Special Issue "Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mikhaïl A. Lebyodkin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Microstructures and Materials Mechanics (LEM3), Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, F-57000 Metz, France
Interests: self-organization phenomena in plasticity; plastic instabilities; metal alloys; relationships between mechanical and physical (magnetic, electronic) properties
Dr. Vincent Taupin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Microstructures and Materials Mechanics (LEM3), Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, F-57000 Metz, France
Interests: multiscale modeling of plasticity and interfaces in crystals; dislocations; disclinations; grain boundaries; size effects; strain hardening

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last few decades have seen a considerable progress in the development of high performance metals and alloys that have microstructures and plastic behaviors with a high level of complexity. Ultrafine-grain materials, high-entropy alloys, and metallic glasses have been the focus of research and are gaining a place in the industry. Concurrently, the collective, heterogeneous, and self-organized nature of plastic deformation, manifesting itself on mesoscopic scales, has been generally recognized. Such progress demanded the development of advanced multiscale modeling frameworks (Ab-Initio, molecular dynamics, discrete dislocation dynamics, strain gradient models, etc.), experimental characterization tools (in-situ TEM, DIC, nanoindentation, micropillar testing, etc.) and analyses of the observed and simulated complex spatiotemporal behaviors, which aim at establishing process–microstructure–property links and bridging gaps from the elementary atomic-scale mechanism, up to the laboratory sample dimension. Progress in the field of plasticity of metals and alloys keeps growing fast and new materials are constantly being developed, concurrently with the emergence of modern processing routes. In parallel, considerable advances are made in the characterization and modeling of microstructures, with an emphasis on setting up a synergy between theoretical and experimental methods. This Special Issue aims at synthetizing recent progress and trends in the area of plasticity of metals and alloys, with a focus on:

  • New approaches to old questions and traditional model materials, to get a deeper understanding of physical mechanisms;
  • New materials and processing routes (high entropy alloys, metallic glasses, severe plastic deformation, additive manufacturing, etc.);
  • Multiscale modeling (atomistic models, discrete dislocation dynamics, strain gradient models, homogenization models, etc.);
  • Experimental characterization methods (HR-DIC, 3D-EBSD, HR-TEM, ECCI, TKD, etc.).

Dr. Mikhaïl A. Lebyodkin
Dr. Vincent Taupin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metals
  • Alloys
  • Mechanisms of plasticity
  • Microstructure design
  • Novel metallic materials
  • Novel processes
  • Advanced characterization methods
  • Multi-scale experiment and modeling
  • Collective behavior of defects

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys
Metals 2021, 11(4), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040615 - 10 Apr 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Having been at the center of technological progress for thousands of years, metals continue to be a primary material in our lives today [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)

