Special Issue "Small Scale Deformation using Advanced Nanoindentation Techniques, Volume II"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ting Tsui
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Interests: nanoindentation; sub-micron fabrication; nanomechanics; thin film delaminations; integrate circuits; cell immobilization; morphology control of cells
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alex A. Volinsky
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Ave. ENB 118 Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Interests: thin films processing; mechanical properties and characterization; adhesion and fracture of thin films; nanoindentation; pattern formation; irradiated materials properties; X-Ray diffraction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Small-scale mechanical deformations have gained a significant interest over the past few decades, driven by the advances in integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. One of the most powerful and versatile characterization methods is the nanoindentation technique. The capabilities of these depth-sensing instruments have been improved considerably. They can perform experiments in vacuum and at high temperatures, such as in situ SEM and TEM nanoindenters. This allows researchers to visualize mechanical deformation and dislocation motion in real time. The time-dependent behavior of soft materials has also been studied in recent research works. This Special Issue on “Small Scale Deformation using Advanced Nanoindentation Techniques“ will provide a forum for researchers from the academic and industrial communities to present advances in the field of small-scale contact mechanics. Materials of interest include metals, glass, and ceramics. Manuscripts related to deformations of biomaterials and biological-related specimens are also welcome. Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Small-scale facture;
  • Nanoscale plasticity and creep;
  • Size-dependent deformation phenomena;
  • Deformation of biological cells;
  • Mechanical properties of cellular and sub-cellular components;
  • Novel mechanical properties characterization techniques;
  • New modeling methods;
  • Environmentally-controlled nanoindentation;
  • In situ SEM and TEM indentation.

Prof. Dr. Ting Tsui
Prof. Dr. Alex A. Volinsky
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoindentation
  • Small-scale mechanical properties
  • Deformation
  • Cells
  • Plasticity
  • Fracture
  • Contact mechanics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Shape Effect of Surface Defects on Nanohardness by Quasicontinuum Method
Micromachines 2020, 11(10), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11100909 - 30 Sep 2020
Abstract
Nanoindentation on a platinum thin film with surface defects in a rectangular shape and triangular shape was simulated using the quasicontinuum method to study the shape effect of surface defects on nanohardness. The results show that the nanohardness of thin film with triangular [...] Read more.
Nanoindentation on a platinum thin film with surface defects in a rectangular shape and triangular shape was simulated using the quasicontinuum method to study the shape effect of surface defects on nanohardness. The results show that the nanohardness of thin film with triangular defects is basically larger than those with rectangular defects, which is closely related to the height of the surface defects at the boundary near to the indenter. Moreover, the triangular defect might have an enhancement effect on nanohardness by a certain size of the defects and the boundary orientation of the defect, where such an enhancement effect increases as the defect grows. Furthermore, the nanohardness decreases when the defect is folded from wide to narrow in the same atom cavity, and particularly expresses a more obvious drop when the height of the defects increases. In addition, larger sizes of the rectangular defect induce more reduction in nanohardness, while the nanohardness of the triangular surface defect is sensitive to the periodic arrangement of atoms changed by the boundary orientation of the defect, which is well explained and demonstrated by the calculation formula theory of necessary load for dislocation emission. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Revealing the Plastic Mode of Time-Dependent Deformation of a LiTaO3 Single Crystal by Nanoindentation
Micromachines 2020, 11(9), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090878 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
Recently, instrumental nanoindentation has been widely applied to detect time-dependent plastic deformation or creep behavior in numerous materials, particularly thin films and heterogeneous materials. However, deformation mechanism at nanoindentation holding stage has not been well revealed hitherto. In the current work, nanoindentation holding [...] Read more.
