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Special Issue "Biomolecular Catalysts"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioorganic Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Jose M. Palomo

Group of Chemical Biology and Biocatalysis,Departament of Biocatalysis, Institute of Catalysis (ICP-CSIC), Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, Campus UAM, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Nanocatalysis, Nanobiotechnology, Nanoparticles, Glycochemistry, Protein Chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chemists have long been inspired by the exquisite selectivity and efficiency of biomolecular catalysts. The development of new catalysts with improved properties, new activities and selectivities making processes economically and environmentally sustainable are mandatory in our future. The application of biomolecules, such as polymers, peptides or proteins to create interesting networks for metal complexes to create nanostructurated artificial catalysts are extremely important in the development of chemical process such as synthetic molecules, sustainable fuels, medical biosensors, etc. Additionally, the engineering, design and creation of nanoreactors using biomolecules are of special interest to improving properties of extremely sensitive enzymes.

This Special Issue will be focused on innovative and novel research in the creation and application of biomolecular catalysts.

Prof. Jose M. Palomo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • enzymes
  • cells
  • microorganisms
  • virus
  • metalloenzymes
  • artificial enzymes
  • peptides
  • polymers
  • biohybrids
  • bionanomaterials
  • directed evolution
  • computational chemistry
  • bioorganic chemistry
  • chemical biology
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • homogeneous catalysis
  • biocatalysis
  • nanocatalysis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Isolation, Characterisation, and Lipase Production of a Cold-Adapted Bacterial Strain Pseudomonas sp. LSK25 Isolated from Signy Island, Antarctica
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040715
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, studies on psychrophilic lipases have been an emerging area of research in the field of enzymology. This study focuses on bacterial strains isolated from anthropogenically-influenced soil samples collected around Signy Island Research Station (South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctic). Limited information [...] Read more.
In recent years, studies on psychrophilic lipases have been an emerging area of research in the field of enzymology. This study focuses on bacterial strains isolated from anthropogenically-influenced soil samples collected around Signy Island Research Station (South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctic). Limited information on lipase activities from bacteria isolated from Signy station is currently available. The presence of lipase genes was determined using real time quantification PCR (qPCR) in samples obtained from three different locations on Signy Island. Twenty strains from the location with highest lipase gene detection were screened for lipolytic activities at a temperature of 4 °C, and from this one strain was selected for further examination based on the highest enzymatic activities obtained. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence data of this strain showed the highest level of sequence similarity (98%) to a Pseudomonas sp. strain also isolated from Antarctica. In order to increase lipase production of this psychrophilic strain, optimisation of different parameters of physical and nutritional factors were investigated. Optimal production was obtained at 10 °C and pH 7.0, at 150 rev/min shaking rate over 36 h incubation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Environmental Factors on Ginsenoside Biosynthetic Enzyme Gene Expression and Saponin Abundance
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is one of the most important medicinal plants in Northeast China, and ginsenosides are the main active ingredients found in medicinal ginseng. The biosynthesis of ginsenosides is regulated by environmental factors and the expression of key enzyme genes. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is one of the most important medicinal plants in Northeast China, and ginsenosides are the main active ingredients found in medicinal ginseng. The biosynthesis of ginsenosides is regulated by environmental factors and the expression of key enzyme genes. Therefore, in this experiment, ginseng in the leaf opened stage, the green fruit stage, the red fruit stage, and the root growth stage was used as the test material, and nine individual ginsenosides and total saponins (the sum of the individual saponins) were detected by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). There was a trend of synergistic increase and decrease, and saponin accumulation and transfer in different tissues. The expression of key enzyme genes in nine synthetic pathways was detected by real-time PCR, and the correlation between saponin content, gene expression, and ecological factors was analyzed. Correlation analysis showed that in root tissue, PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and soil water potential had a greater impact on ginsenoside accumulation, while in leaf tissue, temperature and relative humidity had a greater impact on ginsenoside accumulation. The results provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the relationship between ecological factors and genetic factors and their impact on the quality of medicinal materials. The results also have guiding significance for realizing the quality of medicinal materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Catalysts)
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Open AccessCommunication Production of Selenomethionine-Enriched Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 via Sodium Selenite Biocatalysis
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2860; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112860
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
Selenium is a trace element essential for human health that has received considerable attention due to its nutritional value. Selenium’s bioactivity and toxicity are closely related to its chemical form, and several studies have suggested that the organic form of selenium (i.e., selenomethionine) [...] Read more.
