Special Issue "Nanomaterials-Based Biosensors"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Larysa Baraban
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Dresden University of Technology, Budapesterstr. 27, 01069 Dresden, Germany; Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
Interests: nanobiotechnology; biosensor systems; droplet-based microfludics; lab-on-chip; artificial micromachines
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gianaurelio Cuniberti
Website
Guest Editor
Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Interests: theory of the electronic and structural properties of nanoscale materials; materials research; molecular electronics; sensorics; bioelectronics; environmental nanoscience
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of the journal Micromachines, "Nanomaterials-based biosensors", which aims to highlight recent advances in the development of biodetection devices including their novel architectures, fabrication and measurement strategies, as well as theoretical studies. We target the interdisciplinary community acting in the area of nanosensors, biotechnology and lab-on-a-chip integrated systems, to create a collection of articles enabling the synergies necessary to improving quality of life.

The delivery to the market of novel intelligent systems with rich functionalities, providing strong benefits in the health-care field, is among the most crucial challenges for the scientific community and industrial players. The tight interaction between diverse disciplines has led to the emergence of a new class of bioinspired systems that enable the creation of the area of electronic nanobiosensorics to a new level. Such systems are merely based on new nanomaterials—such as nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, 2D material sheets as transducers—for the production of novel sensor devices, which could open the way for new advances and opportunities.

Potential applications of such systems lie in the areas of the life and environmental sciences, where the analysis/diagnostic tools based on integrated sensors can assist in solving the multiple problems, e.g. related to high throughput analyte screening and biological cell phenotyping. From the point of view of the practical aspects relevant to everyday life, the miniaturized sensors can be a part of wearable gadgets for personalized use, aimed at monitoring the health status of the user. Furthermore, the high sensitivity, miniature size and low power consumption make them suitable to becoming a part of the smart home or smart city concept, offering the safe monitoring of air (gas sensors), water (pathogens, toxic wastes), and food quality.


Dr. Larysa Baraban
Prof. Gianaurelio Cuniberti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 2D materials sensors
  • Graphene devices
  • Nanowire sensors
  • Bionanosensors
  • Nanofabrication
  • Electronic biosensors
  • MEMS
  • Flexible nanosensors
  • Microfluidic integrated systems

