with the literature. However, no activity was observed for the HCT-116 cancer cell line with the tested thiosemicarbazide derivatives. Only compound 16 displayed activity against the HCT-116 cell line. Therefore, it was speculated that the diflunisal and thiosemicarbazide functionalities potentiate anticancer activity on prostate cancer and the thiosemicarbazide functionality decreases the anticancer activity of diflunisal on colon cancer cell lines. In order to gain insight into the anticancer activity and COX-2 inhibition, molecular docking studies were carried out for COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes utilizing the newly synthesized compounds 15, and 16. Both 15 and 16 showed high selectivity and affinity toward COX-2 isozyme over COX-1, which is in agreement with the experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification by Molecular Docking of Homoisoflavones from Leopoldia comosa as Ligands of Estrogen Receptors
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040894 - 12 Apr 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The physiological responses to estrogen hormones are mediated within specific tissues by at least two distinct receptors, ERα and ERβ. Several natural and synthetic molecules show activity by interacting with these proteins. In particular, a number of vegetal compounds known as phytoestrogens shows [...] Read more.
The physiological responses to estrogen hormones are mediated within specific tissues by at least two distinct receptors, ERα and ERβ. Several natural and synthetic molecules show activity by interacting with these proteins. In particular, a number of vegetal compounds known as phytoestrogens shows estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. The majority of these compounds belongs to the isoflavones family and the most representative one, genistein, shows anti-proliferative effects on various hormone-sensitive cancer cells, including breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. In this work we describe the identification of structurally related homoisoflavones isolated from Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (L. comosa), a perennial bulbous plant, potentially useful as hormonal substitutes or complements in cancer treatments. Two of these compounds have been selected as potential ligands of estrogen receptors (ERs) and the interaction with both isoforms of estrogen receptors have been investigated through molecular docking on their crystallographic structures. The results provide evidence of the binding of these compounds to the target receptors and their interactions with key residues of the active sites of the two proteins, and thus they could represent suitable leads for the development of novel tools for the dissection of ER signaling and the development of new pharmacological treatments in hormone-sensitive cancers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polymer-Mediated Delivery of siRNAs to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Variables Affecting Specificity and Effectiveness
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040777 - 28 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Despite the advances in anticancer therapies, their effectiveness for many human tumors is still far from being optimal. Significant improvements in treatment efficacy can come from the enhancement of drug specificity. This goal may be achieved by combining the use of therapeutic molecules [...] Read more.
Despite the advances in anticancer therapies, their effectiveness for many human tumors is still far from being optimal. Significant improvements in treatment efficacy can come from the enhancement of drug specificity. This goal may be achieved by combining the use of therapeutic molecules with tumor specific effects and delivery carriers with tumor targeting ability. In this regard, nucleic acid-based drug (NABD) and particularly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are attractive molecules due to the possibility to be engineered to target specific tumor genes. On the other hand, polymeric-based delivery systems are emerging as versatile carriers to generate tumor-targeted delivery systems. Here we will focus on the most recent findings in the selection of siRNA/polymeric targeted delivery systems for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a human tumor for which currently available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective. In addition, we will discuss the most attracting and, in our opinion, promising siRNA-polymer combinations for HCC in relation to the biological features of HCC tissue. Attention will be also put on the mathematical description of the mechanisms ruling siRNA-carrier delivery, this being an important aspect to improve effectiveness reducing the experimental work. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030649 - 13 Mar 2018
Cited by 37
Abstract
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show [...] Read more.
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Several of these substances belong to the triterpenoids and polysaccharides classes. Proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, etc. are also present. In the present review, an extensive overview of the presence of antitumour, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase compounds in G. lucidum extracts will be given, along with an evaluation of their therapeutic effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Half-Sandwich Ru(II) and Os(II) Bathophenanthroline Complexes Containing a Releasable Dichloroacetato Ligand
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020420 - 14 Feb 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
We report on the preparation and thorough characterization of cytotoxic half-sandwich complexes [Ru(η6-pcym)(bphen)(dca)]PF6 (Ru-dca) and [Os(η6-pcym)(bphen)(dca)]PF6 (Os-dca) containing dichloroacetate(1–) (dca) as the releasable O-donor [...] Read more.
We report on the preparation and thorough characterization of cytotoxic half-sandwich complexes [Ru(η6-pcym)(bphen)(dca)]PF6 (Ru-dca) and [Os(η6-pcym)(bphen)(dca)]PF6 (Os-dca) containing dichloroacetate(1–) (dca) as the releasable O-donor ligand bearing its own cytotoxicity; pcym = 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)benzene (p-cymene), bphen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline). Complexes Ru-dca and Os-dca hydrolyzed in the water-containing media, which led to the dca ligand release (supported by 1H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectra). Mass spectrometry studies revealed that complexes Ru-dca and Os-dca do not interact covalently with the model proteins cytochrome c and lysozyme. Both complexes exhibited slightly higher in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50 = 3.5 μM for Ru-dca, and 2.6 μM for Os-dca) against the A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells than cisplatin (IC50 = 5.9 μM), while their toxicity on the healthy human hepatocytes was found to be IC50 = 19.1 μM for Ru-dca and IC50 = 19.7 μM for Os-dca. Despite comparable cytotoxicity of complexes Ru-dca and Os-dca, both the complexes modified the cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release by a different way, as revealed by flow cytometry experiments. The obtained results point out the different mechanisms of action between the complexes. Full article
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2017

Jump to: 2019, 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014

Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Novel Chalcone Derivatives Bearing Triazolo[4,3-a]-quinoxaline Moieties as Potent Anticancer Agents with Dual EGFR Kinase and Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitory Effects
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010048 - 27 Dec 2017
Cited by 21
Abstract
A series of hybrid of triazoloquinoxaline-chalcone derivatives 7ak were designed, synthesized, fully characterized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three target cell lines: human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2). The preliminary results showed [...] Read more.
A series of hybrid of triazoloquinoxaline-chalcone derivatives 7ak were designed, synthesized, fully characterized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three target cell lines: human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2). The preliminary results showed that some of these chalcones like 7bc, and 7eg exhibited significant antiproliferative effects against most of the cell lines, with selective or non-selective behavior, indicated by IC50 values in the 1.65 to 34.28 µM range. In order to investigate the mechanistic aspects of these active compounds, EGFR TK and tubulin inhibitory activities were measured as further biological assays. The EGFR TK assay results revealed that the derivatives 7ac, 7e, and 7g could inhibit the EGFR TK in the submicromolar range (0.093 to 0.661 µM). Moreover, an antitubulin polymerization effect was noted for the active derivatives compared to the reference drug colchicine, with compounds 7e and 7g displaying 14.7 and 8.4 micromolar activity, respectively. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was carried out to explain the observed effects and the binding modes of these chalcones with the EGFR TK and tubulin targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
rLj-RGD3 Suppresses the Growth of HeyA8 Cells in Nude Mice
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122234 - 15 Dec 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the previous study, rLj-RGD3, a recombinant toxin protein which contains three RGD motifs, was reported to not only inhibit the proliferation of an ovarian cancer cell line, HeyA8 cells, by inducing apoptosis, but also block their adhesion, migration and invasion processes. However, [...] Read more.
