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Phytoestrogenic Effects of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Expression in Human Endothelial Cells and Ovariectomized Rats

1
Department of Bioscience and Laboratory Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan
2
Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takanori Tsuda and Wilhelmina Kalt
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071259
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies)
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived chemicals that are found in many foods and have estrogenic activity. We previously showed that blackcurrant extract (BCE) and anthocyanins have phytoestrogenic activity mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), and anthocyanins may improve vascular function. BCE contains high levels of anthocyanins, but their health-promoting effects are unclear. This study examined the effects of BCE on the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in human endothelial cells as key regulators in cardiovascular disease. The results showed that eNOS mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in BCE- or anthocyanin-treated human vascular endothelial cells but decreased in cells treated with fulvestrant, an ER antagonist. These results corresponded with NO levels, suggesting that BCE and anthocyanin may regulate NO synthesis via eNOS expression. Thus, the phytoestrogenic effects exerted by BCE via ERs influenced eNOS mRNA expression and NO synthesis. In vivo, we investigated whether anthocyanin-rich BCE upregulated eNOS protein expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a widely used animal model of menopause. Our results showed that anthocyanin-rich BCE significantly upregulated eNOS mRNA levels and NO synthesis through phytoestrogenic activity and therefore promoted blood vessel health in OVX rats as a postmenopausal model. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin; blackcurrant extract; endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS); phytoestrogen; vascular endothelial cells anthocyanin; blackcurrant extract; endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS); phytoestrogen; vascular endothelial cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Horie, K.; Nanashima, N.; Maeda, H. Phytoestrogenic Effects of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Expression in Human Endothelial Cells and Ovariectomized Rats. Molecules 2019, 24, 1259. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071259

AMA Style

Horie K, Nanashima N, Maeda H. Phytoestrogenic Effects of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Expression in Human Endothelial Cells and Ovariectomized Rats. Molecules. 2019; 24(7):1259. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Horie, Kayo, Naoki Nanashima, and Hayato Maeda. 2019. "Phytoestrogenic Effects of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Expression in Human Endothelial Cells and Ovariectomized Rats" Molecules 24, no. 7: 1259. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071259

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