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Special Issue "Anthocyanins: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Takanori Tsuda

Chubu University, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kasugai, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: anthocyanins; curcumin; diabetes; obesity; glucagon-like peptide-1; beige cells; brown-like adipocytes
Guest Editor
Dr. Wilhelmina Kalt

retired
E-Mail
Interests: anthocyanins; berries; blueberries; bioavailability; bioactivity; flavonoids; health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

“Anthocyanins”, belonging to the group flavonoids, are plant pigments that may appear to be red or purple and are present in the form of glycosides. Efforts have been made to identify genes for anthocyanin synthesis in plants and elucidate the regulatory pathways for gene expression. In addition, stabilization and extraction processes of anthocyanins from plant sources have been developed to use in food pigments. Despite research progress in plant biochemistry and the utilization of food pigments, the role of anthocyanins as a functional food factor remains relatively less established than other flavonoids. However, anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich berries’ health-related functions have been conducted such as anti-arteriosclerosis, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, brain function-enhancing, and the improvement of visual and vascular functions in the last 20 years. These favorable functions are not explained by their antioxidant properties alone, and thus anthocyanins are received as functional food factors with “beyond antioxidant” functions. Also, resent studies that have been shown metabolites of anthocyanins may have a significant impact on various health benefits.

In this Special Issue, resent research advances in health benefit studies in anthocyanins including anthocyanin-rich berries and related foods in cells, animals, and humans will be invited. Studies on molecular mechanisms, absorption and metabolism, effects on intestinal flora, and epidemiology are also welcome.

Prof. Takanori Tsuda
Dr. Wilhelmina Kalt
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Anthocyanins
  • Berries
  • Flavonoids
  • Absorption
  • Metabolism
  • Intestinal flora
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Brain function
  • Athorosclerosis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Delphinidin-3-O-β-Glucoside in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and Primary White Adipocytes
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101848
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
PDF Full-text (2645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Delphinidin-3-O-β-glucoside (D3G) is a health-promoting anthocyanin whose anti-obesity activity has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We examined the effects of D3G on adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary white adipocytes using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. D3G [...] Read more.
Delphinidin-3-O-β-glucoside (D3G) is a health-promoting anthocyanin whose anti-obesity activity has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We examined the effects of D3G on adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary white adipocytes using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. D3G significantly inhibited the accumulation of lipids in a dose-dependent manner without displaying cytotoxicity. In the 3T3-L1 adipocytes, D3G downregulated the expression of key adipogenic and lipogenic markers, which are known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Moreover, the relative protein expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were increased, alongside reduced lipid levels and the presence of several small lipid droplets. Furthermore, D3G increased the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which suggests that D3G may play a role in AMPK and ACC activation in adipocytes. Our data indicate that D3G attenuates adipogenesis and promotes lipid metabolism by activating AMPK-mediated signaling, and, hence, could have a therapeutic role in the management and treatment of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Anthocyanin Encapsulated by Ferulic Acid-Grafted-Maltodextrin (FA-g-MD) Microcapsules Potentially Improved its Free Radical Scavenging Capabilities Against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081596
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
PDF Full-text (5229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity and release behavior of anthocyanin (ANC) loaded within FA-g-MD wall (ANC-FA-g-MD microcapsule) in vitro. The microencapsulation of ANC was prepared by spray drying and displayed a biphasic release profile. The combination of ANC and FA-g-MD [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity and release behavior of anthocyanin (ANC) loaded within FA-g-MD wall (ANC-FA-g-MD microcapsule) in vitro. The microencapsulation of ANC was prepared by spray drying and displayed a biphasic release profile. The combination of ANC and FA-g-MD (0.0625–1 mg/mL) showed a higher antioxidant activity than that of both individuals. A possible intermolecular interaction between ANC and FA-g-MD was studied by UV-vis spectra. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, and protein expression of quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), glutathione reductase (GSR) and γ-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC) were measured through human colon cancer cells (HT-29). After a 24-hour incubation of the HT-29, the combinations (0–60 μg/mL) exhibited a high potential to diminish the ROS level. And the distinct upregulated expressions of GCLC and NQO1 of HT-29 were detected after treatment with combinations compared to those of single ones. These results suggested that the ANC-FA-g-MD microcapsules exerts enhanced antioxidant effect with capability of the modulation of GCLC and NQO1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Blackcurrant Extract with Phytoestrogen Activity Alleviates Hair Loss in Ovariectomized Rats
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071272
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
PDF Full-text (4658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ancocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) has phytoestrogen activity; however, its effect on hair follicles is unknown. Additionally, hair loss is known to occur during menopause in women owing to decreased estrogen secretion. This study examined whether BCE alleviated female pattern hair loss using a [...] Read more.
Ancocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) has phytoestrogen activity; however, its effect on hair follicles is unknown. Additionally, hair loss is known to occur during menopause in women owing to decreased estrogen secretion. This study examined whether BCE alleviated female pattern hair loss using a rat model. RNA was extracted and analyzed using a microarray and ingenuity pathway analysis. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that 1 μg/mL BCE altered many genes downstream of beta-estradiol in human hair dermal papilla cells. Additionally, the expression of the hair follicle stem cell marker keratin 19 was greatly enhanced. In a menopause model, ovariectomized rats were fed a diet containing 3% BCE for three months. An analysis of the number of hair shafts revealed that BCE increased the number of hairs by 0.5 hairs/follicular unit. Moreover, immunostaining revealed that the expression of Ki67 also increased by 19%. Furthermore, fluorescent immunostaining showed that the expression of other stem cell markers, including keratin 15, CD34, and keratin 19, was induced in rat hair follicular cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that BCE has phytoestrogen activity in hair follicles and contributes to the alleviation of hair loss in a menopausal model in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Phytoestrogenic Effects of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Expression in Human Endothelial Cells and Ovariectomized Rats
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071259
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
PDF Full-text (1518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived chemicals that are found in many foods and have estrogenic activity. We previously showed that blackcurrant extract (BCE) and anthocyanins have phytoestrogenic activity mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), and anthocyanins may improve vascular function. BCE contains high levels of anthocyanins, [...] Read more.
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived chemicals that are found in many foods and have estrogenic activity. We previously showed that blackcurrant extract (BCE) and anthocyanins have phytoestrogenic activity mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), and anthocyanins may improve vascular function. BCE contains high levels of anthocyanins, but their health-promoting effects are unclear. This study examined the effects of BCE on the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in human endothelial cells as key regulators in cardiovascular disease. The results showed that eNOS mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in BCE- or anthocyanin-treated human vascular endothelial cells but decreased in cells treated with fulvestrant, an ER antagonist. These results corresponded with NO levels, suggesting that BCE and anthocyanin may regulate NO synthesis via eNOS expression. Thus, the phytoestrogenic effects exerted by BCE via ERs influenced eNOS mRNA expression and NO synthesis. In vivo, we investigated whether anthocyanin-rich BCE upregulated eNOS protein expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a widely used animal model of menopause. Our results showed that anthocyanin-rich BCE significantly upregulated eNOS mRNA levels and NO synthesis through phytoestrogenic activity and therefore promoted blood vessel health in OVX rats as a postmenopausal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Name: Associate professor Hayato Maeda

Affiliation: Hirosaki University, Japan

 

Name: Professor Shigenori Kumazawa

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Japan

 

Name: Professor Hitoshi Matsumoto

Affiliation: Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Sciences, Japan

 

Name: Associate Professor Colin Kay, PhD

Affiliation: North Carolina State University, USA

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