Special Issue "Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Francisco Paula Gómez Cuevas

Department of Chemical Engineering, Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Huelva (Spain), E.T.S. Ingeniería, Avda. Tres de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: powder metallurgy; mechanical alloying; sintering; field assisted sintering; amorphous materials; effective properties of porous materials; modeling of effective properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metallic parts can be obtained with a wide variety of techniques. One of these techniques, traditionally known as powder metallurgy, uses powders as the starting material, which are processed to obtain the final product. In this Special Issue of Metals, we are interested in providing a general picture of the latest developments of two aspects related with metal powders: synthesis and processing.

Powder synthesis through mechanical alloying, atomization, evaporation–condensation, electrochemical reduction processes, phase separation, etc., leads to different purities, alloy composition limits, particle sizes, shapes, and microstructures. This allows a wide variety of metal powders, not only regarding composition but also properties. These powders can then be processed through traditional press and sinter powder metallurgy techniques, hot isostatic pressing, injection molding, field-assisted electrical sintering techniques, thermal spray or additive manufacturing techniques, among others, leading to quite different final products.

Articles and reviews on advances in known synthesis and processing technologies, as well as new developments in these research fields, both from academic and industrial researchers are welcome in this Special Issue.  

Prof. Francisco Paula Gómez Cuevas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Powder synthesis
  • Mechanical alloying
  • Atomization
  • Metal oxide reduction
  • Nanopowders
  • Powder metallurgy
  • Metal injection moulding
  • Field assisted sintering
  • Additive manufacturing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Microstructure of a V-Containing Cobalt Based Alloy Prepared by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Pressed Sintering
Metals 2019, 9(4), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040464
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a bulk V-containing cobalt-based alloy with high chromium and tungsten contents was prepared by mechanical alloying and hot pressed sintering using Co, Cr, W, Ni, V and C pure element powders. XRD, SEM, TEM and Vickers hardness tests were employed [...] Read more.
In this paper, a bulk V-containing cobalt-based alloy with high chromium and tungsten contents was prepared by mechanical alloying and hot pressed sintering using Co, Cr, W, Ni, V and C pure element powders. XRD, SEM, TEM and Vickers hardness tests were employed to characterize the microstructure and mechanical properties of the mechanical alloyed powders and hot pressed bulk cobalt-based alloy. The results show that all elements can be mixed uniformly and that the Co, Cr, and Ni elements were made into an amorphous state after 10 h ball milling in a high energy ball miller. The microstructure of the prepared bulk alloy was composed of a γ-Co matrix with a large number of nano-twins and fine M23C6 and M12C carbide particles well-distributed in the alloy. The V element was mainly distributed in M23C6-type carbide and no V-rich MC-type carbide was found in the microstructure. The prepared alloy had a high hardness of 960 ± 9.2 HV and good a fracture toughness KIc of about 10.5 ± 0.46 MPa·m1/2. The microstructure formation and strengthening mechanisms of the prepared cobalt-based alloy are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Mn55Bi45 Powders Obtained by Different Ball Milling Processes
Metals 2019, 9(4), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040441
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Low-temperature phase (LTP) MnBi is considered as a promising rare-earth-free permanent magnetic material with high coercivity and unique positive temperature coefficient of coercivity. Mn55Bi45 ribbons with high purity of LTP MnBi phase were prepared by melt spinning. Then, Mn55 [...] Read more.
Low-temperature phase (LTP) MnBi is considered as a promising rare-earth-free permanent magnetic material with high coercivity and unique positive temperature coefficient of coercivity. Mn55Bi45 ribbons with high purity of LTP MnBi phase were prepared by melt spinning. Then, Mn55Bi45 powders with different particle size were obtained by low-energy ball milling (LEBM) with and without added surfactant. The coercivity is enhanced in both cases. Microstructure characterization reveals that Mn55Bi45 powders obtained by surfactant assisted low-energy ball milling (SALEBM) have better particle size uniformity and show higher decomposition of LTP MnBi. Coercivity can achieve a value of 17.2 kOe and the saturation magnetization (Ms) is 16 emu/g when Mn55Bi45 powders milled about 10 h by SALEBM. Coercivity has achieved a maximum value of 18.2 kOe at room temperature, and 23.5 kOe at 380 K after 14 h of LEBM. Furthermore, Mn55Bi45 powders obtained by LEBM have better magnetic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Strategy to Enhance Magnetic Properties of Fe78Si9B13 Amorphous Powder Cores in the Industrial Condition
Metals 2019, 9(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030381
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the soft magnetic properties of Fe78Si9B13 amorphous magnetic powder cores (AMPCs) were enhanced by coordinately adjusting the technological parameters, including the particle size distribution, molding pressure, and coating agent content, in the industrial condition. The [...] Read more.
In this study, the soft magnetic properties of Fe78Si9B13 amorphous magnetic powder cores (AMPCs) were enhanced by coordinately adjusting the technological parameters, including the particle size distribution, molding pressure, and coating agent content, in the industrial condition. The results show that the optimized comprehensive soft magnetic properties of the Fe78Si9B13 AMPCs could be obtained under the following process conditions: (1) the distribution of particle size is 20 wt.% for 140–170 mesh, 70 wt.% for 170–270 mesh, and 10 wt.% for 270–400 mesh; (2) the molding pressure is in the range of 2.35–2.45 GPa; and (3) the additive amount of sodium silicate is 1.5 wt.%. After the collaborative optimization, the AMPCs’ compact density, ρ, the effective permeability, μe, and the residual effective permeability at the applied magnetizing field of 7.96 kA/m, μe@7.96 kA/m, increased from 5.61 g/cm3 to 5.86 g/cm3, from 58.13 to 77.01, and from 40.36 to 49.57, respectively. The attenuation ratio of the effective permeability, when in the frequency band of 20–100 kHz, was less than 0.85%. The core loss at the 50 kHz for the maximum magnetic flux density of 0.1 T reduced from 380.85 mW/cm3 to 335.23 mW/cm3. This work will encourage the further application of Fe-based AMPCs in the fields of electronics and telecommunication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials Using Aluminum Alloys via Hot Extrusion