Recently, instrumental nanoindentation has been widely applied to detect time-dependent plastic deformation or creep behavior in numerous materials, particularly thin films and heterogeneous materials. However, deformation mechanism at nanoindentation holding stage has not been well revealed hitherto. In the current work, nanoindentation holding tests with high loads were performed on a brittle LiTaO3 single crystal. The surface morphologies of residual impressions with various holding times were investigated. It was indicated that generation of secondary cracks and propagation of both main and secondary cracks were the dominating mechanism for time-dependent plastic deformation at the initial holding stage, and the density and length of cracks were invariable at the steady-state holding stage, which suggested a nonlocalized plastic deformation beneath the indenter. It could be concluded that time-dependent plastic deformation of brittle ceramic under nanoindentation is composed of instant cracking as the continuation of loading sequence and homogeneous creep flow by high shear-compression stress at room temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of AFM Nanoindentation Loading Rate on the Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Vascular Endothelial Cell
Micromachines 2020, 11(6), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11060562 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vascular endothelial cells form a barrier that blocks the delivery of drugs entering into brain tissue for central nervous system disease treatment. The mechanical responses of vascular endothelial cells play a key role in the progress of drugs passing through the blood–brain barrier. [...] Read more.
Vascular endothelial cells form a barrier that blocks the delivery of drugs entering into brain tissue for central nervous system disease treatment. The mechanical responses of vascular endothelial cells play a key role in the progress of drugs passing through the blood–brain barrier. Although nanoindentation experiment by using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) has been widely used to investigate the mechanical properties of cells, the particular mechanism that determines the mechanical response of vascular endothelial cells is still poorly understood. In order to overcome this limitation, nanoindentation experiments were performed at different loading rates during the ramp stage to investigate the loading rate effect on the characterization of the mechanical properties of bEnd.3 cells (mouse brain endothelial cell line). Inverse finite element analysis was implemented to determine the mechanical properties of bEnd.3 cells. The loading rate effect appears to be more significant in short-term peak force than that in long-term force. A higher loading rate results in a larger value of elastic modulus of bEnd.3 cells, while some mechanical parameters show ambiguous regulation to the variation of indentation rate. This study provides new insights into the mechanical responses of vascular endothelial cells, which is important for a deeper understanding of the cell mechanobiological mechanism in the blood–brain barrier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Elucidating the Effect of Accelerated Carbonation on Porosity and Mechanical Properties of Hydrated Portland Cement Paste Using X-Ray Tomography and Advanced Micromechanical Testing
Micromachines 2020, 11(5), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11050471 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Carbonation of hydrated cement paste (HCP) causes numerous chemo–mechanical changes in the microstructure, e.g., porosity, strength, elastic modulus, and permeability, which have a significant influence on the durability of concrete structures. Due to its complexity, much is still not understood about the process [...] Read more.
Carbonation of hydrated cement paste (HCP) causes numerous chemo–mechanical changes in the microstructure, e.g., porosity, strength, elastic modulus, and permeability, which have a significant influence on the durability of concrete structures. Due to its complexity, much is still not understood about the process of carbonation of HCP. The current study aims to reveal the changes in porosity and micromechanical properties caused by carbonation using micro-beam specimens with a cross-section of 500 μm × 500 μm. X-ray computed tomography and micro-beam bending tests were performed on both noncarbonated and carbonated HCP micro-beams for porosity characterization and micromechanical property measurements, respectively. The experimental results show that the carbonation decreases the total porosity and increases micromechanical properties of the HCP micro-beams under the accelerated carbonation. The correlation study revealed that both the flexural strength and elastic modulus increase linearly with decreasing porosity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Post-Annealing on the Structural and Nanomechanical Properties of Co Thin Films
Micromachines 2020, 11(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11020180 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The correlations between the microstructure and nanomechanical properties of a series of thermal annealed Co thin films were investigated. The Co thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a magnetron sputtering system at ambient conditions followed by subsequent annealing conducted at various [...] Read more.
