Special Issue "Nanostructured Light-Emitters"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Hieu Pham Trung Nguyen Website E-Mail
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
Interests: nanostructures; epitaxial growth; nanophotonics; light-emitting diodes; laser diodes; solid-state lighting; micro-displays

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Significant progress has been made in nanophotonics and the use of nanostructured materials for optoelectronic devices, including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes, which have recently attracted considerable attention due to their unique geometry. Nanostructures in small dimensions, comprising nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoparticles, etc,. can be perfectly integrated into a variety of technological platforms, offering novel physical and chemical properties for high-performance, light-emitting devices.  

The exploitation of new nanostructures for light-emitting devices and their optical/electrical properties is necessary for their emerging practical device applications. For instance, III-nitride nanowires offer several distinct advantages including being nearly-free of dislocations and a polarization field, which results in the enhanced efficiency and output power of LEDs with an emission wavelength that can be varied from deep ultraviolet to near infrared. Two-dimentional nanomaterials, as well as nanoplasmonics, can be used efficiently to enhance light absorption and emission in optoelectronics devices.

This Special Issue aims to present the most recent advances in the field of nanophotonics, which focuses on LEDs and laser diodes. We invite contributions of original research articles, as well as review articles that are aligned to the following topics that include, but are not limited to, thetheoretical calculation, synthesis, characterization, and application of such novel nanostructures for light-emitting devices. The application of nanostructured light-emitters in general lighting, imaging, and displays is also highly encouraged.

Dr. Hieu Pham Trung Nguyen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanostructured photonics
  • Nanophotonics
  • Low-dimentional semiconductors
  • Light-emitting diodes
  • Laser diodes

