Special Issue "Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tibor Grasser
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Microelectronics, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29/E360, 1040 Wien, Austria
Tel. +43-1-58801-36023
Interests: transistor reliability; bias temperature instability; hot carrier degradation; degradation phenomena in emerging devices; modeling and simulation of semiconductor devices
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Lado Filipovic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Microelectronics, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29/E360, 1040 Wien, Austria
Tel. +43-1-58801-36036
Interests: integrated sensors; semiconductor fabrication; CMOS; process modeling; TCAD; interconnect reliability; 3D integration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

What is the future of CMOS? Sustaining increased transistor densities along the path of Moore's Law has become increasingly challenging with limited power budgets, interconnect bandwidths, and fabrication capabilities. In the last decade alone, transistors have undergone significant design makeovers; from planar transistors of ten years ago, technological advancements have accelerated to today's FinFETs, which hardly resemble their bulky ancestors. FinFETs could potentially take us to the 5-nm node, but what comes after it? From gate-all-around devices, stacked nanowires and nanosheets to single electron transistors, two-dimensional semiconductors and III-V devices, a torrent of research is being carried out in order to design the next transistor generations, engineer optimal materials, improve the fabrication technology, and properly model future devices. Furthermore, designing appropriate Ohmic contacts and metalization for these novel devices is no small feat and will require an in-depth look at new conducting materials, dielectrics, and innovative designs. We invite insight from investigators and scientists in the field to showcase their work in this Special Issue with research papers, short communications, and review articles which focus on trends in micro- and nanotechnology from fundamental research to applications.

Prof. Dr. Tibor Grasser
Dr. Lado Filipovic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • CMOS transistor scaling
  • Advanced More Moore devices and circuits
  • Nano-scale devices
    • Nanoelectronics
    • Nanostructures
    • Quantum information processing
    • Quantum physics
    • Quantum transport Emerging devices and memories
  • Fabrication of modern devices and interconnects
  • Metalization
  • Back end of line reliability
  • Process reliability and variability
  • Modeling and simulation of semiconductor processes and devices
  • Compact modeling
  • Circuit simulation

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Transient Simulation for the Thermal Design Optimization of Pulse Operated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010076 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
The thermal management and channel temperature evaluation of GaN power amplifiers are indispensable issues in engineering field. The transient thermal characteristics of pulse operated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) used in high power amplifiers are systematically investigated by using three-dimensional simulation with [...] Read more.
The thermal management and channel temperature evaluation of GaN power amplifiers are indispensable issues in engineering field. The transient thermal characteristics of pulse operated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) used in high power amplifiers are systematically investigated by using three-dimensional simulation with the finite element method. To improve the calculation accuracy, the nonlinear thermal conductivities and near-junction region of GaN chip are considered and treated appropriately in our numerical analysis. The periodic transient pulses temperature and temperature distribution are analyzed to estimate thermal response when GaN amplifiers are operating in pulsed mode with kilowatt-level power, and the relationships between channel temperatures and pulse width, gate structures, and power density of GaN device are analyzed. Results indicate that the maximal channel temperature and thermal impedance of device are considerably influenced by pulse width and power density effects, but the changes of gate fingers and gate width have no effect on channel temperature when the total gate width and active area are kept constant. Finally, the transient thermal response of GaN amplifier is measured using IR thermal photogrammetry, and the correctness and validation of the simulation model is verified. The study of transient simulation is demonstrated necessary for optimal designs of pulse-operated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
A 45 nm CMOS Avalanche Photodiode with 8.4-GHz Bandwidth
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010065 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
Photodiode is one of the key components in optoelectronic technology, which is used to convert optical signal into electrical ones in modern communication systems. In this paper, an avalanche photodiode (APD) is designed and fulfilled, which is compatible with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company [...] Read more.
Photodiode is one of the key components in optoelectronic technology, which is used to convert optical signal into electrical ones in modern communication systems. In this paper, an avalanche photodiode (APD) is designed and fulfilled, which is compatible with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 45-nm standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology without any process modification. The APD based on 45 nm process is beneficial to realize a smaller and more complex monolithically integrated optoelectronic chip. The fabricated CMOS APD operates at 850 nm wavelength optical communication. Its bandwidth can be as high as 8.4 GHz with 0.56 A/W responsivity at reverse bias of 20.8 V. Its active area is designed to be 20 × 20 μm2. The Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) model of the APD is also proposed and verified. The key parameters are extracted based on its electrical, optical and frequency responses by parameter fitting. The device has wide potential application for optical communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
T-Channel Field Effect Transistor with Three Input Terminals (Ti-TcFET)
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010064 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
In this paper, a novel T-channel field effect transistor with three input terminals (Ti-TcFET) is proposed. The channel of a Ti-TcFET consists of horizontal and vertical sections. The top gate is above the horizontal channel, while the front gate and back gate are [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel T-channel field effect transistor with three input terminals (Ti-TcFET) is proposed. The channel of a Ti-TcFET consists of horizontal and vertical sections. The top gate is above the horizontal channel, while the front gate and back gate are on either side of the vertical channel. The T-shaped channel structure increases the coupling area between the top gate and the front and back gates, which improves the ability of the gate electrodes to control the channel. What’s more, it makes the top gate have almost the same control ability for the channel as the front gate and the back gate. This unique structure design brings a unique function in that the device is turned on only when two or three inputs are activated. Silvaco technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations are used to verify the current characteristics of the proposed Ti-TcFET. The current characteristics of the device are theoretically analyzed, and the results show that the theoretical analysis agrees with the TCAD simulation results. The proposed Ti-TcFET devices with three input terminals can be used to simplify the complex circuits in a compact style with reduced counts of transistors compared with the traditional complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor/ fin field-effect transistors (CMOS/FinFETs) with a single input terminal and thus provides a new idea for future circuit designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved DRUS 4H-SiC MESFET with High Power Added Efficiency
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010035 - 27 Dec 2019
Abstract
A 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) with layered doping and undoped space regions (LDUS-MESFET) is proposed and simulated by ADS and ISE-TCAD software in this paper. The structure (LDUS-MESFET) introduced layered doping under the lower gate of the channel, while optimizing [...] Read more.
