Next Article in Journal
Advances in Hydrometallurgy
Previous Article in Journal
Creep Properties Assessment by Shear Punch Creep Test and IMC Morphology of Aged Pb-Free Solder Joint/UBM
Previous Article in Special Issue
Extraction of Tantalum Powder via the Magnesium Reduction of Tantalum Pentoxide
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2019, 9(2), 210;

Fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials Using Aluminum Alloys via Hot Extrusion

Department of Materials System Engineering, Pukyong National University, 365, Sinseon-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48547, Korea
Department of Research and Development, Daeyeong Metal. Co., Ltd., 1209-7 SinSang-ri Jinryang-eup, Kyungsan 38470, Korea
Department of Converged Technology Research, Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Goiyean-dong, Yeongcheon, Gyeongbuk 38899, Korea
Department of Composites Research, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon-daero, Seongsan-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 51508, Korea
Department of Research and Development, Next Generation Material Co., Ltd., 365, Sinseon-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48547, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders: Synthesis and Processing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4319 KB, uploaded 11 February 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports


In this study, we have attempted to manufacture functionally graded materials (FGMs) using aluminum alloys 3003 and 6063 via a hot extrusion process to realize multifunctionality through achieving high strength and low weight. The FGMs were fabricated using Al3003 powder and Al6063 bulk to improve the interfacial properties. Particle size analysis and X-ray fluorescence of the Al3003 powder were used to analyze the composition of general Al3003; microstructure analysis revealed improved hardness with almost no defects, such as cracks at the interface between the two materials. The experimentally determined tensile strength of the composite was observed to be higher than the theoretical value calculated using the rule of mixtures; the strengthening mechanisms considered for the calculations were grain size reduction and precipitation hardening. In particular, we attempted to predict the strengthening effect resulting from the fine grain size of the powder and grain size reduction due to the extrusion process using the Hall–Petch equation. The Kelly–Tyson equation was also used to calculate the theoretical strength in the presence of the strengthening phases. Based on these results, it was confirmed that FGMs can be successfully produced using the hot extrusion process. View Full-Text
Keywords: functionally graded materials (FGMs); aluminum alloy; hot extrusion; Hall–Petch equation; Kelly–Tyson equation functionally graded materials (FGMs); aluminum alloy; hot extrusion; Hall–Petch equation; Kelly–Tyson equation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, D.; Park, K.; Chang, M.; Joo, S.; Hong, S.; Cho, S.; Kwon, H. Fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials Using Aluminum Alloys via Hot Extrusion. Metals 2019, 9, 210.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top