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Open AccessArticle

Balancing Porosity and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Samples to Favor Cellular Growth against Bacteria

1
Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencia de los Materiales y del Transporte, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad de Sevilla, Virgen de África 7, 41011 Sevilla, Spain
3
Grupo TAR, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad de Sevilla, 41004 Sevilla, Spain
4
Institute of Applied Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin, Germany
5
Unidad de Materiales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A. C., 97205 Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101039
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 22 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
Two main problems limit the success of titanium implants: bacterial infection, which restricts their osseointegration capacity; and the stiffness mismatch between the implant and the host cortical bone, which promotes bone resorption and risk of fracture. Porosity incorporation may reduce this difference in stiffness but compromise biomechanical behavior. In this work, the relationship between the microstructure (content, size, and shape of pores) and the antibacterial and cellular behavior of samples fabricated by the space-holder technique (50 vol % NH4HCO3 and three ranges of particle sizes) is established. Results are discussed in terms of the best biomechanical properties and biofunctional activity balance (cell biocompatibility and antibacterial behavior). All substrates achieved suitable cell biocompatibility of premioblast and osteoblast in adhesion and proliferation processes. It is worth to highlighting that samples fabricated with the 100–200 μm space-holder present better mechanical behavior—in terms of stiffness, microhardness, and yield strength—which make them a very suitable material to replace cortical bone tissues. Those results exposed the relationship between the surface properties and the race of bacteria and mammalian cells for the surface with the aim to promote cellular growth over bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone implant; porous titanium; cellular adhesion; bacteria colonization; osseointegration bone implant; porous titanium; cellular adhesion; bacteria colonization; osseointegration
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Civantos, A.; Beltrán, A.M.; Domínguez-Trujillo, C.; Garvi, M.D.; Lebrato, J.; Rodríguez-Ortiz, J.A.; García-Moreno, F.; Cauich-Rodriguez, J.V.; Guzman, J.J.; Torres, Y. Balancing Porosity and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Samples to Favor Cellular Growth against Bacteria. Metals 2019, 9, 1039.

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