Special Issue "Medical Microdevices and Micromachines"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Roger Jagdish Narayan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, UNC and NC State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115, USA
Interests: laser-based fabrication of medical devices; nanostructured biomaterials; drug delivery; laser processing of nanostructured and microstructured biomaterials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Adrian Martinez-Rivas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
MICROSE group, Centro de Investigación en Computación (CIC), Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), 07738, Mexico city, Mexico
Tel. +52(55)5729 6000, ext.56606
Interests: Micro-nanobiosensors, bioMEMS, Labs-on-a-chip, organ-on-a-chip, nanoelectronics
Dr. Marco Ramírez Salinas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanoscience, Micro- and Nano-technology Network of the IPN, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738, Mexico City. Mexico
Tel. +52(55)5729 6000, ext.56524
Interests: MEMS sensor devices, biosensors, embeded systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Patients, physicians, and surgeons are expecting more dedicated devices for diagnosis and treatment of orthopedic, ophthalmic, dermatologic, vascular, urinary, neurological, and oncological medical conditions. For instance, recent efforts by researchers in academic, industry, and government involve creating nanostructured materials (less than 100 nm in size), structures for implantable devices or biosensors based on bioMEMS, drug delivery devices, and other medical devices. Recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for medical applications have occurred due to two forces. First, novel modeling, processing, and characterization methods enable the development of nanostructured materials, structures or devices. Second, nanostructured materials and small scale structures may provide unique medical and biological capabilities for interactions with small-scale bioelements; furthermore they could allow the integration of multiple functions and a reduction in cost.

In this issue, the use of nanostructured materials and small scale structures in implants and devices for orthopaedic, ophthalmic, dermatologic, vascular, urinary, oncological and neurological applications will be considered. Topics that are appropriate for this issue include (but are not limited to): (1) design processing, characterization, and modeling of nanostructured materials and small scale structures and devices, such as biosensors or bioMEMS; (2) biocompatibility and packaging issues; (3) applications and integration of nanostructured materials and small scale structures; and (4) medical implant and medical device design strategies.

Prof. Dr. Roger Jagdish Narayan
Dr. Adrian Martinez-Rivas
Dr. Marco Antonio Ramírez Salinas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Medical devices
  • BioMEMS
  • Nanostructured materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Micro-nanofabrication
  • Lithography
  • Thin films
  • Biocompatibility
  • Clinical translation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Sinusoidal Microchannel with Descending Curves for Varicose Veins Implantation
Micromachines 2018, 9(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9020059 - 31 Jan 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Approximately 26% of adult people, mostly females, are affected by varicose veins in old age. It is a common reason for distress, loss of efficiency, and worsening living conditions. Several traditional treatment techniques (sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy of large veins, laser surgeries and [...] Read more.
Approximately 26% of adult people, mostly females, are affected by varicose veins in old age. It is a common reason for distress, loss of efficiency, and worsening living conditions. Several traditional treatment techniques (sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy of large veins, laser surgeries and radiofrequency ablation, vein ligation and stripping, ambulatory phlebectomy, and endoscopic vein surgery) have failed to handle this disease effectively. Herein, authors have presented an alternative varicose vein implant method—the descending sinusoidal microchannel (DSMC). DSMC was simulated by Fuzzy logic MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS (ANSYS 18.2, perpetual license purchased by Ibadat Education Trust, The University of Lahore, Pakistan) with real and actual conditions. After simulations of DSMC, fabrication and testing were performed. The silver DSMC was manufactured by utilizing a micromachining procedure. The length, width, and depth of the silver substrate were 51 mm, 25 mm, and 1.1 mm, respectively. The measurements of the DSMC channel in the silver wafer substrate were 0.9 mm in width and 0.9 mm in depth. The three descending curves of the DSMC were 7 mm, 6 mm, and 5 mm in height. For pressure, actual conditions were carefully taken as 1.0 kPa to 1.5 kPa for varicose veins. For velocity, actual conditions were carefully taken as 0.02 m/s to 0.07 m/s for these veins. These are real and standard values used in simulations and experiments. At Reynolds number 323, the flow rate and velocity were determined as 1001.0 (0.1 nL/s), 11.4 cm/s and 1015.3 (0.1 nL/s), 12.19 cm/s by MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS simulations, respectively. The flow rate and velocity were determined to be 995.3 (0.1 nL/s) and 12.2 cm/s, respectively, at the same Reynolds number (323) in the experiment. Moreover, the Dean number was also calculated to observe Dean vortices. All simulated and experimental results were in close agreement. Consequently, DSMC can be implanted in varicose veins as a new treatment to preserve excellent blood flow in human legs from the original place to avoid tissue damage and other problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Acousto-Plasmonic Sensing Assisted by Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Bimetallic Au-Pt Nanoparticles
Micromachines 2017, 8(11), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8110321 - 28 Oct 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
A strong influence of mechanical action in nonlinear optical transmittance experiments with bimetallic nanoparticles integrated by gold and platinum was observed. The nanostructured samples were synthesized by a sol-gel method and contained in an ethanol suspension. UV-VIS spectroscopy evaluations, Transmission electron microscopy studies [...] Read more.