The correlations between the microstructure and nanomechanical properties of a series of thermal annealed Co thin films were investigated. The Co thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a magnetron sputtering system at ambient conditions followed by subsequent annealing conducted at various temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 800 °C. The XRD results indicated that for annealing temperature in the ranged from 300 °C to 500 °C, the Co thin films were of single hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase. Nevertheless, the coexistence of hcp-Co (002) and face-centered cubic (fcc-Co (111)) phases was evidently observed for films annealed at 600 °C. Further increasing the annealing temperature to 700 °C and 800 °C, the films evidently turned into fcc-Co (111). Moreover, significant variations in the hardness and Young’s modulus are observed by continuous stiffness nanoindentation measurement for films annealed at different temperatures. The correlations between structures and properties are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Indentation-Induced Pop-in Phenomenon and Fracture Behaviors of GaP(100) Single-Crystal
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110752 - 02 Nov 2019
Abstract
The deformation behaviors and fracture features of GaP(100) single-crystal are investigated by using nano- and micro-scale indentation techniques. The hardness and Young’s modulus were measured by nanoindentation using a Berkovich diamond indenter with continuous contact stiffness measurements (CSM) mode and the values obtained [...] Read more.
The deformation behaviors and fracture features of GaP(100) single-crystal are investigated by using nano- and micro-scale indentation techniques. The hardness and Young’s modulus were measured by nanoindentation using a Berkovich diamond indenter with continuous contact stiffness measurements (CSM) mode and the values obtained were 12.5 ± 1.2 GPa and 152.6 ± 12.8 GPa, respectively. In addition, the characteristic “pop-in” was observed in the loading portion of load-displacement curve, which was caused by the nucleation and/or propagation of dislocations. An energetic estimation methodology on the associated nanoindentation-induced dislocation numbers resulting from the pop-in events was discussed. Furthermore, the Vickers indentation induced fracture patterns of GaP(100) single-crystal were observed and analyzed using optical microscopy. The obtained fracture toughness KC of GaP(100) single-crystal was ~1.7 ± 0.1 MPa·m1/2, which is substantially higher than the KIC values of 0.8 MPa·m1/2 and 1.0 MPa·m1/2 previously reported for of single-crystal and polycrystalline GaP, respectively. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Extended Applications of the Depth-Sensing Indentation Method
Micromachines 2020, 11(11), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11111023 - 23 Nov 2020
Abstract
The depth-sensing indentation method has been applied for almost 30 years. In this review, a survey of several extended applications developed during the last three decades is provided. In depth-sensing indentation measurements, the load and penetration depth data are detected as a function [...] Read more.
The depth-sensing indentation method has been applied for almost 30 years. In this review, a survey of several extended applications developed during the last three decades is provided. In depth-sensing indentation measurements, the load and penetration depth data are detected as a function of time, in most cases at controlled loading rates. Therefore, beside the determination of hardness and Young’s modulus, different deformation mechanisms and many other dynamic characteristics and phenomena, such as the dynamic elastic modulus, load-induced phase transition, strain rate sensitivity, etc. can be studied. These extended applications of depth-sensing indentation measurements are briefly described and reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Low Temperature Nanoindentation: Development and Applications
Micromachines 2020, 11(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11040407 - 13 Apr 2020
Abstract
Nanoindentation technique at low temperatures have developed from initial micro-hardness driving method at a single temperature to modern depth-sensing indentation (DSI) method with variable temperatures over the last three decades. The technique and implementation of representative cooling systems adopted on the indentation apparatuses [...] Read more.
Nanoindentation technique at low temperatures have developed from initial micro-hardness driving method at a single temperature to modern depth-sensing indentation (DSI) method with variable temperatures over the last three decades. The technique and implementation of representative cooling systems adopted on the indentation apparatuses are discussed in detail here, with particular emphasis on pros and cons of combination with indentation technique. To obtain accurate nanoindentation curves and calculated results of material properties, several influence factors have been carefully considered and eliminated, including thermal drift and temperature induced influence on indenter and specimen. Finally, we further show some applications on typical materials and discuss the perspectives related to low temperature nanoindentation technique. Full article
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