In the previous study, rLj-RGD3, a recombinant toxin protein which contains three RGD motifs, was reported to not only inhibit the proliferation of an ovarian cancer cell line, HeyA8 cells, by inducing apoptosis, but also block their adhesion, migration and invasion processes. However, whether rLj-RGD3 could also suppress the tumor growth in HeyA8 xenografted mice has not been reported yet. In the present study, rLj-RGD3 was intraperitoneally injected in the nude mice bearing HeyA8 tumors. Compared with the control group (normal saline), rLj-RGD3 inhibited the tumor growth significantly in the HeyA8 xenografted mice in a dose-dependent manner without affecting their body weights. Based on the H&E, Hoechst 33258 and TUNEL staining assays, as well as western blot analysis, rLj-RGD3 reduced the weight and volume of the solid tumors, probably by disturbing the tissue structure, inducing apoptosis and suppressing the FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway. Most importantly, rLj-RGD3 was found to prolong the survival days of the ovarian tumor xenografted mice, which suggested rLj-RGD3 might act as an effective and safe drug to treat ovarian cancer patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of 11-Substituted Neocryptolepines with a Branched ω-Aminoalkylamino Chain
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111954 - 12 Nov 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Neocryptolepine, which is a kind of tetracyclic indoloquinoline alkaloid, exhibits the inhibition of topoisomerase II and shows antiproliferative activity. The present study describes the synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of several neocryptolepine analogues carrying a branched, functionalized dibasic side chain at C11. These 2-substituted [...] Read more.
Neocryptolepine, which is a kind of tetracyclic indoloquinoline alkaloid, exhibits the inhibition of topoisomerase II and shows antiproliferative activity. The present study describes the synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of several neocryptolepine analogues carrying a branched, functionalized dibasic side chain at C11. These 2-substituted 5-methyl-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were prepared by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) of 11-chloroneocryptolepines with appropriate 1,2- and 1,3-diamines. Some of the 11-(ω-aminoalkylamino) derivatives were further transformed into 11-ureido and thioureido analogues. Many of the prepared neocryptolepine derivatives showed submicromolar antiproliferative activity against the human leukemia MV4-11 cell line. Among them, 11-(3-amino-2-hydroxy)propylamino derivatives 2h and 2k were the most cytotoxic with a mean IC50 value of 0.042 μM and 0.057 μM against the MV4-11 cell line, 0.197 μM and 0.1988 μM against the A549 cell line, and 0.138 μM and 0.117 μM against the BALB/3T3 cell line, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel Arylpiperazine Derivatives Containing the Saccharin Moiety
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111857 - 29 Oct 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Prostate cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. For the development of potential anti-prostate cancer agents, a series of novel arylpiperazine derivatives containing the saccharin moiety based on previous studies was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in prostate (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145) cancer [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. For the development of potential anti-prostate cancer agents, a series of novel arylpiperazine derivatives containing the saccharin moiety based on previous studies was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in prostate (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145) cancer cell lines for their anticancer activities. The majority of the compounds exhibited excellent selective activity for the tested cancer cells. Compounds 4 and 12 exhibited strong cytotoxic activities against DU145 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 2 μM). The structure–activity relationship (SAR) of these arylpiperazine derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data. This work provides a potential lead compound for anticancer agent development focusing on prostate cancer therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Berberine Activates Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor but Suppresses CYP1A1 Induction through miR-21-3p Stimulation in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111847 - 28 Oct 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Berberine and the methylenedioxy ring-opening derivatives palmatine and jatrorrhizine are active ingredients in immunomodulatory plants, such as goldenseal. This study aimed to illustrate the effects of protoberberines on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 in the estrogen receptor (ER)α(+) [...] Read more.
Berberine and the methylenedioxy ring-opening derivatives palmatine and jatrorrhizine are active ingredients in immunomodulatory plants, such as goldenseal. This study aimed to illustrate the effects of protoberberines on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 in the estrogen receptor (ER)α(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Among protoberberines at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≤10 μM), berberine had the most potent and statistically significant effects on AhR activation and CYP1A1/1A2/1B1 mRNA induction. The 24-h exposure to 10 μM berberine did not change CYP1A1 mRNA stability, protein level and function. Berberine significantly increased micro RNA (miR)-21-3p by 36% and the transfection of an inhibitor of miR-21-3p restored the induction of CYP1A1 protein with a 50% increase. These findings demonstrate that the ring opening of the methylenedioxyl moiety in berberine decreased AhR activation in MCF-7 cells. While CYP1A1 mRNA was elevated, berberine-induced miR-21-3p suppressed the increase of functional CYP1A1 protein expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Synthesis, Photophysical and Biological Evaluation of Some Unsymmetrical Meso-Tetrasubstituted Phenyl Porphyrins
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111815 - 25 Oct 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Abstract: We designed three unsymmetrical meso-tetrasubstituted phenyl porphyrins for further development as theranostic agents for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT): 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (P2.2), Zn(II)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (Zn(II)2.2) and Cu(II)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (Cu(II)2.2). The porphyrinic compounds were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR [...] Read more.
Abstract: We designed three unsymmetrical meso-tetrasubstituted phenyl porphyrins for further development as theranostic agents for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT): 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (P2.2), Zn(II)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (Zn(II)2.2) and Cu(II)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (Cu(II)2.2). The porphyrinic compounds were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and NMR. The compounds had a good solubility in polar/nonpolar media. P2.2 and, to a lesser extent, Zn(II)2.2 were fluorescent, albeit with low fluoresence quantum yields. P2.2 and Zn(II)2.2 exhibited PDT-acceptable values of singlet oxygen generation. A “dark” cytotoxicity study was performed using cells that are relevant for the tumor niche (HT-29 colon carcinoma cells and L929 fibroblasts) and for blood (peripheral mononuclear cells). Cellular uptake of fluorescent compounds, cell viability/proliferation and death were evaluated. P2.2 was highlighted as a promising theranostic agent for PDT in solid tumors considering that P2.2 generated PDT-acceptable singlet oxygen yields, accumulated into tumor cells and less in blood cells, exhibited good fluorescence within cells for imagistic detection, and had no significant cytotoxicity in vitro against tumor and normal cells. Complexing of P2.2 with Zn(II) or Cu(II) altered several of its PDT-relevant properties. These are consistent arguments for further developing P2.2 in animal models of solid tumors for in vivo PDT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pratol, an O-Methylated Flavone, Induces Melanogenesis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells via p-p38 and p-JNK Upregulation
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101704 - 11 Oct 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis. It controls pigmentation in the skin. Activation of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach in the development of tanning and haircare products. Pratol is a 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyflavone found in Trifolium pratense. In this [...] Read more.
Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis. It controls pigmentation in the skin. Activation of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach in the development of tanning and haircare products. Pratol is a 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyflavone found in Trifolium pratense. In this study, we investigated the effects of pratol on melanogenesis. We also studied the mechanism of action of pratol in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 μM) of pratol to observe its effects. The results showed that pratol significantly increased melanin content and tyrosinase activity in the cells without being cytotoxic. In addition, pratol strongly increased the expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 and 2 by enhancing the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Furthermore, pratol stimulated melanogenesis via the phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK). The findings from an assay searching for the inhibitor revealed that SB203580 (a specific p38 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a p-JNK inhibitor) attenuated pratol-induced cellular tyrosinase activity whereas PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor) did not. Additionally, pratol interfered with the phosphorylation of p-AKT. We also found that pratol-induced melanogenesis was reversed by H89, which is a specific protein kinase A inhibitor. The results suggest that, owing to its multi-functional properties, pratol may be a potential tanning agent or a therapeutic agent for hair depigmentation in the cosmetic industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effects of Total Triterpenoid Saponins Isolated from the Seeds of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) on Human Ovarian Cancer Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101649 - 30 Sep 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is regarded as one of the most severe malignancies for women in the world. Death rates have remained steady over the past five decades, due to the undeniable inefficiency of the current treatment in preventing its recurrence and death. The development [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is regarded as one of the most severe malignancies for women in the world. Death rates have remained steady over the past five decades, due to the undeniable inefficiency of the current treatment in preventing its recurrence and death. The development of new effective alternative agents for ovarian cancer treatment is becoming increasingly critical. Tea saponins (TS) are triterpenoidsaponins composed of sapogenins, glycosides, and organic acids, which possess a variety of pharmacological activities, and have shown promise in the anti-cancer field. Through cell CellTiter 96® Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation assay (MTS) assay, colony formation, Hoechst 33342 staining assay, caspase-3/7 activities, flow cytometry for apoptosis analysis, and Western blot, we observed that TS isolated from the seeds of tea plants, Camellia sinensis, exhibited strong anti-proliferation inhibitory effects on OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70 ovarian cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that TS may selectivity inhibit human ovarian cancer cells by mediating apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, and initiating anti-angiogenesis via decreased VEGF protein levels in a HIF-1α-dependent pathway. Our data suggests that, in the future, TS could be incorporated into a potential therapeutic agent against human ovarian cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anticarcinogenic Effect of Spices Due to Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds—In Vitro Evaluation on Prostate Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101626 - 28 Sep 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study shows the effects of spices, and their phenolic and flavonoid compounds, on prostate cell lines (PNT1A, 22RV1 and PC3). The results of an MTT assay on extracts from eight spices revealed the strongest inhibitory effects were from black pepper and caraway [...] Read more.
This study shows the effects of spices, and their phenolic and flavonoid compounds, on prostate cell lines (PNT1A, 22RV1 and PC3). The results of an MTT assay on extracts from eight spices revealed the strongest inhibitory effects were from black pepper and caraway seed extracts. The strongest inhibitory effect on prostatic cells was observed after the application of extracts of spices in concentration of 12.5 mg·mL−1. An LC/MS analysis identified that the most abundant phenolic and flavonoid compounds in black pepper are 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and naringenin chalcone, while the most abundant phenolic and flavonoid compounds in caraway seeds are neochlorogenic acid and apigenin. Using an MTT assay for the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from spices, we identified the IC50 value of ~1 mmol·L−1 PNT1A. The scratch test demonstrated that the most potent inhibitory effect on PNT1A, 22RV1 and PC3 cells is from the naringenin chalcone contained in black pepper. From the spectrum of compounds assessed, the naringenin chalcone contained in black pepper was identified as the most potent inhibitor of the growth of prostate cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Novel Bisbenzimidazole Derivatives as Anticancer Vacuolar (H+)-ATPase Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091559 - 16 Sep 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-driven proton pumps and they have been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Despite the clear involvement of V-ATPases in cancer, the therapeutic use of V-ATPase-targeting small molecules has not reached [...] Read more.
The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-driven proton pumps and they have been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Despite the clear involvement of V-ATPases in cancer, the therapeutic use of V-ATPase-targeting small molecules has not reached human clinical trials to date. Thus, V-ATPases are emerging as important targets for the identification of potential novel therapeutic agents. We identified a bisbenzimidazole derivative (V) as an initial hit from a similarity search using four known V-ATPase inhibitors (IIV). Based on the initial hit (V), we designed and synthesized a focused set of novel bisbenzimidazole analogs (2ae). All newly prepared compounds have been screened for selected human breast cancer (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and MCF7) and ovarian cancer (A2780, Cis-A2780, and PA-1) cell lines, along with the normal breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A. The bisbenzimidazole derivative (2e) is active against all cell lines tested. Remarkably, it demonstrated high cytotoxicity against the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, MDA-MB-468 (IC50 = 0.04 ± 0.02 μM). Additionally, it has been shown to inhibit the V-ATPase pump that is mainly responsible for acidification. To the best of our knowledge the bisbenzimidazole pharmacophore has been identified as the first V-ATPase inhibitor in its class. These results strongly suggest that the compound 2e could be further developed as a potential anticancer V-ATPase inhibitor for breast cancer treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Antiproliferative Evaluation of Novel Sulfanilamide Derivatives as Potential Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091470 - 05 Sep 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
A series of sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids were designed by a molecular hybridization strategy and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (MGC-803, MCF-7 and PC-3). The detailed structure-activity relationships for these sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids were investigated. All these sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids exhibited moderate [...] Read more.
A series of sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids were designed by a molecular hybridization strategy and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (MGC-803, MCF-7 and PC-3). The detailed structure-activity relationships for these sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids were investigated. All these sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids exhibited moderate to potent activity against all cell lines. In particular 4-methyl-N-((1-(3-phenoxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)benzenesulfonamide (11f) showed the most potent inhibitory effect against PC-3 cells, with an IC50 value of 4.08 μM. Furthermore, the tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity in vitro of compound 11f was 2.41 μM. These sulfanilamide hybrids might serve as bioactive fragments for developing more potent antiproliferative agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sigma Receptor (σR) Ligands with Antiproliferative and Anticancer Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091408 - 25 Aug 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Sigma receptor (σR) ligands have proven to be useful as cancer diagnostics and anticancer therapeutics and their ligands have been developed as molecular probes in oncology. Moreover, various σR ligands generate cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. These σR ligands have [...] Read more.
Sigma receptor (σR) ligands have proven to be useful as cancer diagnostics and anticancer therapeutics and their ligands have been developed as molecular probes in oncology. Moreover, various σR ligands generate cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. These σR ligands have exhibited promising results against numerous human and rodent cancers and are investigated under preclinical and clinical study trials, indicating a new category of drugs in cancer therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anticancer Activity of Ramalin, a Secondary Metabolite from the Antarctic Lichen Ramalina terebrata, against Colorectal Cancer Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081361 - 17 Aug 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer cells, making them promising candidates for new anticancer therapeutic drugs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer capacities of ramalin, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. In this study, ramalin displayed concentration-dependent anticancer activity against HCT116 cells, significantly suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, ramalin induced cell cycle arrest in the gap 2/mitosis (G2/M) phase through the modulation of hallmark genes involved in the G2/M phase transition, such as tumour protein p53 (TP53), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin B1 (CCNB1). At both the transcriptional and translational level, ramalin caused a gradual increase in the expression of TP53 and its downstream gene CDKN1A, while decreasing the expression of CDK1 and CCNB1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, ramalin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that ramalin may be a therapeutic candidate for the targeted therapy of colorectal cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Methylselenoesters as Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081288 - 02 Aug 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Selenium (Se) compounds are potential therapeutic agents in cancer. Importantly, the biological effects of Se compounds are exerted by their metabolites, with methylselenol (CH3SeH) being one of the key executors. In this study, we developed a new series of methylselenoesters with [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) compounds are potential therapeutic agents in cancer. Importantly, the biological effects of Se compounds are exerted by their metabolites, with methylselenol (CH3SeH) being one of the key executors. In this study, we developed a new series of methylselenoesters with different scaffolds aiming to modulate the release of CH3SeH. The fifteen compounds follow Lipinski’s Rule of Five and with exception of compounds 1 and 14, present better drug-likeness values than the positive control methylseleninic acid. The compounds were evaluated to determine their radical scavenging activity. Compound 11 reduced both DPPH and ABTS radicals. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in a panel of five cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and lung carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia) and two non-malignant (lung and mammary epithelial) cell lines. Ten compounds had GI50 values below 10 μM at 72 h in four cancer cell lines. Compounds 5 and 15 were chosen for further characterization of their mechanism of action in the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line due to their similarity with methylseleninic acid. Both compounds induced G2/M arrest whereas cell death was partially executed by caspases. The reduction and metabolism were also investigated, and both compounds were shown to be substrates for redox active enzyme thioredoxin reductase. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Research Progress in the Modification of Quercetin Leading to Anticancer Agents
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081270 - 29 Jul 2017
Cited by 43
Abstract
The flavonoid quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is widely distributed in plants, foods, and beverages. This polyphenol compound exhibits varied biological actions such as antioxidant, radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, gastroprotective, immune-modulator, and finds also application in the treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Besides, quercetin [...] Read more.