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Narrow Linewidth Distributed Bragg Reflectors Based on InGaN/GaN Laser
Micromachines 2019, 10(8), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10080529 - 11 Aug 2019
Abstract
A variety of emerging technologies, such as visible light communication systems, require narrow linewidths and easy-to-integrate light sources. Such a requirement could be potentially fulfilled with the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers, which are also promising for the monolithical integration with other optical [...] Read more.
A variety of emerging technologies, such as visible light communication systems, require narrow linewidths and easy-to-integrate light sources. Such a requirement could be potentially fulfilled with the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers, which are also promising for the monolithical integration with other optical components. The InGaN/GaN-based surface etched DBR is designed and optimized using the finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method to obtain very narrow-band reflectors that can serve as a wavelength filter. The results reveal that the ultimate reflectivity depends on the grating period and duty ratio of the DBR. Based on the design, the DBR lasers with various duty ratios are fabricated, specifically, the 19th, 13th and 3rd order DBR grating with duty ratio set as 50%/75%/95%. The minimum linewidth could be achieved at 0.45 nm from the 19th order grating with a 75% duty ratio. For comparison, the Fabry–Pérot (F–P) based on the same indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride (InGaN/GaN) epitaxial wafer are fabricated. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the DBR laser shrank by 65% compared to that of the conventional F–P laser, which might be helpful in the application of the visible light communication system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Photon Emission Efficiency Using Surface Plasmon Effect of Pt Nanoparticles in Ultra-Violet Emitter
Micromachines 2019, 10(8), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10080528 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
We demonstrate the surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emitter using Pt nanoparticles (NPs). The UV emitter is hole-patterned on the p-AlGaN layer to consider the penetration depth of Pt NPs. The Pt NPs with sizes under 50 nm are required to realize [...] Read more.
We demonstrate the surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emitter using Pt nanoparticles (NPs). The UV emitter is hole-patterned on the p-AlGaN layer to consider the penetration depth of Pt NPs. The Pt NPs with sizes under 50 nm are required to realize the plasmonic absorption in UV wavelength. In this study, we confirm the average Pt NP sizes of 10 nm, 20 nm, and 25 nm, respectively, at an annealing temperature of 600 °C. The absorption of annealed Pt NPs is covered with the 365-nm wavelength. The electroluminescence intensity of SP-UV is 70% higher than that of reference UV emitter without hole-patterns and Pt NPs. This improvement can be attributed to the increase of spontaneous emission rate through resonance coupling between the excitons in multiple quantum wells and Pt NPs deposited on the p-AlGaN layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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Open AccessArticle
Full-Color InGaN/AlGaN Nanowire Micro Light-Emitting Diodes Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Promising Candidate for Next Generation Micro Displays
Micromachines 2019, 10(8), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10080492 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
We have demonstrated full-color and white-color micro light-emitting diodes (μLEDs) using InGaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire heterostructures, grown on silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. InGaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire μLED arrays were fabricated with their wavelengths tunable from blue to red by controlling the indium composition [...] Read more.
We have demonstrated full-color and white-color micro light-emitting diodes (μLEDs) using InGaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire heterostructures, grown on silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. InGaN/AlGaN core-shell nanowire μLED arrays were fabricated with their wavelengths tunable from blue to red by controlling the indium composition in the device active regions. Moreover, our fabricated phosphor-free white-color μLEDs demonstrate strong and highly stable white-light emission with high color rendering index of ~ 94. The μLEDs are in circular shapes with the diameter varying from 30 to 100 μm. Such high-performance μLEDs are perfectly suitable for the next generation of high-resolution micro-display applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Efficiency of Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Using a Three-Step Spin-Coated CH3NH3PbBr3 Emitter and a PEDOT:PSS/MoO3-Ammonia Composite Hole Transport Layer
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070459 - 07 Jul 2019
Abstract
High efficiency perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) using PEDOT:PSS/MoO3-ammonia composite hole transport layers (HTLs) with different MoO3-ammonia ratios were prepared and characterized. For PeLEDs with one-step spin-coated CH3NH3PbBr3 emitter, an optimal MoO3-ammonia volume [...] Read more.
High efficiency perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) using PEDOT:PSS/MoO3-ammonia composite hole transport layers (HTLs) with different MoO3-ammonia ratios were prepared and characterized. For PeLEDs with one-step spin-coated CH3NH3PbBr3 emitter, an optimal MoO3-ammonia volume ratio (0.02) in PEDOT:PSS/MoO3-ammonia composite HTL presented a maximum luminance of 1082 cd/m2 and maximum current efficiency of 0.7 cd/A, which are 82% and 94% higher than those of the control device using pure PEDOT:PSS HTL respectively. It can be explained by that the optimized amount of MoO3-ammonia in the composite HTLs cannot only facilitate hole injection into CH3NH3PbBr3 through reducing the contact barrier, but also suppress the exciton quenching at the HTL/CH3NH3PbBr3 interface. Three-step spin coating method was further used to obtain uniform and dense CH3NH3PbBr3 films, which lead to a maximum luminance of 5044 cd/m2 and maximum current efficiency of 3.12 cd/A, showing enhancement of 750% and 767% compared with the control device respectively. The significantly improved efficiency of PeLEDs using three-step spin-coated CH3NH3PbBr3 film and an optimum PEDOT:PSS/MoO3-ammonia composite HTL can be explained by the enhanced carrier recombination through better hole injection and film morphology optimization, as well as the reduced exciton quenching at HTL/CH3NH3PbBr3 interface. These results present a promising strategy for the device engineering of high efficiency PeLEDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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Open AccessCommunication
The Composition-Dependent Photoluminescence Properties of Non-Stoichiometric ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y Nanocrystals
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070439 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
A facile hot injection approach to synthesize high-quality non-stoichiometric ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y nanocrystals (NCs) in the size range of 2.8–3.1 nm was presented. The fluorescence spectra had single band gap features, and indicated the formation of alloy states rather than [...] Read more.
