Special Issue "Nanolithography: A Theme Issue in Honor of Professor José María De Teresa on the Occasion of His 50th Birthday"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 4761

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Amalio Fernández-Pacheco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Interests: nanomagnetism; spintronics; nanofabrication; magneto-optics
Dr. Javier Pablo-Navarro
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden, Germany
Interests: focused electron beam induced deposition; electron beam lithography; magnetic nanostructures; nanowires; nanotubes; magnetization dynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

José María De Teresa is Research Professor at the Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón (INMA) in Spain. After obtaining a Ph.D. in Physics at the Universidad de Zaragoza in 1997, under the supervision of Prof. del Moral and Prof. Ibarra, he carried out postdoctoral stays at IFW (Dresden, Germany) and CNRS (Paris, France). In his second postdoc, he worked under the supervision of Prof. Albert Fert, Nobel Laureate in Physics 2007. During this postdoctoral period, he learned about the use of lithography techniques, which he later implemented at his current institute, where he leads the group of Nanofabrication and Advanced Microscopies (NANOMIDAS). Currently, he coordinates the Spanish network on Nanolithography and the FIB-SEM area at the Spanish National facility for Advanced Microscopies. Since 2021, he is chairing the Condensed Matter Division Board of the European Physical Society. His main research interest is nanofabrication with focused electron and ion beams for applications in nanoelectronics, magnetic materials, nano-superconductors, and new materials. He has published more than 200 research articles, supervised 15 Ph.D. students, and given about 100 invited talks at conferences. More information about his scientific activities can be found at https://nanofab-deteresa.com/

Nanolithography encompasses the set of fabrication techniques that allow patterning materials and building devices with a nanoscale resolution. Nanolithography is complemented with thin-film-deposition techniques, as well as self-assembly and self-organization, providing an immense variety of nanofabrication strategies. In this Special Issue, original articles and review and feature articles on nanolithography techniques and their applications are welcome. New material properties emerging from nanopatterning, as well as applications of nanolithography in the semiconductor and nanotechnology industry, would fit well within the scope of this Special Issue. In particular, we expect works that include the use of some of the following nanolithography techniques: optical-based lithography, electron and ion beam lithography, stamp lithography, and scanning probe lithography based on small physical apertures.