A strong influence of mechanical action in nonlinear optical transmittance experiments with bimetallic nanoparticles integrated by gold and platinum was observed. The nanostructured samples were synthesized by a sol-gel method and contained in an ethanol suspension. UV-VIS spectroscopy evaluations, Transmission electron microscopy studies and input-output laser experiments were characterized. A two-photon absorption effect was induced by nanosecond pulses at 532 nm wavelength with an important contribution from the plasmonic response of the nanomaterials. All-optical identification of acoustical waves was remarkably improved by optical nonlinearities. High sensitivity for instrumentation of mechano-optical signals sensing particular fluids was demonstrated by using a variable carbon dioxide incorporation to the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Real Time Monitoring of Children, and Adults with Mental Disabilities Using a Low-Cost Non-Invasive Electronic Device
Micromachines 2017, 8(10), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8100292 - 28 Sep 2017
Abstract
There are a growing number of small children—as well as adults—with mental disabilities (including elderly citizens with Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of age-related dementia) that are getting lost in rural and urban areas for various reasons. Establishing their location within the first [...] Read more.
There are a growing number of small children—as well as adults—with mental disabilities (including elderly citizens with Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of age-related dementia) that are getting lost in rural and urban areas for various reasons. Establishing their location within the first 72 h is crucial because lost people are exposed to all kinds of adverse conditions and in the case of the elderly, this is further aggravated if prescribed medication is needed. Herein we describe a non-invasive, low-cost electronic device that operates constantly, keeping track of time, the geographical location and the identification of the subject using it. The prototype was made using commercial low-cost electronic components. This electronic device shows high connectivity in open and closed areas and identifies the geographical location of a lost subject. We freely provide the software and technical diagrams of the prototypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation, Fabrication and Analysis of Silver Based Ascending Sinusoidal Microchannel (ASMC) for Implant of Varicose Veins
Micromachines 2017, 8(9), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8090278 - 14 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bioengineered veins can benefit humans needing bypass surgery, dialysis, and now, in the treatment of varicose veins. The implant of this vein in varicose veins has significant advantages over the conventional treatment methods. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), vein patch repair, pulmonary embolus, and [...] Read more.
Bioengineered veins can benefit humans needing bypass surgery, dialysis, and now, in the treatment of varicose veins. The implant of this vein in varicose veins has significant advantages over the conventional treatment methods. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), vein patch repair, pulmonary embolus, and tissue-damaging problems can be solved with this implant. Here, the authors have proposed biomedical microdevices as an alternative for varicose veins. MATLAB and ANSYS Fluent have been used for simulations of blood flow for bioengineered veins. The silver based microchannel has been fabricated by using a micromachining process. The dimensions of the silver substrates are 51 mm, 25 mm, and 1.1 mm, in length, width, and depth respectively. The dimensions of microchannels grooved in the substrates are 0.9 mm in width and depth. The boundary conditions for pressure and velocity were considered, from 1.0 kPa to 1.50 kPa, and 0.02 m/s to 0.07 m/s, respectively. These are the actual values of pressure and velocity in varicose veins. The flow rate of 5.843 (0.1 nL/s) and velocity of 5.843 cm/s were determined at Reynolds number 164.88 in experimental testing. The graphs and results from simulations and experiments are in close agreement. These microchannels can be inserted into varicose veins as a replacement to maintain the excellent blood flow in human legs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of an Acridinium Ester-Labeled Antibody and Its Application in GoldMag Nanoparticle-Based, Ultrasensitive Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Human Epididymis Protein 4
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8050149 - 07 May 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
An ultrasensitive and rapid sandwich-type chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was developed for the clinical determination of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in human serum, using GoldMag nanoparticles as solid phase and acridinium ester (AE) as chemiluminescence system (GMP-CLIA). The process of AE labeling antibodies [...] Read more.