Metals 2019, 9(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020210
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we have attempted to manufacture functionally graded materials (FGMs) using aluminum alloys 3003 and 6063 via a hot extrusion process to realize multifunctionality through achieving high strength and low weight. The FGMs were fabricated using Al3003 powder and Al6063 bulk [...] Read more.
In this study, we have attempted to manufacture functionally graded materials (FGMs) using aluminum alloys 3003 and 6063 via a hot extrusion process to realize multifunctionality through achieving high strength and low weight. The FGMs were fabricated using Al3003 powder and Al6063 bulk to improve the interfacial properties. Particle size analysis and X-ray fluorescence of the Al3003 powder were used to analyze the composition of general Al3003; microstructure analysis revealed improved hardness with almost no defects, such as cracks at the interface between the two materials. The experimentally determined tensile strength of the composite was observed to be higher than the theoretical value calculated using the rule of mixtures; the strengthening mechanisms considered for the calculations were grain size reduction and precipitation hardening. In particular, we attempted to predict the strengthening effect resulting from the fine grain size of the powder and grain size reduction due to the extrusion process using the Hall–Petch equation. The Kelly–Tyson equation was also used to calculate the theoretical strength in the presence of the strengthening phases. Based on these results, it was confirmed that FGMs can be successfully produced using the hot extrusion process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Tantalum Powder via the Magnesium Reduction of Tantalum Pentoxide
Metals 2019, 9(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020205
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract
The metallic tantalum powder was successfully synthesized via reduction of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) with magnesium gas at 1073~1223 K for 10 h inside the chamber held under an argon atmosphere. The powder obtained after reduction shows the Ta–MgO mixed [...] Read more.
The metallic tantalum powder was successfully synthesized via reduction of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) with magnesium gas at 1073~1223 K for 10 h inside the chamber held under an argon atmosphere. The powder obtained after reduction shows the Ta–MgO mixed structure and that the MgO component was dissolved and removed fully via stirring in a water-based HCl solution. The particle size in the tantalum powder obtained after acid leaching was shown to be in a range of 50~300 nm, and the mean internal crystallite sizes measured by the Scherrer equation varied from 11.5 to 24.7 nm according to the increase in reduction temperatures. The temperature satisfactory for a maximal reduction effect was found to be 1173 K because the oxygen content was minimally saturated to about 1.3 wt %. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Mg and MgO By-Products through Magnesiothermic Reduction of Ti Powder in Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis
Metals 2019, 9(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020169
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Commercial production of titanium involves chlorination using chlorine gas that can be converted to hydrochloric acid by atmospheric moisture and is hazardous to human health. In the titanium production process, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is one of the process to directly reduce titanium dioxide. [...] Read more.
Commercial production of titanium involves chlorination using chlorine gas that can be converted to hydrochloric acid by atmospheric moisture and is hazardous to human health. In the titanium production process, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is one of the process to directly reduce titanium dioxide. In this work, titanium powder was prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis using titanium dioxide as the starting material and magnesium powder as a reducing agent. After the reaction, magnesium and magnesium oxide by-products were then removed by acid leaching under different leaching conditions, leaving behind pure Ti. During each leaching condition, the temperature of the leaching solution was carefully monitored. After leaching, the recovered titanium in the form of a powder was collected, washed with water and dried in a vacuum oven. Detailed compositional, structural, and morphological analyses were performed to determine the presence of residual reaction by-products. It was found that leaching in 0.4 M hydrochloric acid followed by second leaching in 7.5 M hydrochloric acid is the optimum leaching condition. Furthermore, it was also noticed that total volume of solution in 0.4 M hydrochloric acid leaching condition is advantageous to maintain uniform temperature during the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Production of Ultrafine Grained Hardmetals by Electrical Resistance Sintering
Metals 2019, 9(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020159
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
In this work, powders of cemented ultrafine WC-6 wt.% Co were consolidated. The feasibility of the medium frequency electrical resistance sintering (MF-ERS) technique were studied to prevent WC grain growth during consolidation. Porosity and hardness were measured at different zones of the MF-ERS [...] Read more.
In this work, powders of cemented ultrafine WC-6 wt.% Co were consolidated. The feasibility of the medium frequency electrical resistance sintering (MF-ERS) technique were studied to prevent WC grain growth during consolidation. Porosity and hardness were measured at different zones of the MF-ERS compacts. The compacts showed a slight inhomogeneity in their properties across their section, but it was controlled by choosing suitable values of the processing parameters. The optimal values for the material studied were current intensities between 7 and 8 kA and sintering times between 600 and 800 ms. The main achievement using this consolidation method was that sintered compacts essentially maintained the initial WC grain size. This was attained to processing times of less than 2 s, and without the need for using protective atmospheres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
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