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Surface Modification of Silicon Nanowire Based Field Effect Transistors with Stimuli Responsive Polymer Brushes for Biosensing Applications
Micromachines 2020, 11(3), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11030274 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
We demonstrate the functionalization of silicon nanowire based field effect transistors (SiNW FETs) FETs with stimuli-responsive polymer brushes of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). Surface functionalization was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements, and verified electrically using a silicon nanowire [...] Read more.
We demonstrate the functionalization of silicon nanowire based field effect transistors (SiNW FETs) FETs with stimuli-responsive polymer brushes of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). Surface functionalization was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements, and verified electrically using a silicon nanowire based field effect transistor sensor device. For thermo-responsive PNIPAAM, the physicochemical properties (i.e., a reversible phase transition, wettability) were induced by crossing the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of about 32 °C. Taking advantage of this property, osteosarcomic SaoS-2 cells were cultured on PNIPAAM-modified sensors at temperatures above the LCST, and completely detached by simply cooling. Next, the weak polyelectrolyte PAA, that is sensitive towards alteration of pH and ionic strength, was used to cover the silicon nanowire based device. Here, the increase of pH will cause deprotonation of the present carboxylic (COOH) groups along the chains into negatively charged COO moieties that repel each other and cause swelling of the polymer. Our experimental results suggest that this functionalization enhances the pH sensitivity of the SiNW FETs. Specific receptor (bio-)molecules can be added to the polymer brushes by simple click chemistry so that functionality of the brush layer can be tuned optionally. We demonstrate at the proof-of concept-level that osteosarcomic Saos-2 cells can adhere to PNIPAAM-modified FETs, and cell signals could be recorded electrically. This study presents an applicable route for the modification of highly sensitive, versatile FETs that can be applied for detection of a variety of biological analytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials-Based Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanosensors-Assisted Quantitative Analysis of Biochemical Processes in Droplets
Micromachines 2020, 11(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11020138 - 26 Jan 2020
Abstract
Here, we present a miniaturized lab-on-a-chip detecting system for an all-electric and label-free analysis of the emulsion droplets incorporating the nanoscopic silicon nanowires-based field-effect transistors (FETs). We specifically focus on the analysis of β-galactosidase e.g., activity, which is an important enzyme of the [...] Read more.
Here, we present a miniaturized lab-on-a-chip detecting system for an all-electric and label-free analysis of the emulsion droplets incorporating the nanoscopic silicon nanowires-based field-effect transistors (FETs). We specifically focus on the analysis of β-galactosidase e.g., activity, which is an important enzyme of the glycolysis metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the efficiency of the synthesis and action of β-galactosidase can be one of the markers for several diseases, e.g., cancer, hyper/hypoglycemia, cell senescence, or other disruptions in cell functioning. We measure the reaction and reaction kinetics-associated shift of the source-to-drain current Isd in the system, which is caused by the change of the ionic strength of the microenvironment. With these results, we demonstrate that the ion-sensitive FETs are able to sense the interior of the aqueous reactors; thus, the conjunction of miniature nanosensors and droplet-based microfluidic systems conceptually opens a new route toward a sensitive, optics-less analysis of biochemical processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials-Based Biosensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Controlled Focused Ion Beam Milling of Composite Solid State Nanopore Arrays for Molecule Sensing
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110774 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Various nanoscale fabrication techniques are elaborated to form artificial nanoporous/nanochannel membranes to be applied for biosensing: one of the most prevalent is the micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) compatible focused ion beam (FIB) milling. This technique can be easily adopted in micro- and nanomachining process [...] Read more.
Various nanoscale fabrication techniques are elaborated to form artificial nanoporous/nanochannel membranes to be applied for biosensing: one of the most prevalent is the micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) compatible focused ion beam (FIB) milling. This technique can be easily adopted in micro- and nanomachining process sequences to develop composite multi-pore structures, although its precision and reproducibility are key points in the case of these thick multi-layered membranes. This work is to demonstrate a comprehensive characterisation of FIB milling to improve the reliability of the fabrication of solid state nanopore arrays with precisely predetermined pore geometries for a targeted molecule type to be recognised. The statistical geometric features of the fabricated nanopores were recorded as the function of the process parameters, and the resulting geometries were analysed in detail by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ion scanning microscopy. Continuous function of the pore diameter evolution rate was derived from the experimental results in the case of different material structures, and compared to former dissentient estimations. The additional metal layer was deposited onto the backside of the membrane and grounded during the ion milling to prevent the electrical charging of dielectric layers. The study proved that the conformity of the pore geometry and the reliability of their fabrication could be improved significantly. The applicability of the developed nanopore arrays for molecule detection was also considered by characterising the pore diameter dependent sensitivity of the membrane impedance modulation based measurement method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials-Based Biosensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors
Micromachines 2019, 10(6), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10060397 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
With the development of nanomaterials and sensor technology, nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensors have been widely employed in various fields. Nanomaterials for electrode modification are emerging one after another in order to improve the performance of electrochemical immunosensors. When compared with traditional detection methods, electrochemical [...] Read more.
With the development of nanomaterials and sensor technology, nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensors have been widely employed in various fields. Nanomaterials for electrode modification are emerging one after another in order to improve the performance of electrochemical immunosensors. When compared with traditional detection methods, electrochemical immunosensors have the advantages of simplicity, real-time analysis, high sensitivity, miniaturization, rapid detection time, and low cost. Here, we summarize recent developments in electrochemical immunosensors based on nanomaterials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal nanomaterials, and quantum dots. Additionally, we discuss research challenges and future prospects for this field of study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials-Based Biosensors)
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