The flavonoid quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is widely distributed in plants, foods, and beverages. This polyphenol compound exhibits varied biological actions such as antioxidant, radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, gastroprotective, immune-modulator, and finds also application in the treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Besides, quercetin can prevent neurological disorders and exerts protection against mitochondrial damages. Various in vitro studies have assessed the anticancer effects of quercetin, although there are no conclusive data regarding its mode of action. However, low bioavailability, poor aqueous solubility as well as rapid body clearance, fast metabolism and enzymatic degradation hamper the use of quercetin as therapeutic agent, so intense research efforts have been focused on the modification of the quercetin scaffold to obtain analogs with potentially improved properties for clinical applications. This review gives an overview of the developments in the synthesis and anticancer-related activities of quercetin derivatives reported from 2012 to 2016. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Newly Synthesized Doxorubicin Complexes with Selected Metals—Synthesis, Structure and Anti-Breast Cancer Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071106 - 04 Jul 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Doxorubicin (DOX) is very effective chemotherapeutic agent, however it has several major drawbacks. Therefore the motivation for developing novel drug complexes as anticancer agents with different mechanism of action has arisen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is very effective chemotherapeutic agent, however it has several major drawbacks. Therefore the motivation for developing novel drug complexes as anticancer agents with different mechanism of action has arisen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of newly synthesized DOX complexes with selected metals (Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn) on apoptosis, cell cycle, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Complexation of DOX with metals has likewise been the subject of our research. The current work showed that the tested bivalent metals at a given pH condition formed metal:DOX complexes in a ratio of 2:1, while iron complexes with DOX in a ratio of 3:1. The studies also showed that selected metal-DOX complexes (Mg-DOX, Mn-DOX, Ni-DOX) at 0.5 µM concentration significantly decreased cell viability and proliferation, however they increased caspase 7 activity. Results also indicated that studied metal-DOX complexes showed high cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Therefore they were chosen for cell cycle check-points and apoptosis/necrosis analysis studied by flow cytometry. Obtained results suggest that doxorubicin complexed by specified metals can be considered as a potential anti-breast cancer agent, which is characterized by a higher efficacy than a parent drug. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Structural Requirements of N-Substituted Tetrahydro-β-Carboline Imidazolium Salt Derivatives Using in Silico Approaches for Designing MEK-1 Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061020 - 19 Jun 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Novel N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt derivatives proved to have potent antitumor activity in past research. The Topomer CoMFA and CoMSIA function in Sybyl-X 2.0 software was applied for the identification of important features of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline-imidazolium salt derivative moieties. In the [...] Read more.
Novel N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt derivatives proved to have potent antitumor activity in past research. The Topomer CoMFA and CoMSIA function in Sybyl-X 2.0 software was applied for the identification of important features of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline-imidazolium salt derivative moieties. In the case of Topomer CoMFA, all the compounds were split into two fragments which were used to generate a 3D invariant representation, the statistical results of the Topomer CoMFA model: q2 value of 0.700; r2 value of 0.954; with 5 optimum components. The database alignment was utilized for building the CoMSIA model, and the CoMSIA model had q2 and r2 values of 0.615 and 0.897, with 4 optimum components. Target fishing of the PharmMapper platform was utilised for finding potential targets, the human mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK-1) was found to be the primary potential target for the three compounds with the fit scores of 6.288, 5.741, and 6.721. The molecular docking technique of MOE 2015 was carried out to identify the interactions of amino acids surrounding the ligand, and correlating QASR contour maps were used to identify structural requirements of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt moieties. Molecular dynamics and simulation studies proved that the target protein was stable for 0.8–5 ns. The pivotal moieties of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt derivatives and its potential targets were verified by the QASR study, PharmMapper, and the molecular docking study which would be helpful to design novel MEK-1 inhibitors for anticancer drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel All-Trans-Retinoic Acid-Podophyllotoxin Conjugate towards Human Gastric Cancer Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22040628 - 17 Apr 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
With the purpose of creating a multifunctional drug for gastric cancer treatment, a novel all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) conjugate with podophyllotoxin (PPT) was designed and synthesized, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity was evaluated against human gastric cancer cell [...] Read more.
With the purpose of creating a multifunctional drug for gastric cancer treatment, a novel all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) conjugate with podophyllotoxin (PPT) was designed and synthesized, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity was evaluated against human gastric cancer cell lines using CCK-8 assay. The conjugate, P-A, exhibited significant anticancer activity against MKN-45 and BGC-823 cells with IC50 values of 0.419 ± 0.032 and 0.202 ± 0.055 μM, respectively. Moreover, P-A efficiently triggered cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in MKN-45 and BGC-823 cells due to modulation of cell cycle arrest- (CDK1, CDK2, CyclinA and CyclinB1) and apoptosis- (cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9) related proteins, respectively. Further mechanism studies revealed that P-A could increase the expression levels of RARα and RARβ, and decrease the level of RARγ in MKN-45 and BGC-823 cells. Finally, P-A inhibited the ERK1/2 and AKT signaling in the above two cancer cell lines. More importantly, the underlying mechanisms of P-A were similar to those of precursor PPT but different with the other precursor ATRA. Together, the conjugate P-A was a promising candidate for the potential treatment of human gastric cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Naphthalimide Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020342 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Two kinds of naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro their anti-hepatocellular carcinoma properties. Compound 3a with a fused thiazole fragment to naphthalimide skeleton inhibited cell migration of SMMC-7721 and HepG2, and further in vivo trials with two animal models confirmed [...] Read more.
Two kinds of naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro their anti-hepatocellular carcinoma properties. Compound 3a with a fused thiazole fragment to naphthalimide skeleton inhibited cell migration of SMMC-7721 and HepG2, and further in vivo trials with two animal models confirmed that compound 3a moderately inhibited primary H22 tumor growth (52.6%) and potently interrupted lung metastasis (75.7%) without obvious systemic toxicity at the therapeutic dose. Mechanistic research revealed that compound 3a inhibited cancerous liver cell growth mostly by inducing G2/M phase arrest. Western blotting experiments corroborated that 3a could up-regulate the cell cycle related protein expression of cyclin B1, CDK1 and p21, and inhibit cell migration by elevating the E-cadherin and attenuating integrin α6 expression. Our study showed that compound 3a is a valuable lead compound worthy of further investigation. Full article
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2016

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Open AccessArticle
Targeting Cancer Stem Cells with Novel 4-(4-Substituted phenyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy/3,4-dimethoxy)-benzoyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one/thiones
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121746 - 19 Dec 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Novel 4-(4-substituted phenyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy/3,4-dimethoxy)-benzoyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one/thione derivatives (DHP 19) were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antitumor activity against cancer stem cells. The compounds were synthesized in one pot. Enaminones E1 and E2 were reacted with substituted benzaldehydes and urea/thiourea [...] Read more.