A 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) with layered doping and undoped space regions (LDUS-MESFET) is proposed and simulated by ADS and ISE-TCAD software in this paper. The structure (LDUS-MESFET) introduced layered doping under the lower gate of the channel, while optimizing the thickness of the undoped region. Compared with the double-recessed 4H-SiC MESFET with partly undoped space region (DRUS-MESFET), the power added efficiency of the LDUS-MESFET is increased by 85.8%, and the saturation current is increased by 27.4%. Although the breakdown voltage of the device has decreased, the decrease is within an acceptable range. Meanwhile, the LDUS-MESFET has a smaller gate-source capacitance and a large transconductance. Therefore, the LDUS-MESFET can better balance DC and AC characteristics and improve power added efficiency (PAE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Vertical Field Emission Air-Channel Diodes and Transistors
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120858 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Vacuum channel transistors are potential candidates for low-loss and high-speed electronic devices beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). When the nanoscale transport distance is smaller than the mean free path (MFP) in atmospheric pressure, a transistor can work in air owing to the immunity of [...] Read more.
Vacuum channel transistors are potential candidates for low-loss and high-speed electronic devices beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). When the nanoscale transport distance is smaller than the mean free path (MFP) in atmospheric pressure, a transistor can work in air owing to the immunity of carrier collision. The nature of a vacuum channel allows devices to function in a high-temperature radiation environment. This research intended to investigate gate location in a vertical vacuum channel transistor. The influence of scattering under different ambient pressure levels was evaluated using a transport distance of about 60 nm, around the range of MFP in air. The finite element model suggests that gate electrodes should be near emitters in vertical vacuum channel transistors because the electrodes exhibit high-drive currents and low-subthreshold swings. The particle trajectory model indicates that collected electron flow (electric current) performs like a typical metal oxide semiconductor field effect-transistor (MOSFET), and that gate voltage plays a role in enhancing emission electrons. The results of the measurement on vertical diodes show that current and voltage under reduced pressure and filled with CO2 are different from those under atmospheric pressure. This result implies that this design can be used for gas and pressure sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
A Smart Floating Gate Transistor with Two Control Gates for Active Noise Control
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110722 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
A smart floating gate transistor with two control gates was proposed for active noise control in bioelectrical signal measurement. The device, which is low cost and capable of large-scale integration, was implemented in a standard single-poly complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process. A model of [...] Read more.
A smart floating gate transistor with two control gates was proposed for active noise control in bioelectrical signal measurement. The device, which is low cost and capable of large-scale integration, was implemented in a standard single-poly complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process. A model of the device was developed to demonstrate the working principle. Theoretical analysis and simulation results proved the superposition of the two control gates. A series of test experiments were carried out and the results showed that the device was in accordance with the basic electrical characteristics of a floating gate transistor, including the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics and the threshold characteristics observed on the two control gates. Based on the source follower circuit, the experimental results proved that the device can reduce interference by more than 29 dB, which demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed device for active noise control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of 1200 V SiC MOSFETs’ Surge Reliability
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070485 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
In this work, the surge reliability of 1200 V SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) from various manufactures has been investigated in the reverse conduction mode. The surge current tests have been carried out in the channel conduction and non-conduction modes. The experimental results [...] Read more.
