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Open AccessReview

Therapeutic Effects of Anthocyanins for Vision and Eye Health

1
Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1 Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603, Japan
2
Functional Material Division, Meiji Food Materia Co., Ltd, 4–16, Kyobashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0031, Japan
3
Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1 Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takanori Tsuda and Wilhelmina Kalt
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3311; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183311
Received: 25 August 2019 / Revised: 7 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Recent Progress in Health Benefits Studies)
Anthocyanin (AC) is widely used as supplement of eye health in Europe and in East Asia. In this review, I describe AC effects to clarify the mechanism is important in order to understand the effects of AC on vision health. The bioavailability of AC is quite low but, reported as intact form and many kinds of metabolite. And AC passes through the blood-aqueous fluid barrier and blood-retinal barrier. In vitro study, AC had a relaxing effect on ciliary muscle which is important to treat both myopia and glaucoma. And AC stimulate the regeneration of rhodopsin in frog rod outer segment. Furthermore, AC could inhibit the axial length and ocular length elongation in a negative lens-induced chick myopia model. In addition, we summarized clinical studies of AC intake improved dark adaptation and transient myopic shift and the improvement on retinal blood circulation in normal tension glaucoma patients.
Keywords: anthocyanin; myopia; glaucoma; ciliary muscle; blood circulation anthocyanin; myopia; glaucoma; ciliary muscle; blood circulation
MDPI and ACS Style

Nomi, Y.; Iwasaki-Kurashige, K.; Matsumoto, H. Therapeutic Effects of Anthocyanins for Vision and Eye Health. Molecules 2019, 24, 3311.

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