Novel 4-(4-substituted phenyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy/3,4-dimethoxy)-benzoyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one/thione derivatives (DHP 19) were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antitumor activity against cancer stem cells. The compounds were synthesized in one pot. Enaminones E1 and E2 were reacted with substituted benzaldehydes and urea/thiourea in the presence of glacial acetic acid. The synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis. The compounds were screened in vitro against colon cancer cell line (LOVO) colon cancer stem cells. Most of the compounds were found to be active against side population cancer stem cells with an inhibition of >50% at a 10 μM concentration. Compounds DHP-1, DHP-7 and DHP-9 were found to be inactive. Compound DHP-5 exhibited an in vitro anti-proliferative effect and arrested cancer cells at the Gap 2 phase (G2) checkpoint and demonstrated an inhibitory effect on tumor growth for a LOVO xenograft in a nude mouse experiment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The HK2 Dependent “Warburg Effect” and Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation in Cancer: Targets for Effective Therapy with 3-Bromopyruvate
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121730 - 15 Dec 2016
Cited by 50
Abstract
This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the metabolism of cancer cells, especially with respect to the “Warburg” and “Crabtree” effects. This work also summarizes two key discoveries, one of which relates to hexokinase-2 (HK2), a major player in both the [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the metabolism of cancer cells, especially with respect to the “Warburg” and “Crabtree” effects. This work also summarizes two key discoveries, one of which relates to hexokinase-2 (HK2), a major player in both the “Warburg effect” and cancer cell immortalization. The second discovery relates to the finding that cancer cells, unlike normal cells, derive as much as 60% of their ATP from glycolysis via the “Warburg effect”, and the remaining 40% is derived from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Also described are selected anticancer agents which generally act as strong energy blockers inside cancer cells. Among them, much attention has focused on 3-bromopyruvate (3BP). This small alkylating compound targets both the “Warburg effect”, i.e., elevated glycolysis even in the presence oxygen, as well as mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells. Normal cells remain unharmed. 3BP rapidly kills cancer cells growing in tissue culture, eradicates tumors in animals, and prevents metastasis. In addition, properly formulated 3BP shows promise also as an effective anti-liver cancer agent in humans and is effective also toward cancers known as “multiple myeloma”. Finally, 3BP has been shown to significantly extend the life of a human patient for which no other options were available. Thus, it can be stated that 3BP is a very promising new anti-cancer agent in the process of undergoing clinical development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Primaquine-Cinnamic Acid Conjugates of the Amide and Acylsemicarbazide Type
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21121629 - 28 Nov 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ) motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3ak) or via a spacer (compounds 7ak) are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ [...] Read more.
In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ) motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3ak) or via a spacer (compounds 7ak) are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ and various CADs were connected by amide bonds and in the second series by acylsemicarbazide functional groups built from the PQ amino group, CONHNH spacer and the carbonyl group originating from the CADs. PQ-CAD amides 3ak were prepared by a simple one-step condensation reaction of PQ with a series of CAD chlorides (method A) or benzotriazolides 2 (method B). The synthesis of acylsemicarbazides 7ak included activation of PQ with benzotriazole, preparation of PQ-semicarbazide 6 and its condensation with CAD chlorides 4. All synthesized PQ-CAD conjugates were evaluated for their anticancer, antiviral and antioxidative activities. Almost all compounds from series 3 were selective towards the MCF-7 cell line and active at micromolar concentrations. The o-fluoro derivative 3h showed high activity against HeLa, MCF-7 and in particular against the SW 620 cell line, while acylsemicarbazide 7f with a benzodioxole ring and 7c, 7g and especially 7j with methoxy-, chloro- or trifluoromethyl-substituents in the para position showed high selectivity and high inhibitory activity against MCF-7 cell line at micromolar (7c, 7f, 7g) and nanomolar (7j) levels. Acylsemicarbazide derivatives with trifluoromethyl group(s) 7i, 7j and 7k showed specific activity against human coronavirus (229E) at concentrations which did not alter the normal cell morphology. The same compounds exerted the most potent reducing activity in the DPPH test, together with 7d and 7g, while methoxy (compounds 7ce), benzodioxole (7f), p-Cl (7g) and m-CF3 (7i) acylsemicarbazides and amide 3f presented the highest LP inhibition (83%–89%). The dimethoxy derivative 7d was the most potent LOX inhibitor (IC50 = 10 μΜ). The performed biological tests gave evidence of acylsemicarbazide functional group as superior binding group in PQ-CAD conjugates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transdermal Permeation and Anti-Inflammation Activities of Novel Sinomenine Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111520 - 17 Nov 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Sinomenine is extracted from Sinomenii caulis (a traditional Chinese medicine), and it is used as the active ingredient in rheumatic arthritis treatments. It has been used in clinical applications for decades. However, there are some disadvantages, including low activity in transdermal permeation and [...] Read more.
Sinomenine is extracted from Sinomenii caulis (a traditional Chinese medicine), and it is used as the active ingredient in rheumatic arthritis treatments. It has been used in clinical applications for decades. However, there are some disadvantages, including low activity in transdermal permeation and a high dosage being clinically required. To overcome these defects, sinomenine was used as a primer, and structural modification was performed. In our study, eight new compounds were screened out by transdermal permeation in vitro and anti-inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Compound 1a exhibited the most potent transdermal permeation and anti-inflammatory activity. Based on these results, further development of this compound may be warranted. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mitoxantrone-Surfactant Interactions: A Physicochemical Overview
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101356 - 13 Oct 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Mitoxantrone is a synthetic anticancer drug used clinically in the treatment of different types of cancer. It was developed as a doxorubicin analogue in a program to find drugs with improved antitumor activity and decreased cardiotoxicity compared with the anthracyclines. As the cell [...] Read more.
Mitoxantrone is a synthetic anticancer drug used clinically in the treatment of different types of cancer. It was developed as a doxorubicin analogue in a program to find drugs with improved antitumor activity and decreased cardiotoxicity compared with the anthracyclines. As the cell membrane is the first barrier encountered by anticancer drugs before reaching the DNA sites inside the cells and as surfactant micelles are known as simple model systems for biological membranes, the drugs-surfactant interaction has been the subject of great research interest. Further, quantitative understanding of the interactions of drugs with biomimicking structures like surfactant micelles may provide helpful information for the control of physicochemical properties and bioactivities of encapsulated drugs in order to design better delivery systems with possible biomedical applications. The present review describes the physicochemical aspects of the interactions between the anticancer drug mitoxantrone and different surfactants. Mitoxantrone-micelle binding constants, partitions coefficient of the drug between aqueous and micellar phases and the corresponding Gibbs free energy for the above processes, and the probable location of drug molecules in the micelles are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Autophagy by a Thioxanthone Decreases the Viability of Melanoma Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101343 - 10 Oct 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
(1) Background: Our previous studies unveiled the hit thioxanthone TXA1 as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (drug efflux pump) and of human tumor cells growth, namely of melanoma cells. Since TXA1 is structurally similar to lucanthone (an autophagy inhibitor and apoptosis inducer) and to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Our previous studies unveiled the hit thioxanthone TXA1 as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (drug efflux pump) and of human tumor cells growth, namely of melanoma cells. Since TXA1 is structurally similar to lucanthone (an autophagy inhibitor and apoptosis inducer) and to N10-substituted phenoxazines (isosteres of thioxanthones, and autophagy inducers), this study aimed at further assessing its cytotoxic mechanism and evaluating its potential as an autophagy modulator in A375-C5 melanoma cells; (2) Methods: Flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) for cell cycle profile analysis; Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI labeling and Western blot for apoptosis analysis were conducted. A pharmacophore approach was used for mapping TXA1 onto pharmacophores for autophagy induction. Autophagy analyses included transmission electron microscopy for visualization of autophagic structures, fluorescence microscopy for observation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, pattern of LC3 expression in the cells and acridine orange staining, and Western blot for autophagic proteins expression; (3) Results: TXA1 induced autophagy of melanoma cells at the GI50 concentration (3.6 μM) and apoptosis at twice that concentration. Following treatment with TXA1, autophagic structures were observed, together with the accumulation of autophagosomes and the formation of autophagolysosomes. An increase in LC3-II levels was also observed, which was reverted by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (an early stage autophagy-inhibitor) but further increased by E-64d/pepstatin (late-stage autophagy inhibitors). Finally, 3-MA also reverted the effect of TXA1 in cellular viability; (4) Conclusion: TXA1 decreases the viability of melanoma cells by modulation of autophagy and may, therefore, serve as a lead compound for the development of autophagy modulators with antitumor activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Cancer Effect of Quercetin in Xenograft Models with EBV-Associated Human Gastric Carcinoma
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101286 - 26 Sep 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Licorice extracts have been widely used in herbal and folk medications. Glycyrrhiza contains diverse range of biological compounds including triterpenes (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, licoricidin, isoliquiritigenin). The flavonoids in licorice are known to have strong anti-cancer activities. Quercetin, [...] Read more.