An ultrasensitive and rapid sandwich-type chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was developed for the clinical determination of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in human serum, using GoldMag nanoparticles as solid phase and acridinium ester (AE) as chemiluminescence system (GMP-CLIA). The process of AE labeling antibodies was systematically studied and evaluated. The effect of varies factors such as molar ratio of AE to antibodies, labeling time, and the components of elution buffer and trigger solution were optimized. Under the selected conditions, AE labeling experiments were successfully performed with the average labeling efficiency of 1.92 ± 0.08, and antibody utilization rate of 69.77 ± 1.19%. Antibody activity remained unchanged after labeling. The established GMP-CLIA method can detect HE4 in the range of 0.25–50 ng·mL−1 (10–2000 pM) with a detection limit of 0.084 ng·mL−1 (3.36 pM). The sensitivity has reached a high level, comparable with the current commercial detection kits. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the clinical determination of HE4 in 65 human sera. The results showed a good correlation with a clinical method, microplate-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), with the correlation coefficient of 0.9594. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Open AccessArticle
FPGA-Based HD Camera System for the Micropositioning of Biomedical Micro-Objects Using a Contactless Micro-Conveyor
Micromachines 2017, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8030074 - 02 Mar 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
With recent advancements, micro-object contactless conveyers are becoming an essential part of the biomedical sector. They help avoid any infection and damage that can occur due to external contact. In this context, a smart micro-conveyor is devised. It is a Field Programmable Gate [...] Read more.
With recent advancements, micro-object contactless conveyers are becoming an essential part of the biomedical sector. They help avoid any infection and damage that can occur due to external contact. In this context, a smart micro-conveyor is devised. It is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based system that employs a smart surface for conveyance along with an OmniVision complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) HD camera for micro-object position detection and tracking. A specific FPGA-based hardware design and VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) implementation are realized. It is done without employing any Nios processor or System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC) builder based Central Processing Unit (CPU) core. It keeps the system efficient in terms of resource utilization and power consumption. The micro-object positioning status is captured with an embedded FPGA-based camera driver and it is communicated to the Image Processing, Decision Making and Command (IPDC) module. The IPDC is programmed in C++ and can run on a Personal Computer (PC) or on any appropriate embedded system. The IPDC decisions are sent back to the FPGA, which pilots the smart surface accordingly. In this way, an automated closed-loop system is employed to convey the micro-object towards a desired location. The devised system architecture and implementation principle is described. Its functionality is also verified. Results have confirmed the proper functionality of the developed system, along with its outperformance compared to other solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Methods of Micropatterning and Manipulation of Cells for Biomedical Applications
Micromachines 2017, 8(12), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8120347 - 29 Nov 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
Micropatterning and manipulation of mammalian and bacterial cells are important in biomedical studies to perform in vitro assays and to evaluate biochemical processes accurately, establishing the basis for implementing biomedical microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS), point-of-care (POC) devices, or organs-on-chips (OOC), which impact on neurological, [...] Read more.
Micropatterning and manipulation of mammalian and bacterial cells are important in biomedical studies to perform in vitro assays and to evaluate biochemical processes accurately, establishing the basis for implementing biomedical microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS), point-of-care (POC) devices, or organs-on-chips (OOC), which impact on neurological, oncological, dermatologic, or tissue engineering issues as part of personalized medicine. Cell patterning represents a crucial step in fundamental and applied biological studies in vitro, hence today there are a myriad of materials and techniques that allow one to immobilize and manipulate cells, imitating the 3D in vivo milieu. This review focuses on current physical cell patterning, plus chemical and a combination of them both that utilizes different materials and cutting-edge micro-nanofabrication methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Other

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Open AccessOpinion
Electronic Devices That Identify Individuals with Fever in Crowded Places: A Prototype
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8070202 - 24 Jun 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Most epidemiological surveillance systems for severe infections with epidemic potential are based on accumulated symptomatic cases in defined geographical areas. Eventually, all cases have to be clinically verified to confirm an outbreak. These patients will present high fever at the early stages of [...] Read more.
Most epidemiological surveillance systems for severe infections with epidemic potential are based on accumulated symptomatic cases in defined geographical areas. Eventually, all cases have to be clinically verified to confirm an outbreak. These patients will present high fever at the early stages of the disease. Here, we introduce a non-invasive low-cost electronic device (bracelet) that measures and reports 24/7, year-round information on the temperature, geographical location, and identification of the subject using the device. The data receiver can be installed in a tower (ground) or a drone (air) in densely populated or remote areas. The prototype was made with low-cost electronic components, and it was tested indoors and outdoors. The prototype shows efficient ground and air connectivity. This electronic device will allow health professionals to monitor the prevalence of fever in a geographical area and to reduce the time span between the presentation of the first cases of a potential outbreak and their medical evaluation by giving an early warning. Field tests of the device, programs, and technical diagrams of the prototype are available as Supplementary Materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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