Selenium is a trace element essential for human health that has received considerable attention due to its nutritional value. Selenium’s bioactivity and toxicity are closely related to its chemical form, and several studies have suggested that the organic form of selenium (i.e., selenomethionine) is more bioavailable and less toxic than its inorganic form (i.e., sodium selenite). Probiotics, especially Bifidobacteriium and Lactobacillus spp., have received increasing attention in recent years, due to their intestinal microbial balancing effects and nutraceutical benefits. Recently, the bioconversion (a.k.a biotransformation) of various bioactive molecules (e.g., minerals, primary and secondary metabolites) using probiotics has been investigated to improve substrate biofunctional properties. However, there have been few reports of inorganic selenium conversion into its organic form using Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. Here we report that the biosynthesis of organic selenium was accomplished using the whole cell bioconversion of sodium selenite under controlled Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 culture conditions. The total amount of organic and inorganic selenium was quantified using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The selenium species were separated via anion-exchange chromatography and analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our findings indicated that the maximum level of organic selenium was 207.5 µg/g in selenium-enriched B. bifidum BGN4. Selenomethionine was the main organic selenium in selenium-enriched B. bifidum BGN4 (169.6 µg/g). Considering that B. bifidum BGN4 is a commercial probiotic strain used in the functional food industry with clinically proven beneficial effects, selenium-enriched B. bifidum BGN4 has the potential to provide dual healthy functions as a daily supplement of selenium and regulator of intestinal bacteria. This is the first report on the production of organic selenium using B. bifidum spp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Glycosylation of Methoxylated Flavonoids in the Cultures of Isaria fumosorosea KCH J2
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2578; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102578
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Flavonoids are widely described plant secondary metabolites with high and diverse pro-health properties. In nature, they occur mostly in the form of glycosides. Our research showed that an excellent way to obtain the sugar derivatives of flavonoids is through biotransformations with the use [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are widely described plant secondary metabolites with high and diverse pro-health properties. In nature, they occur mostly in the form of glycosides. Our research showed that an excellent way to obtain the sugar derivatives of flavonoids is through biotransformations with the use of entomopathogenic filamentous fungi as biocatalysts. In the current paper, we described the biotransformations of five methoxylated flavonoid compounds (2′-methoxyflavanone, 3′-methoxyflavanone, 4′-methoxyflavanone, 6-methoxyflavanone, and 6-methoxyflavone) in cultures of Isaria fumosorosea KCH J2. As a result, we obtained twelve new flavonoid 4-O-methylglucopyranosides. The products were purified with methods that enabled the reduction of the consumption of organic solvents (preparative TLC and flash chromatography). The structures of the products were confirmed with spectroscopic methods (NMR: 1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY). The compounds obtained by us expand the library of available flavonoid derivatives and can be used in biological research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Ultra-Small Pd(0) Nanoparticles into a Designed Semisynthetic Lipase: An Efficient and Recyclable Heterogeneous Biohybrid Catalyst for the Heck Reaction under Mild Conditions
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092358
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
A novel heterogeneous enzyme-palladium (Pd) (0) nanoparticles (PdNPs) bionanohybrid has been synthesized by an efficient, green, and straightforward methodology. A designed Geobacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (GTL) variant genetically and then chemically modified by the introduction of a tailor-made cysteine-containing complementary peptide- was used as [...] Read more.
A novel heterogeneous enzyme-palladium (Pd) (0) nanoparticles (PdNPs) bionanohybrid has been synthesized by an efficient, green, and straightforward methodology. A designed Geobacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (GTL) variant genetically and then chemically modified by the introduction of a tailor-made cysteine-containing complementary peptide- was used as the stabilizing and reducing agent for the in situ formation of ultra-small PdNPs nanoparticles embedded on the protein structure. This bionanohybrid was an excellent catalyst in the synthesis of trans-ethyl cinnamate by Heck reaction at 65 °C. It showed the best catalytic performance in dimethylformamide (DMF) containing 10–25% of water as a solvent but was also able to catalyze the reaction in pure DMF or with a higher amount of water as co-solvent. The recyclability and stability were excellent, maintaining more than 90% of catalytic activity after five cycles of use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle New Triterpenoid from Novel Triterpenoid 15-O-Glycosylation on Ganoderic Acid A by Intestinal Bacteria of Zebrafish
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092345
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Functional bacteria that could biotransform triterpenoids may exist in the diverse microflora of fish intestines. Ganoderic acid A (GAA) is a major triterpenoid from the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum. In studying the microbial biotransformation of GAA, dozens of intestinal bacteria were isolated [...] Read more.
Functional bacteria that could biotransform triterpenoids may exist in the diverse microflora of fish intestines. Ganoderic acid A (GAA) is a major triterpenoid from the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum. In studying the microbial biotransformation of GAA, dozens of intestinal bacteria were isolated from the excreta of zebrafish. The bacteria’s ability to catalyze GAA were determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis. One positive strain, GA A07, was selected for functional studies. GA A07 was confirmed as Bacillus sp., based on the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. The biotransformed metabolite was purified with the preparative high-performance liquid chromatography method and identified as GAA-15-O-β-glucoside, based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The present study is the first to report the glycosylation of Ganoderma triterpenoids. Moreover, 15-O-glycosylation is a new microbial biotransformation of triterpenoids, and the biotransformed metabolite, GAA-15-O-β-glucoside, is a new compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Catalysts)
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