Biomedical Microdevices: State of the Art and Trends

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "B:Biology and Biomedicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 10796

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. LEPABE-Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2. ALiCE-Associate Laboratory in Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: integration of microfluidic systems and molecular methods (e.g., fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR) for rapid pathogen detection and automated analysis of results; microbiology; diagnostic methods; PNA-FISH; nucleic acid-based methods; biofilms; lab-on-a-chip devices
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Interests: lab-on-a-chip devices; biomimetic particles; droplet microfluidics; blood analogues; CFD
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Interests: sensor development; spectroelectrochemistry; biochemistry; biophysics; enzymatic mechanism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomedical microdevices are broadly defined as the integration of electrochemical/mechanical systems with molecular/biological methods, with applications in environmental and health sectors and, subsequently, with high impact on society and business segments. In recent decades, miniaturization has undergone a resounding evolution, conferring versatility and simplicity to the systems along with time-to-result and cost-per-test savings. The development of new materials and fabrication and integration of different techniques have been enabling new and innovative approaches.

This Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on the state of the art and new trends of biomedical devices. We welcome manuscripts based on all aspects of biomedical microfluidic devices, including, but not exclusively, novel designs, nanomaterials and nanotechnology, nucleic acid analysis, cellular and molecular detection, cell enrichment, drug delivery, proteins, tissue and organ on chip, lab-on-a-chip, and point-of-care diagnostics.

Dr. Laura Cerqueira
Dr. João Mário Miranda
Dr. Anindita Sarkar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nucleic acid analysis
  • proteins
  • drug delivery
  • cellular and molecular detection
  • cell enrichment
  • microfluidics
  • miniaturization
  • organ-on-a-chip
  • lab-on-a-chip
  • biosensors
  • biomedical microfluidic devices
  • biofluids
  • point-of-care diagnostics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4208 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Chemofluidic Integrated Circuits by Multi-Material Printing
by Alexander Kutscher, Paula Kalenczuk, Mohammed Shahadha, Stefan Grünzner, Franziska Obst, Denise Gruner, Georgi Paschew, Anthony Beck, Steffen Howitz and Andreas Richter
Micromachines 2023, 14(3), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030699 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Photolithographic patterning of components and integrated circuits based on active polymers for microfluidics is challenging and not always efficient on a laboratory scale using the traditional mask-based fabrication procedures. Here, we present an alternative manufacturing process based on multi-material 3D printing that can [...] Read more.
Photolithographic patterning of components and integrated circuits based on active polymers for microfluidics is challenging and not always efficient on a laboratory scale using the traditional mask-based fabrication procedures. Here, we present an alternative manufacturing process based on multi-material 3D printing that can be used to print various active polymers in microfluidic structures that act as microvalves on large-area substrates efficiently in terms of processing time and consumption of active materials with a single machine. Based on the examples of two chemofluidic valve types, hydrogel-based closing valves and PEG-based opening valves, the respective printing procedures, essential influencing variables and special features are discussed, and the components are characterized with regard to their properties and tolerances. The functionality of the concept is demonstrated by a specific chemofluidic chip which automates an analysis procedure typical of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Multi-material 3D printing allows active-material devices to be produced on chip substrates with tolerances comparable to photolithography but is faster and very flexible for small quantities of up to about 50 chips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices: State of the Art and Trends)
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8 pages, 1529 KiB  
Communication
Fabrication of Gold Nanostructures on Quartz Crystal Microbalance Surface Using Nanoimprint Lithography for Sensing Applications
by Ryosuke Nishitsuji, Kenji Sueyoshi, Hideaki Hisamoto and Tatsuro Endo
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091430 - 29 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1658
Abstract
A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a sensor that uses the piezoelectric properties of quartz crystals sandwiched between conductive electrodes. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is an analytical technique that uses the collective vibration of free electrons on metal surfaces. These measurements are [...] Read more.
A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a sensor that uses the piezoelectric properties of quartz crystals sandwiched between conductive electrodes. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is an analytical technique that uses the collective vibration of free electrons on metal surfaces. These measurements are known as analysis techniques that use metal surfaces and have been applied as biosensors because they allow for the label-free monitoring of biomolecular binding reactions. These measurements can be used in combination to analyze the reactions that occur on metal surfaces because different types of information can be obtained from them. However, as different devices are used for these measurements, the results often contain device-to-device errors and are not accurately evaluated. In this study, we directly fabricated gold nanostructures on the surface of a QCM to create a device that can simultaneously measure the mass and refractive index information of the analyte. In addition, the device could be easily fabricated because nanoimprint lithography was used to fabricate gold nanostructures. As a proof of concept, the nanoparticle adsorption on gold nanostructures was evaluated, and it was observed that mass and refractive index information were successfully obtained without device-to-device errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices: State of the Art and Trends)
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15 pages, 3399 KiB  
Article
Versatile and Low-Cost Fabrication of Modular Lock-and-Key Microfluidics for Integrated Connector Mixer Using a Stereolithography 3D Printing
by Isa Anshori, Vincent Lukito, Rafita Adhawiyah, Delpita Putri, Suksmandhira Harimurti, Tati Latifah Erawati Rajab, Arfat Pradana, Mohammad Akbar, Mas Rizky Anggun Adipurna Syamsunarno, Murni Handayani, Agnes Purwidyantri and Briliant Adhi Prabowo
Micromachines 2022, 13(8), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13081197 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
We present a low-cost and simple method to fabricate a novel lock-and-key mixer microfluidics using an economic stereolithography (SLA) three-dimensional (3D) printer, which costs less than USD 400 for the investment. The proposed study is promising for a high throughput fabrication module, typically [...] Read more.
We present a low-cost and simple method to fabricate a novel lock-and-key mixer microfluidics using an economic stereolithography (SLA) three-dimensional (3D) printer, which costs less than USD 400 for the investment. The proposed study is promising for a high throughput fabrication module, typically limited by conventional microfluidics fabrications, such as photolithography and polymer-casting methods. We demonstrate the novel modular lock-and-key mixer for the connector and its chamber modules with optimized parameters, such as exposure condition and printing orientation. In addition, the optimization of post-processing was performed to investigate the reliability of the fabricated hollow structures, which are fundamental to creating a fluidic channel or chamber. We found out that by using an inexpensive 3D printer, the fabricated resolution can be pushed down to 850 µm and 550 µm size for squared- and circled-shapes, respectively, by the gradual hollow structure, applying vertical printing orientation. These strategies opened up the possibility of developing straightforward microfluidics platforms that could replace conventional microfluidics mold fabrication methods, such as photolithography and milling, which are costly and time consuming. Considerably cheap commercial resin and its tiny volume employed for a single printing procedure significantly cut down the estimated fabrication cost to less than 50 cents USD/module. The simulation study unravels the prominent properties of the fabricated devices for biological fluid mixers, such as PBS, urine and plasma blood. This study is eminently prospective toward microfluidics application in clinical biosensing, where disposable, low-cost, high-throughput, and reproducible chips are highly required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices: State of the Art and Trends)
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Review