Licorice extracts have been widely used in herbal and folk medications. Glycyrrhiza contains diverse range of biological compounds including triterpenes (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, licoricidin, isoliquiritigenin). The flavonoids in licorice are known to have strong anti-cancer activities. Quercetin, the most abundant flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can lead to serious malignancies, such as, Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease and gastric carcinoma(GC), and (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) EBVaGC is one of the most common EBV-associated cancers. In this study, the authors first examined the anti-cancer effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin in vivo xenograft animal models implanted with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma (SNU719) or EBV(−) human gastric carcinoma (MKN74), and then explored the molecular mechanisms responsible for their anti-cancer activities. The results obtained showed that anti-cancer effect of quercetin was greater than isoliquiritigenin in mice injected with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma (SNU719) cells. On the other hand, quercetin and isoliquiritigenin had similar anti-cancer effects in mice injected with EBV(−) human gastric carcinoma (MKN74) cells. Interestingly, quercetin inhibited EBV viral protein expressions, including EBNA-1 and LMP-2 proteins in tumor tissues from mice injected with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma. Quercetin more effectively induced p53-dependent apoptosis than isoliquiritigenin in EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma, and this induction was correlated with increased expressions of the cleaved forms of caspase-3, -9, and Parp. In EBV(−)human gastric carcinoma (MKN74), both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induced the expressions of p53, Bax, and Puma and the cleaved forms of caspase-3 and -9 and Parp at similar levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21081088 - 20 Aug 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying [...] Read more.
The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20–30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA–Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA–Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Molecules Containing a 7-Chloro-4-aminoquinoline Nucleus and a Substituted 2-Pyrazoline with Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21080969 - 27 Jul 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Twenty-four new hybrid analogues (1538) containing 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline and 2-pyrazoline N-heterocyclic fragments were synthesized. Twelve of the new compounds were evaluated against 58 human cancer cell lines by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 25, 30, 31 [...] Read more.
Twenty-four new hybrid analogues (1538) containing 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline and 2-pyrazoline N-heterocyclic fragments were synthesized. Twelve of the new compounds were evaluated against 58 human cancer cell lines by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 25, 30, 31, 36, and 37 showed significant cytostatic activity, with the most outstanding GI50 values ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 µM. The hybrid compounds (1538) were also evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. From the obtained results some structure–activity relationships were outlined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070916 - 14 Jul 2016
Cited by 27
Abstract
Identification of the novel (E)-N′-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 1926 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones [...] Read more.
Identification of the novel (E)-N′-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 1926 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27kip1 cell cycle regulating protein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pyridine and p-Nitrophenyl Oxime Esters with Possible Photochemotherapeutic Activity: Synthesis, DNA Photocleavage and DNA Binding Studies
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070864 - 30 Jun 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
Compared to standard treatments for various diseases, photochemotherapy and photo-dynamic therapy are less invasive approaches, in which DNA photocleavers represent promising tools for novel “on demand” chemotherapeutics. A series of p-nitrobenzoyl and p-pyridoyl ester conjugated aldoximes, amidoximes and ethanone oximes were [...] Read more.
Compared to standard treatments for various diseases, photochemotherapy and photo-dynamic therapy are less invasive approaches, in which DNA photocleavers represent promising tools for novel “on demand” chemotherapeutics. A series of p-nitrobenzoyl and p-pyridoyl ester conjugated aldoximes, amidoximes and ethanone oximes were subjected to UV irradiation at 312 nm with supercoiled circular plasmid DNA. The compounds which possessed appropriate properties were additionally subjected to UVA irradiation at 365 nm. The ability of most of the compounds to photocleave DNA was high at 312 nm, whereas higher concentrations were required at 365 nm as a result of their lower UV absorption. The affinity of selected compounds to calf-thymus (CT) DNA was studied by UV spectroscopy, viscosity experiments and competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) revealing that all compounds interacted with CT DNA. The fluorescence emission spectra of the pre-treated EB-DNA exhibited a moderate to significant quenching in the presence of the compounds indicating the binding of the compounds to CT DNA via intercalation as concluded also by DNA-viscosity experiments. For the oxime esters the DNA photocleavage and affinity studies aimed to clarify the role of the oxime nature (aldoxime, ketoxime, amidoxime) and the role of the pyridine and p-nitrophenyl moieties both as oxime substituents and ester conjugates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel 5-Substituted 2-(Aylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamides: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, Anticancer Activity, Apoptosis-Inducing Activity and Metabolic Stability
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21060808 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
A series of novel 5-substituted 2-(arylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide derivatives 2760 have been synthesized by the reaction of aminoguanidines with an appropriate phenylglyoxal hydrate in glacial acetic acid. A majority of the compounds showed cytotoxic activity toward the human cancer cell [...] Read more.
A series of novel 5-substituted 2-(arylmethylthio)-4-chloro-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide derivatives 2760 have been synthesized by the reaction of aminoguanidines with an appropriate phenylglyoxal hydrate in glacial acetic acid. A majority of the compounds showed cytotoxic activity toward the human cancer cell lines HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7, with IC50 values below 100 μM. It was found that for the analogues 3638 the naphthyl moiety contributed significantly to the anticancer activity. Cytometric analysis of translocation of phosphatidylserine as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle revealed that the most active compounds 37 (HCT-116 and HeLa) and 46 (MCF-7) inhibited the proliferation of cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells. Apoptotic-like, dose dependent changes in morphology of cell lines were also noticed after treatment with 37 and 46. Moreover, triazines 37 and 46 induced caspase activity in the HCT-116, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Selected compounds were tested for metabolic stability in the presence of pooled human liver microsomes and NADPH, both R2 and Ar = 4-CF3-C6H4 moiety in 2-(R2-methylthio)-N-(5-aryl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamides simultaneously increased metabolic stability. The results pointed to 37 as a hit compound with a good cytotoxicity against HCT-116 (IC50 = 36 μM), HeLa (IC50 = 34 μM) cell lines, apoptosis-inducing activity and moderate metabolic stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discovery of Novel Allopurinol Derivatives with Anticancer Activity and Attenuated Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21060771 - 20 Jun 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
A series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives related to allopurinol has been synthesized and evaluated for its cytotoxicity against a panel of three cancer cell lines as well as its xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activities. Among them, compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 [...] Read more.