Research

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Article
Experimental and Computational Approach to Fatigue Behavior of Polycrystalline Tantalum
Metals 2021, 11(3), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11030416 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 513
Abstract
This work provides an experimental and computational analysis of low cycle fatigue of a tantalum polycrystalline aggregate. The experimental results include strain field and lattice rotation field measurements at the free surface of a tension–compression test sample after 100, 1000, 2000, and 3000 [...] Read more.
This work provides an experimental and computational analysis of low cycle fatigue of a tantalum polycrystalline aggregate. The experimental results include strain field and lattice rotation field measurements at the free surface of a tension–compression test sample after 100, 1000, 2000, and 3000 cycles at ±0.2% overall strain. They reveal the development of strong heterogeneites of strain, plastic slip activity, and surface roughness during cycling. Intergranular and transgranular cracks are observed after 5000 cycles. The Crystal Plasticity Finite Element simulation recording more than 1000 cycles confirms the large strain dispersion at the free surface and shows evidence of strong local ratcheting phenomena occurring in particular at some grain boundaries. The amount of ratcheting plastic strain at each cycle is used as the main ingredient of a new local fatigue crack initiation criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Shear Banding in a Contact Problem between Metallic Glasses
Metals 2021, 11(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020257 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
The case of a frictionless contact between a spherical body and a flat metallic glass is studied using a mesoscopic description of plasticity combined with a semi-analytical description of the elastic deformation in a contact geometry (code ISAAC). Plasticity is described by irreversible [...] Read more.
The case of a frictionless contact between a spherical body and a flat metallic glass is studied using a mesoscopic description of plasticity combined with a semi-analytical description of the elastic deformation in a contact geometry (code ISAAC). Plasticity is described by irreversible strain rearrangements in the maximum deviatoric strain direction, above some random strain threshold. In the absence of adhesion or friction, the plastic deformation is initiated below the surface. To represent the singularities due to adhesion, initial rearrangements are forced at the boundary of the contact. Then, the structural disorder is introduced in two different levels: either in the local strain thresholds for plasticity or in the residual plastic strains. It is shown that the spatial organization of plastic rearrangements is not universal, but it is very dependent on the choice of disorder and external loading conditions. Spatial curved shear bands may appear below the contact but only for a very specific set of parameters, especially those characterizing the random thresholds compared to externally induced strain gradients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Effects of Manganese and Zirconium Dispersoids on Strain Localization in Aluminum Alloys
Metals 2021, 11(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020200 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
Strain localization in aluminum alloys can cause early failure of the material. Manganese and zirconium dispersoids, often present in aluminum alloys to control the grain size, have been found to be able to homogenize strain. To understand the effects of dispersoids on strain [...] Read more.
Strain localization in aluminum alloys can cause early failure of the material. Manganese and zirconium dispersoids, often present in aluminum alloys to control the grain size, have been found to be able to homogenize strain. To understand the effects of dispersoids on strain localization, a study of slip bands formed during tensile tests is carried out both experimentally and through simulations using interferometry and discrete dislocations dynamics. Simulations with various dispersoid size, volume fraction, and nature were carried out. The presence of dispersoids is proven to homogenize strain both is the experimental and numerical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Revisiting the Application of Field Dislocation and Disclination Mechanics to Grain Boundaries
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111517 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 462
Abstract
We review the mechanical theory of dislocation and disclination density fields and its application to grain boundary modeling. The theory accounts for the incompatibility of the elastic strain and curvature tensors due to the presence of dislocations and disclinations. The free energy density [...] Read more.
We review the mechanical theory of dislocation and disclination density fields and its application to grain boundary modeling. The theory accounts for the incompatibility of the elastic strain and curvature tensors due to the presence of dislocations and disclinations. The free energy density is assumed to be quadratic in elastic strain and curvature and has nonlocal character. The balance of loads in the body is described by higher-order equations using the work-conjugates of the strain and curvature tensors, i.e., the stress and couple-stress tensors. Conservation statements for the translational and rotational discontinuities provide a dynamic framework for dislocation and disclination motion in terms of transport relationships. Plasticity of the body is therefore viewed as being mediated by both dislocation and disclination motion. The driving forces for these motions are identified from the mechanical dissipation, which provides guidelines for the admissible constitutive relations. On this basis, the theory is expressed as a set of partial differential equations where the unknowns are the material displacement and the dislocation and disclination density fields. The theory is applied in cases where rotational defects matter in the structure and deformation of the body, such as grain boundaries in polycrystals and grain boundary-mediated plasticity. Characteristic examples are provided for the grain boundary structure in terms of periodic arrays of disclination dipoles and for grain boundary migration under applied shear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Quasi-Particle Approach to the Autowave Physics of Metal Plasticity
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111446 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 395
Abstract
This paper is the first attempt to use the quasi-particle representations in plasticity physics. The de Broglie equation is applied to the analysis of autowave processes of localized plastic flow in various metals. The possibilities and perspectives of such approach are discussed. It [...] Read more.
This paper is the first attempt to use the quasi-particle representations in plasticity physics. The de Broglie equation is applied to the analysis of autowave processes of localized plastic flow in various metals. The possibilities and perspectives of such approach are discussed. It is found that the localization of plastic deformation can be conveniently addressed by invoking a hypothetical quasi-particle conjugated with the autowave process of flow localization. The mass of the quasi-particle and the area of its localization have been defined. The probable properties of the quasi-particle have been estimated. Taking the quasi-particle approach, the characteristics of the plastic flow localization process are considered herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Scaling in the Local Strain-Rate Field during Jerky Flow in an Al-3%Mg Alloy
Metals 2020, 10(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010134 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Jerky flow in alloys, or the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, presents an outstanding example of self-organization phenomena in plasticity. Recent acoustic emission investigations revealed that its microscopic dynamics is governed by scale invariance manifested as power-law statistics of intermittent events. As the macroscopic stress [...] Read more.
Jerky flow in alloys, or the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, presents an outstanding example of self-organization phenomena in plasticity. Recent acoustic emission investigations revealed that its microscopic dynamics is governed by scale invariance manifested as power-law statistics of intermittent events. As the macroscopic stress serrations show both scale invariance and characteristic scales, the micro-macro transition is an intricate question requiring an assessment of intermediate behaviors. The first attempt of such an investigation is undertaken in the present paper by virtue of a one-dimensional (1D) local extensometry technique and statistical analysis of time series. The data obtained complete the missing link and bear evidence to a coexistence of characteristic large events and power laws for smaller events. The scale separation is interpreted in terms of the phenomena of self-organized criticality and synchronization in complex systems. Furthermore, it is found that both the stress serrations and local strain-rate bursts agree with the so-called fluctuation scaling related to general mathematical laws and unifying various specific mechanisms proposed to explain scale invariance in diverse systems. Prospects of further investigations including the duality manifested by a wavy spatial organization of the local bursts of plastic deformation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Ductile Compressive Behavior of Biomedical Alloys
Metals 2020, 10(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010060 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
The mechanical properties of ductile metals are generally assessed by means of tensile testing. Compression testing of metal alloys is usually only applied for brittle materials, or if the available specimen size is limited (e.g., in micro indentation). In the present study a [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of ductile metals are generally assessed by means of tensile testing. Compression testing of metal alloys is usually only applied for brittle materials, or if the available specimen size is limited (e.g., in micro indentation). In the present study a previously developed test procedure for compressive testing was applied to determine the elastic properties and the yield curves of different biomedical alloys, such as 316L (two different batches), Ti-6Al-7Nb, and Co-28Cr-6Mo. The results were compared and validated against data from tensile testing. The converted flow curves for true stress vs. logarithmic strain of the compressive samples coincided well up to the yield strength of the tensile samples. The developed compression test method was shown to be reliable and valid, and it can be applied in cases where only small material batches are available, e.g., from additive manufacturing. Nevertheless, a certain yield asymmetry was observed with one of the tested 316L stainless steel alloys and the Co-28Cr-6Mo. Possible hypotheses and explanations for this yield asymmetry are given in the discussion section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Understanding the Interdependence of Penetration Depth and Deformation on Nanoindentation of Nanoporous Silver
Metals 2019, 9(12), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121346 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
A silver-based nanoporous material was produced by dealloying (selective chemical etching) of an Ag38.75Cu38.75Si22.5 crystalline alloy. Composed of connected ligaments, this material was imaged using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion-beam (FIB) scanning electron microscope tomography. [...] Read more.
A silver-based nanoporous material was produced by dealloying (selective chemical etching) of an Ag38.75Cu38.75Si22.5 crystalline alloy. Composed of connected ligaments, this material was imaged using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion-beam (FIB) scanning electron microscope tomography. Its mechanical behavior was evaluated using nanoindentation and found to be heterogeneous, with density variation over a length scale of a few tens of nanometers, similar to the indent size. This technique proved relevant to the investigation of a material’s mechanical strength, as well as to how its behavior related to the material’s microstructure. The hardness is recorded as a function of the indent depth and a phenomenological description based on strain gradient and densification kinetic was proposed to describe the resultant depth dependence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Modeling the Strain-Range Dependent Cyclic Hardening of SS304 and 08Ch18N10T Stainless Steel with a Memory Surface
Metals 2019, 9(8), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080832 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
This paper deals with the development of a cyclic plasticity model suitable for predicting the strain range-dependent behavior of austenitic steels. The proposed cyclic plasticity model uses the virtual back-stress variable corresponding to a cyclically-stable material under strain control. This new internal variable [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the development of a cyclic plasticity model suitable for predicting the strain range-dependent behavior of austenitic steels. The proposed cyclic plasticity model uses the virtual back-stress variable corresponding to a cyclically-stable material under strain control. This new internal variable is defined by means of a memory surface introduced in the stress space. The linear isotropic hardening rule is also superposed. First, the proposed model was validated on experimental data published for the SS304 material (Kang et al., Constitutive modeling of strain range dependent cyclic hardening. Int J Plast 19 (2003) 1801–1819). Subsequently, the proposed cyclic plasticity model was applied to our own experimental data from uniaxial tests realized on 08Ch18N10T at room temperature. The new cyclic plasticity model can be calibrated by the relatively simple fitting procedure that is described in the paper. A comparison between the results of a numerical simulation and the results of real experiments demonstrates the robustness of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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Review