Dr. Amalio Fernández-Pacheco
Dr. Javier Pablo-Navarro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanofabrication
  • nanolithography
  • nanostructures
  • 2D nanomaterials
  • 3D nanofabrication
  • functional materials
  • nanomagnetism
  • nanoelectronics
  • superconductivity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Two-Step Resist Deposition of E-Beam Patterned Thick Py Nanostructures for X-ray Microscopy
Micromachines 2022, 13(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020204 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Patterned elements of permalloy (Py) with a thickness as large as 300 nm have been defined by electron beam lithography on X-ray-transparent 50 nm thick membranes in order to characterize their magnetic structure via Magnetic Transmission X-ray Microscopy (MTXM). To avoid the situation [...] Read more.
Patterned elements of permalloy (Py) with a thickness as large as 300 nm have been defined by electron beam lithography on X-ray-transparent 50 nm thick membranes in order to characterize their magnetic structure via Magnetic Transmission X-ray Microscopy (MTXM). To avoid the situation where the fragility of the membranes causes them to break during the lithography process, it has been found that the spin coating of the resist must be applied in two steps. The MTXM results show that our samples have a central domain wall, as well as other types of domain walls, if the nanostructures are wide enough. Full article
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Article
Molecular Recognition by Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor and Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy
Micromachines 2022, 13(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13010097 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) have been developed as very sensitive and label-free biomolecular sensors. The detection principle operating in a SiNW biosensor is indirect. The biomolecules are detected by measuring the changes in the current through the transistor. Those changes are [...] Read more.
Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) have been developed as very sensitive and label-free biomolecular sensors. The detection principle operating in a SiNW biosensor is indirect. The biomolecules are detected by measuring the changes in the current through the transistor. Those changes are produced by the electrical field created by the biomolecule. Here, we have combined nanolithography, chemical functionalization, electrical measurements and molecular recognition methods to correlate the current measured by the SiNW transistor with the presence of specific molecular recognition events on the surface of the SiNW. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) was applied to fabricate sub-12 nm SiNW field-effect transistors. The devices were applied to detect very small concentrations of proteins (500 pM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) experiments allowed the identification of the protein adsorption sites on the surface of the nanowire. We detected specific interactions between the biotin-functionalized AFM tip and individual avidin molecules adsorbed to the SiNW. The measurements confirmed that electrical current changes measured by the device were associated with the deposition of avidin molecules. Full article
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Article
Three-Dimensional Soft Material Micropatterning via Grayscale Photolithography for Improved Hydrophobicity of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
Micromachines 2022, 13(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13010078 - 01 Jan 2022
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Abstract
In this present work, we aim to improve the hydrophobicity of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. Various heights of 3D PDMS micropillars were fabricated via grayscale photolithography, and improved wettability was investigated. Two approaches of PDMS replication were demonstrated, both using a single master [...] Read more.
In this present work, we aim to improve the hydrophobicity of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. Various heights of 3D PDMS micropillars were fabricated via grayscale photolithography, and improved wettability was investigated. Two approaches of PDMS replication were demonstrated, both using a single master mold to obtain the micropillar arrays. The different heights of fabricated PDMS micropillars were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a surface profiler. The surface hydrophobicity was characterized by measuring the water contact angles. The fabrication of PDMS micropillar arrays was shown to be effective in modifying the contact angles of pure water droplets with the highest 157.3-degree water contact angle achieved by implementing a single mask grayscale lithography technique. Full article
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Article
Ionic-Liquid Gating in Two-Dimensional TMDs: The Operation Principles and Spectroscopic Capabilities
Micromachines 2021, 12(12), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12121576 - 17 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Ionic-liquid gating (ILG) is able to enhance carrier densities well above the achievable values in traditional field-effect transistors (FETs), revealing it to be a promising technique for exploring the electronic phases of materials in extreme doping regimes. Due to their chemical stability, transition [...] Read more.
Ionic-liquid gating (ILG) is able to enhance carrier densities well above the achievable values in traditional field-effect transistors (FETs), revealing it to be a promising technique for exploring the electronic phases of materials in extreme doping regimes. Due to their chemical stability, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are ideal candidates to produce ionic-liquid-gated FETs. Furthermore, as recently discovered, ILG can be used to obtain the band gap of two-dimensional semiconductors directly from the simple transfer characteristics. In this work, we present an overview of the operation principles of ionic liquid gating in TMD-based transistors, establishing the importance of the reference voltage to obtain hysteresis-free transfer characteristics, and hence, precisely determine the band gap. We produced ILG-based bilayer WSe2 FETs and demonstrated their ambipolar behavior. We estimated the band gap directly from the transfer characteristics, demonstrating the potential of ILG as a spectroscopy technique. Full article
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Article
Fabrication of a 3D Nanomagnetic Circuit with Multi-Layered Materials for Applications in Spintronics
Micromachines 2021, 12(8), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12080859 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) spintronic devices are attracting significant research interest due to their potential for both fundamental studies and computing applications. However, their implementations face great challenges regarding not only the fabrication of 3D nanomagnets with high quality materials, but also their integration into [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) spintronic devices are attracting significant research interest due to their potential for both fundamental studies and computing applications. However, their implementations face great challenges regarding not only the fabrication of 3D nanomagnets with high quality materials, but also their integration into 2D microelectronic circuits. In this study, we developed a new fabrication process to facilitate the efficient integration of both non-planar 3D geometries and high-quality multi-layered magnetic materials to prototype 3D spintronic devices, as a first step to investigate new physical effects in such systems. Specifically, we exploited 3D nanoprinting, physical vapour deposition and lithographic techniques to realise a 3D nanomagnetic circuit based on a nanobridge geometry, coated with high quality Ta/CoFeB/Ta layers. The successful establishment of this 3D circuit was verified through magnetotransport measurements in combination with micromagnetic simulations and finite element modelling. This fabrication process provides new capabilities for the realisation of a greater variety of 3D nanomagnetic circuits, which will facilitate the understanding and exploitation of 3D spintronic systems. Full article
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Review

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Review
Electrodeposition as a Tool for Nanostructuring Magnetic Materials
Micromachines 2022, 13(8), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13081223 - 30 Jul 2022
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Electrodeposition has appeared in the last year as a non-expensive and versatile technique for the growth of nanomaterials. We review the main characteristics of electrodeposition that make this technique very suitable for its combination with different nanofabrication tools and the possibilities that this [...] Read more.
Electrodeposition has appeared in the last year as a non-expensive and versatile technique for the growth of nanomaterials. We review the main characteristics of electrodeposition that make this technique very suitable for its combination with different nanofabrication tools and the possibilities that this combination offers to fabricate nanowires and more complex tridimensional nanostructures. Finally, we overview the present and future impact of electrodeposition on the fabrication of a novel generation of nanomaterials with potential impact in nanomagnetism and spintronics. Full article
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