In this work, the surge reliability of 1200 V SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) from various manufactures has been investigated in the reverse conduction mode. The surge current tests have been carried out in the channel conduction and non-conduction modes. The experimental results show that the maximum surge currents that the devices can withstand are similar for both cases. It is found that short circuits occurred between the gate and the source in the failed devices. The characteristics of the body diode have also changed after the tests. By measuring the device characteristics after each surge current is applied, it can be concluded that the damages to the gate oxide layer and the body diode occurred only when the maximum surge current is applied. By decapping the failed devices and observing the cross section of the damaged cell, it is found that high temperature caused by excessive current flow through the devices during the surge tests is the main reason for the device failure. Finally, the TCAD simulation of the devices has been carried out to bring insight into the operation of the devices during the surge events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved MRD 4H-SiC MESFET with High Power Added Efficiency
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070479 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
An improved multi-recessed double-recessed p-buffer layer 4H–SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (IMRD 4H-SiC MESFET) with high power added efficiency is proposed and studied by co-simulation of advanced design system (ADS) and technology computer aided design (TCAD) Sentaurus software in this paper. Based [...] Read more.
An improved multi-recessed double-recessed p-buffer layer 4H–SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (IMRD 4H-SiC MESFET) with high power added efficiency is proposed and studied by co-simulation of advanced design system (ADS) and technology computer aided design (TCAD) Sentaurus software in this paper. Based on multi-recessed double-recessed p-buffer layer 4H–SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MRD 4H-SiC MESFET), the recessed area of MRD MESFET on both sides of the gate is optimized, the direct current (DC), radio frequency (RF) parameters and efficiency of the device is balanced, and the IMRD MESFET with a best power-added efficiency (PAE) is finally obtained. The results show that the PAE of the IMRD MESFET is 68.33%, which is 28.66% higher than the MRD MESFET, and DC and RF performance have not dropped significantly. Compared with the MRD MESFET, the IMRD MESFET has a broader prospect in the field of microwave radio frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel High-Energy-Efficiency AlGaN/GaN HEMT with High Gate and Multi-Recessed Buffer
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070444 - 02 Jul 2019
Abstract
A novel AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) with a high gate and a multi-recessed buffer (HGMRB) for high-energy-efficiency applications is proposed, and the mechanism of the device is investigated using technology computer aided design (TCAD) Sentaurus and advanced design system (ADS) simulations. The gate [...] Read more.
A novel AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) with a high gate and a multi-recessed buffer (HGMRB) for high-energy-efficiency applications is proposed, and the mechanism of the device is investigated using technology computer aided design (TCAD) Sentaurus and advanced design system (ADS) simulations. The gate of the new structure is 5 nm higher than the barrier layer, and the buffer layer has two recessed regions in the buffer layer. The TCAD simulation results show that the maximum drain saturation current and transconductance of the HGMRB HEMT decreases slightly, but the breakdown voltage increases by 16.7%, while the gate-to-source capacitance decreases by 17%. The new structure has a better gain than the conventional HEMT. In radio frequency (RF) simulation, the results show that the HGMRB HEMT has 90.8%, 89.3%, and 84.4% power-added efficiency (PAE) at 600 MHz, 1.2 GHz, and 2.4 GHz, respectively, which ensures a large output power density. Overall, the results show that the HGMRB HEMT is a better prospect for high energy efficiency than the conventional HEMT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of 400 V Miniature DC Solid State Circuit Breaker with SiC MOSFET
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050314 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have the advantages of high-frequency switching capability and the capability to withstand high temperatures, which are suitable for switching devices in a direct current (DC) solid state circuit breaker (SSCB). To guarantee fast and reliable action [...] Read more.
Silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have the advantages of high-frequency switching capability and the capability to withstand high temperatures, which are suitable for switching devices in a direct current (DC) solid state circuit breaker (SSCB). To guarantee fast and reliable action of a 400 V DC SSCB with SiC MOSFET, circuit design and prototype development were carried out. Taking 400V DC microgrid as research background, firstly, the topology of DC SSCB with SiC MOSFET was introduced. Then, the drive circuit of SiC MOSFET, fault detection circuit, energy absorption circuit, and snubber circuit of the SSCB were designed and analyzed. Lastly, a prototype of the DC SSCB with SiC MOSFET was developed, tested, and compared with the SSCB with Silicon (Si) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Experimental results show that the designed circuits of SSCB with SiC MOSFET are valid. Also, the developed miniature DC SSCB with the SiC MOSFET exhibits faster reaction to the fault and can reduce short circuit time and fault current in contrast with the SSCB with Si IGBT. Hence, the proposed SSCB can better meet the requirements of DC microgrid protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Miniaturization of CMOS
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050293 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
When the international technology roadmap of semiconductors (ITRS) started almost five decades ago, the metal oxide effect transistor (MOSFET) as units in integrated circuits (IC) continuously miniaturized. The transistor structure has radically changed from its original planar 2D architecture to today’s 3D Fin [...] Read more.
When the international technology roadmap of semiconductors (ITRS) started almost five decades ago, the metal oxide effect transistor (MOSFET) as units in integrated circuits (IC) continuously miniaturized. The transistor structure has radically changed from its original planar 2D architecture to today’s 3D Fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) along with new designs for gate and source/drain regions and applying strain engineering. This article presents how the MOSFET structure and process have been changed (or modified) to follow the More Moore strategy. A focus has been on methodologies, challenges, and difficulties when ITRS approaches the end. The discussions extend to new channel materials beyond the Moore era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Transistors, Volume II)
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