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Review
Dynamic Steady State by Unlimited Unidirectional Plastic Deformation of Crystalline Materials Deforming by Dislocation Glide at Low to Moderate Temperatures
Metals 2020, 10(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010066 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
This paper presents an outline of the quest for the mechanical steady state that an unlimited unidirectional plastic strain applied at low to moderate temperature is presumed to develop in single-phase crystalline materials deforming by dislocation glide, with particular emphasis on its athermal [...] Read more.
This paper presents an outline of the quest for the mechanical steady state that an unlimited unidirectional plastic strain applied at low to moderate temperature is presumed to develop in single-phase crystalline materials deforming by dislocation glide, with particular emphasis on its athermal strength limit. Fifty years ago, the study of crystalline plasticity was focused on the strain range covered by tensile tests, i.e., on true strains less than unity; the canonic stress–strain behavior was the succession of stages I, II, and III, the latter supposedly leading to a steady state defining a temperature and strain rate-dependent flow stress limit. The experimentally available strain range was increased up to Von Mises equivalent strains as high as 10 by the extensive use of torsion tests or by combinations of intermittent deformations by wire drawing or rolling with tensile tests during the 1970s. The assumed exhaustion of the strain-hardening rate was not verified; new deformation stages, IV and V, were proposed, and the predicted strength limit for deformed materials was nearly doubled. Since the advent of severe plastic deformation techniques in the 1980s, such a range was still significantly augmented. Strains of the order of several hundreds were routinely reached, but former conclusions relative to the limit of the flow stress were not substantially changed. However, very recently, the plastic strain range has allegedly been expanded to 105 true strain units by using torsion under high pressure (HPT), surprisingly for some common metals, without experimental confirmation of having reached any steady state. This overview has been motivated by the scientific and technological interest of such an open-ended story. A tentative explanation for the newly proposed ultra-severe hardening deformation stage is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plasticity of Metals and Alloys)
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