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36 pages, 12155 KiB  
Review
Advances in Integration, Wearable Applications, and Artificial Intelligence of Biomedical Microfluidics Systems
by Xingfeng Ma, Gang Guo, Xuanye Wu, Qiang Wu, Fangfang Liu, Hua Zhang, Nan Shi and Yimin Guan
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050972 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2819
Abstract
Microfluidics attracts much attention due to its multiple advantages such as high throughput, rapid analysis, low sample volume, and high sensitivity. Microfluidics has profoundly influenced many fields including chemistry, biology, medicine, information technology, and other disciplines. However, some stumbling stones (miniaturization, integration, and [...] Read more.
Microfluidics attracts much attention due to its multiple advantages such as high throughput, rapid analysis, low sample volume, and high sensitivity. Microfluidics has profoundly influenced many fields including chemistry, biology, medicine, information technology, and other disciplines. However, some stumbling stones (miniaturization, integration, and intelligence) strain the development of industrialization and commercialization of microchips. The miniaturization of microfluidics means fewer samples and reagents, shorter times to results, and less footprint space consumption, enabling a high throughput and parallelism of sample analysis. Additionally, micro-size channels tend to produce laminar flow, which probably permits some creative applications that are not accessible to traditional fluid-processing platforms. The reasonable integration of biomedical/physical biosensors, semiconductor microelectronics, communications, and other cutting-edge technologies should greatly expand the applications of current microfluidic devices and help develop the next generation of lab-on-a-chip (LOC). At the same time, the evolution of artificial intelligence also gives another strong impetus to the rapid development of microfluidics. Biomedical applications based on microfluidics normally bring a large amount of complex data, so it is a big challenge for researchers and technicians to analyze those huge and complicated data accurately and quickly. To address this problem, machine learning is viewed as an indispensable and powerful tool in processing the data collected from micro-devices. In this review, we mainly focus on discussing the integration, miniaturization, portability, and intelligence of microfluidics technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices: State of the Art and Trends)
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