A facile hot injection approach to synthesize high-quality non-stoichiometric ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y nanocrystals (NCs) in the size range of 2.8–3.1 nm was presented. The fluorescence spectra had single band gap features, and indicated the formation of alloy states rather than simple composite structures. The chemical compositions, photoluminescence (PL) emission wavelengths, and quantum yields of ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y nanocrystals were significantly influenced by the concentration of an organic capping agent. The appropriate proportion of 1-dodecanthiol in the precursor prevented the precipitation, increased the fluorescence quantum yield, and improved their optical properties. The proper ratio of capping agent allowed Zn, Ag, and In to form a better crystallinity and compositional homogeneity of ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y nanocrystals. The photoluminescence was tunable from blue to red in the range of 450–700 nm as the Ag content changed independently. The PL and absorption spectra of ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y nanocrystals showed a significant blue shift with the decrease of Ag content in the precursor. As there were no obvious differences on the average particle sizes of ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y samples, these results fully revealed the composition-dependent photoluminescence properties of ZnxAgyInS1.5+x+0.5y nanocrystals. The relative quantum yield reached 35%. The fluorescence lifetimes (τ1=115–148 ns and τ2=455–483 ns) were analogous to those of AgInS2 and (AgIn)xZn2(1−x)S2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Charge Transport Materials on Blue Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a Host-Dopant System
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050344 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
High efficiency blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), based on 1,3-bis(carbazol-9-yl)benzene (mCP) doped with 4,4’-bis(9-ethyl-3-carbazovinylene)-1,1’-biphenyl (BCzVBi), were fabricated using four different hole transport layers (HTLs) and two different electron transport layers (ETLs). Fixing the electron transport material TPBi, four hole transport materials, including [...] Read more.
High efficiency blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), based on 1,3-bis(carbazol-9-yl)benzene (mCP) doped with 4,4’-bis(9-ethyl-3-carbazovinylene)-1,1’-biphenyl (BCzVBi), were fabricated using four different hole transport layers (HTLs) and two different electron transport layers (ETLs). Fixing the electron transport material TPBi, four hole transport materials, including 1,1-Bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC), N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4’-diamine(NPB), 4,4’-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1,-biphenyl (CBP) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), were selected to be HTLs, and the blue OLED with TAPC HTL exhibited a maximum luminance of 2955 cd/m2 and current efficiency (CE) of 5.75 cd/A at 50 mA/cm2, which are 68% and 62% higher, respectively, than those of the minimum values found in the device with MoO3 HTL. Fixing the hole transport material TAPC, the replacement of TPBi ETL with Bphen ETL can further improve the performance of the device, in which the maximum luminance can reach 3640 cd/m2 at 50 mA/cm2, which is 23% higher than that of the TPBi device. Furthermore, the lifetime of the device is also optimized by the change of ETL. These results indicate that the carrier mobility of transport materials and energy level alignment of different functional layers play important roles in the performance of the blue OLEDs. The findings suggest that selecting well-matched electron and hole transport materials is essential and beneficial for the device engineering of high-efficiency blue OLEDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Light Extraction Efficiency for InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using Silver Nanoparticle Embedded ZnO Thin Films
Micromachines 2019, 10(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10040239 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, we propose a liquid-phase-deposited silver nanoparticle embedded ZnO (LPD-Ag NP/ZnO) thin film at room temperature to improve the light extraction efficiency (LEE) for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The treatment solution for the deposition of the LPD-Ag/NP ZnO thin film comprised [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose a liquid-phase-deposited silver nanoparticle embedded ZnO (LPD-Ag NP/ZnO) thin film at room temperature to improve the light extraction efficiency (LEE) for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The treatment solution for the deposition of the LPD-Ag/NP ZnO thin film comprised a ZnO-powder-saturated HCl and a silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solution. The enhanced LEE of an InGaN/GaN LED with the LPD-Ag NP/ZnO window layer can be attributed to the surface texture and localized surface plasmon (LSP) coupling effect. The surface texture of the LPD-Ag/NP ZnO window layer relies on the AgNO3 concentration, which decides the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the thin film. The LSP resonance or extinction wavelength also depends on the concentration of AgNO3, which determines the Ag NP size and content of Ag atoms in the LPD-Ag NP/ZnO thin film. The AgNO3 concentration for the optimal LEE of an InGaN/GaN LED with an LPD-Ag NP/ZnO window layer occurs at 0.05 M, which demonstrates an increased light output intensity that is approximately 1.52 times that of a conventional InGaN/GaN LED under a 20-mA driving current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Epitaxy of III-Nitrides on β-Ga2O3 and Its Vertical Structure LEDs
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050322 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
β-Ga2O3, characterized with high n-type conductivity, little lattice mismatch with III-Nitrides, high transparency (>80%) in blue, and UVA (400–320 nm) as well as UVB (320–280 nm) regions, has great potential as the substrate for vertical structure blue and especially [...] Read more.
β-Ga2O3, characterized with high n-type conductivity, little lattice mismatch with III-Nitrides, high transparency (>80%) in blue, and UVA (400–320 nm) as well as UVB (320–280 nm) regions, has great potential as the substrate for vertical structure blue and especially ultra violet LEDs (light emitting diodes). Large efforts have been made to improve the quality of III-Nitrides epilayers on β-Ga2O3. Furthermore, the fabrication of vertical blue LEDs has been preliminarily realized with the best result that output power reaches to 4.82 W (under a current of 10 A) and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) exceeds 78% by different groups, respectively, while there is nearly no demonstration of UV-LEDs on β-Ga2O3. In this review, with the perspective from materials to devices, we first describe the basic properties, growth method, as well as doping of β-Ga2O3, then introduce in detail the progress in growth of GaN on (1 0 0) and (−2 0 1) β-Ga2O3, followed by the epitaxy of AlGaN on gallium oxide. Finally, the advances in fabrication and performance of vertical structure LED (VLED) are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Light-Emitters)
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