A series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives related to allopurinol has been synthesized and evaluated for its cytotoxicity against a panel of three cancer cell lines as well as its xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activities. Among them, compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 25.5 and 35.2 μM against human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, BEL-7402 and SMMC-7221, respectively. The anticancer activity of 4 was comparable to that of Tanespimycin (17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin, 17-AAG) that inhibited the growth of BEL-7402 and SMMC-7221 cells at IC50 values of 12.4 and 9.85 μM, respectively. However, unlike allopurinol, which is also a strong inhibitor of XOD, compound 4 is a much weaker XOD inhibitor, suggesting that the anticancer activities of the allopurinol derivatives may not be associated with XOD inhibition. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of 4 toward normal cells is significantly lower than that of 17-AAG, making 4 a promising lead compound for further optimization of structure-activity relationships that may lead to anticancer agents of clinical utility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Biphenylurea Derivatives Containing Indolin-2-one Moieties
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21060762 - 10 Jun 2016
Cited by 21
Abstract
In our endeavor towards the development of potent anticancer agents, two different sets of biphenylurea-indolinone conjugates, 5as and 8a,b were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was examined in two human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 [...] Read more.
In our endeavor towards the development of potent anticancer agents, two different sets of biphenylurea-indolinone conjugates, 5as and 8a,b were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was examined in two human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 breast cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cells using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay. In particular, the MCF-7 cancer cell line was more susceptible to the synthesized compounds. Compound 5o (IC50 = 1.04 ± 0.10 μM) emerged as the most active member in this study against MCF-7, with 7-fold increased activity compared to the reference drug, doxorubicin (IC50 = 7.30 ± 0.84 μM). Compounds 5l, 5q and 8b also exhibited superior cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 1.93 ± 0.17, 3.87 ± 0.31 and 4.66 ± 0.42 μM, respectively. All of the tested compounds were filtered according to the Lipinski and Veber rules and all of them passed the filters. Additionally, several ADME descriptors for the synthesized compounds 5as and 8a,b were predicted via a theoretical kinetic study performed using the Discovery Studio 2.5 software. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole Derivates as Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050653 - 19 May 2016
Cited by 29
Abstract
A series of novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (SK-N-SH, EC-109 and MGC-803). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all the cancer cell lines selected. Particularly, [...] Read more.
A series of novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (SK-N-SH, EC-109 and MGC-803). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all the cancer cell lines selected. Particularly, compound I-21 showed the most excellent antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.52 μM against SK-N-SH cancer cells. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound I-21 induced morphological changes of SK-N-SH cancer cells possibly by inducing apoptosis. Novel chalcone-1,2,3-triazole-azole derivatives in this work might be a series of promising lead compounds to develop anticancer agents for treating neuroblastoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Biological Testing of Novel Glucosylated Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050620 - 11 May 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant component of green tea catechins and has strong physiological activities. In this study, two novel EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2) were chemoselectively synthesized by a chemical modification strategy. Each of these EGCG glycosides underwent structure identification, [...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant component of green tea catechins and has strong physiological activities. In this study, two novel EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2) were chemoselectively synthesized by a chemical modification strategy. Each of these EGCG glycosides underwent structure identification, and the structures were assigned as follows: epigallocatechin gallate-4′′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (EGCG-G1, 2) and epigallocatechin gallate-4′,4′′-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (EGCG-G2, 3). The EGCG glycosides were evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against two human breast cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assays. The inhibition rate of EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2) is not obvious. The EGCG glycosides are more stable than EGCG in aqueous solutions, but exhibited decreasing antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EGCG > EGCG-G2 > EGCG-G1). Additionally, the EGCG glycosides exhibited increased water solubility: EGCG-G2 and EGCG-G1 were 15 and 31 times as soluble EGCG, respectively. The EGCG glycosides appear to be useful, and further studies regarding their biological activity are in progress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel N-Substituted 2-(2-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-Oxoacetamide Derivatives: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050530 - 05 May 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, a series of novel N-substituted 2-(2-(adamantan-1-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetamide derivatives were synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxicity in human cell lines including Hela (cervical cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer ) and HepG2 (liver cancer). Several compounds were found to have potent [...] Read more.
In this study, a series of novel N-substituted 2-(2-(adamantan-1-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetamide derivatives were synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxicity in human cell lines including Hela (cervical cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer ) and HepG2 (liver cancer). Several compounds were found to have potent anti-proliferative activity against those human cancer cell lines and compound 5r showed the most potent biological activity against HepG2 cells with an IC50 value of 10.56 ± 1.14 μΜ. In addition, bioassays showed that compound 5r induced time-dependent and dose-dependent cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and also induced a dose-dependent increase in caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity, but had little effect on caspase-9 protease activity in HepG2 cells. These results provide evidence that 5r-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cell is caspase-8-dependent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Delivery of Gemcitabine Prodrugs Employing Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040522 - 21 Apr 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were studied as vehicles for the delivery of the antitumoral drug gemcitabine (GEM) and of its 4-(N)-acyl derivatives, (4-(N)-valeroyl-(C5GEM), 4-(N)-lauroyl-(C12GEM) and 4-(N)-stearoyl-gemcitabine (C18GEM)). The loading of the GEM [...] Read more.
In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were studied as vehicles for the delivery of the antitumoral drug gemcitabine (GEM) and of its 4-(N)-acyl derivatives, (4-(N)-valeroyl-(C5GEM), 4-(N)-lauroyl-(C12GEM) and 4-(N)-stearoyl-gemcitabine (C18GEM)). The loading of the GEM lipophilic prodrugs on MSNs was explored with the aim to obtain both a physical and a chemical protection of GEM from rapid plasmatic metabolization. For this purpose, MSNs as such or with grafted aminopropyl and carboxyethyl groups were prepared and characterized. Then, their different drug loading capacity in relation to the nature of the functional group was evaluated. In our experimental conditions, GEM was not loaded in any MSNs, while C12GEM was the most efficiently encapsulated and employed for further evaluation. The results showed that loading capacity increased with the presence of functional groups on the nanoparticles; similarly, the presence of functional groups on MSNs’ surface influenced the drug release profile. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the different preparations was evaluated and data showed that C12GEM loaded MSNs are less cytotoxic than the free drug with an activity that increased with the incubating time, indicating that all these systems are able to release the drug in a controlled manner. Altogether, the results demonstrate that these MSNs could be an interesting system for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antitumor Evaluation of Novel 5-Hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040516 - 20 Apr 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
A series of novel 5-hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives bearing natural product substructures has been successfully synthesized and their antitumor activity studied. These newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution mass spectral data, then [...] Read more.
A series of novel 5-hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives bearing natural product substructures has been successfully synthesized and their antitumor activity studied. These newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution mass spectral data, then screened as antitumor agents against the A549, HCC1937, and MDA-MB-468 human tumor cell lines using MTT cell proliferation assays. The results show that some of these compounds can effectively inhibit the growth of these cancerous cells, with compound 5b being the best one (IC50 = 2.6 μM). Flow cytometry data revealed that compound 5b induced apoptosis of HCC1937 cells with increased solution concentration. The structure and activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds is summarized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In-Vitro Anticancer Evaluation of Some Novel Thioureido-Benzensulfonamide Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040409 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
A novel series of sulfonamide derivatives (14 compounds) bearing thiourea moieties were efficiently synthesized and evaluated for their possible in vitro anticancer activity against four human tumor cell lines. The results indicated that compound 6 was the most potent, showing effectiveness on all [...] Read more.
A novel series of sulfonamide derivatives (14 compounds) bearing thiourea moieties were efficiently synthesized and evaluated for their possible in vitro anticancer activity against four human tumor cell lines. The results indicated that compound 6 was the most potent, showing effectiveness on all the tested cell lines. Compounds 7 and 10 also showed promising results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anticancer Effects of Sinulariolide-Conjugated Hyaluronan Nanoparticles on Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21030297 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Lung cancer is one of the most clinically challenging malignant diseases worldwide. Sinulariolide (SNL), extracted from the farmed coral species Sinularia flexibilis, has been used for suppressing malignant cells. For developing anticancer therapeutic agents, we aimed to find an alternative for non-small [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is one of the most clinically challenging malignant diseases worldwide. Sinulariolide (SNL), extracted from the farmed coral species Sinularia flexibilis, has been used for suppressing malignant cells. For developing anticancer therapeutic agents, we aimed to find an alternative for non-small cell lung cancer treatment by using SNL as the target drug. We investigated the SNL bioactivity on A549 lung cancer cells by conjugating SNL with hyaluronan nanoparticles to form HA/SNL aggregates by using a high-voltage electrostatic field system. SNL was toxic on A549 cells with an IC50 of 75 µg/mL. The anticancer effects of HA/SNL aggregates were assessed through cell viability assay, apoptosis assays, cell cycle analyses, and western blotting. The size of HA/SNL aggregates was approximately 33–77 nm in diameter with a thin continuous layer after aggregating numerous HA nanoparticles. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the HA/SNL aggregate-induced apoptosis was more effective at a lower SNL dose of 25 µg/mL than pure SNL. Western blotting indicated that caspases-3, -8, and -9 and Bcl-xL and Bax played crucial roles in the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. In summary, HA/SNL aggregates exerted stronger anticancer effects on A549 cells than did pure SNL via mitochondria-related pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Two Novel Platinum(II) Complexes Based on the Ligands of Dipicolyamine Bisphosphonate Esters
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21030255 - 24 Feb 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Two new platinum(II)-based complexes bearing a bone-targeting group were synthesized and characterized. They both have excellent affinity for hydroxyapatite (HA), which is abundant in human bone tissues. Their antitumor activities against five human cancer cell lines (U2OS, A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2) were [...] Read more.
Two new platinum(II)-based complexes bearing a bone-targeting group were synthesized and characterized. They both have excellent affinity for hydroxyapatite (HA), which is abundant in human bone tissues. Their antitumor activities against five human cancer cell lines (U2OS, A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2) were evaluated and compared with cisplatin (CDDP). Though the antitumor efficacies of new complexes are lower than that of CDDP, they show higher selectivity against the HepG2 hepatoma cell line than the L02 normal liver cell line. Morphology studies exhibited typical characteristics of cell apoptosis and the cell cycle distribution analysis indicated that the complexes can inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, a similar mechanism of action to CDDP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020199 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 17
Abstract
A total of forty novel glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. The cytotoxic activity of the novel compounds was tested against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro by the MTT method. The evaluation results revealed that, in [...] Read more.
A total of forty novel glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. The cytotoxic activity of the novel compounds was tested against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro by the MTT method. The evaluation results revealed that, in comparison with GA, compound 42 shows the most promising anticancer activity (IC50 1.88 ± 0.20 and 1.37 ± 0.18 µM for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively) and merits further exploration as a new anticancer agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a MCoTI-Based Cyclotide with Angiotensin (1-7)-Like Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020152 - 26 Jan 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
We report for the first time the design and synthesis of a novel cyclotide able to activate the unique receptor of angiotensin (1-7) (AT1-7), the MAS1 receptor. This was accomplished by grafting an AT1-7 peptide analog onto loop 6 of cyclotide MCoTI-I using [...] Read more.
We report for the first time the design and synthesis of a novel cyclotide able to activate the unique receptor of angiotensin (1-7) (AT1-7), the MAS1 receptor. This was accomplished by grafting an AT1-7 peptide analog onto loop 6 of cyclotide MCoTI-I using isopeptide bonds to preserve the α-amino and C-terminal carboxylate groups of AT1-7, which are required for activity. The resulting cyclotide construct was able to adopt a cyclotide-like conformation and showed similar activity to that of AT1-7. This cyclotide also showed high stability in human serum thereby providing a promising lead compound for the design of a novel type of peptide-based in the treatment of cancer and myocardial infarction. Full article
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2015

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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Bioconjugate Sesterterpenoids with Phospholipids and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010047 - 30 Dec 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
A series of sesterterpenoid bioconjugates with phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been synthesized for biological activity testing as antiproliferative agents in several cancer cell lines. Different substitution analogues of the original lipidic ether edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) [...] Read more.
A series of sesterterpenoid bioconjugates with phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been synthesized for biological activity testing as antiproliferative agents in several cancer cell lines. Different substitution analogues of the original lipidic ether edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) are obtained varying the sesterterpenoid in position 1 or 2 of the glycerol or a phosphocholine or PUFA unit in position 3. Simple bioconjugates of sesterterpenoids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been obtained too. All synthetic derivatives were tested against the human tumour cell lines HeLa (cervix) and MCF-7 (breast). Some compounds showed good IC50 (0.3 and 0.2 μM) values against these cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Novel Pyrido[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazino[3,2-c][1,2,4]thiadiazine 6,6-dioxide Derivatives with Potential Anticancer Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010041 - 29 Dec 2015
Cited by 4
Abstract
A series of novel 3-/2,3-substituted pyrido[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazino[3,2-c][1,2,4]thiadiazine 6,6-dioxides 428 have been synthesized by the reaction of 3-amino-2-(4-thioxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-3-yl-sulfonyl)guanidine with either 2-oxoalkanoic acids and its esters, or phenylglyoxylic hydrates in glacial acetic acid. Some of them exhibited reasonable or moderate [...] Read more.
A series of novel 3-/2,3-substituted pyrido[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazino[3,2-c][1,2,4]thiadiazine 6,6-dioxides 428 have been synthesized by the reaction of 3-amino-2-(4-thioxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-3-yl-sulfonyl)guanidine with either 2-oxoalkanoic acids and its esters, or phenylglyoxylic hydrates in glacial acetic acid. Some of them exhibited reasonable or moderate anticancer activity toward human cancer cell lines, HCT-116, MCF-7 and HeLa. The structure of this novel heterocyclic ring system was confirmed by 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data including COSY, ROESY and HMBC, elemental analyses and MS spectrometry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Dietary Polyphenols
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22578-22620; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219864 - 17 Dec 2015
Cited by 38
Abstract
The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro [...] Read more.
The review will discuss in detail the effects of polyphenols on breast cancer, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the applications of these natural compounds. First, we focus on the characterization of the main classes of polyphenols and then on in vitro and in vivo experiments carried out in breast cancer models. Since the therapeutic effects of the administration of a single type of polyphenol might be limited because of the reduced bioavailability of these drugs, investigations on combination of several polyphenols or polyphenols with conventional therapy will also be discussed. In addition, we present recent data focusing on clinical trials with polyphenols and new approaches with nanoparticles in breast cancer. Besides the clinical and translational findings this review systematically summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of polyphenols, which are related to apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, plasma membrane receptors, signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. At the same time the effects of polyphenols on primary tumor, metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer are discussed. The increasing enthusiasm regarding the combination of polyphenols and conventional therapy in breast cancer might lead to additional efforts to motivate further research in this field. Full article
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