Special Issue "Selected Papers from LightMat 2019"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Additive Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Joseph D Robson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Materials, University of Manchester, MSS Tower, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Interests: : Aluminium alloys; magnesium alloys; metallurgy; thermomechanical processing; modelling and simulation
Prof. Dr. Philip B Prangnell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Materials, University of Manchester, MSS Tower, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Interests: Aluminium alloys; magnesium alloys; titanium alloys; metallurgy; thermomechanical processing; microstructural analysis; additive manufacturing; welding and joining
Dr. Martin Jackson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK
Interests: Titanium alloys; powder metallurgy; thermomechanical processing; microstructural analysis; modelling and simulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Axel von Hehl
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Leibniz Institute for Materials Engineering – IWT, University of Bremen, Bremen 28359, Germany
Interests: alloy development for additive manufacturing; multi-material design; hybrid materials; selective laser melting; heat treatment; joining
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The manufacture of light alloys (Al, Mg, Ti) into advanced wrought products is widely recognised as a key technology for a sustainable future. Light alloys are mass efficient, cost effective, and highly recyclable. 85% of the market in light alloys is in wrought products, formed during manufacture to achieve their required shape, microstructure, and properties. Rapid growth in the transport market and the emerging potential of digital simulation has produced an unprecedented climate for commercial opportunities in high value-added manufacturing with these materials. These opportunities include exponential growth in electric vehicles, new alloy developments, emerging flexible forming processes, and novel recycling technologies.

Challenges and opportunities in light metals are the focus of LightMAT 2019 (https://lightmat2019.dgm.de/home/), the 3rd International Conference on Light Materials, to be held 5th-7th November 2019 in Manchester, UK. LightMAT provides a global forum for academia and industry to showcase the latest innovations in aluminium, magnesium, and titanium science and technology. Topics will include

  • processing,
  • additive manufacturing,
  • alloy development,
  • characterization, and simulation.

A special session on light metal forming will present the latest developments in this fast-moving field.

This Special Issue on “Light Materials” is set to publish selected works presented at this event, in order to share recent progress and new achievements in this emerging field with broader scientific and industrial communities.

Prof. Joseph D Robson
Prof. Philip B Prangnell
Dr. Martin Jackson
Dr. Axel von Hehl
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Processing
  • Light Metal Forming
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Applications and performance
  • Alloy Development, Joining
  • Multi-material and hybrid designs
  • Characterization and testing
  • Computational materials design and engineering

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
In Situ 3D-µ-Tomography on Particle-Reinforced Light Metal Matrix Composite Materials under Creep Conditions
Metals 2020, 10(8), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10081034 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
In transportation light metal matrix composites (L-MMCs) are used increasingly due to their improved creep resistance even at higher application temperatures. Therefore, the creep behavior and failure mechanisms of creep loaded particle reinforced L-MMCs have been investigated intensively. Until now, creep damage analyses [...] Read more.
In transportation light metal matrix composites (L-MMCs) are used increasingly due to their improved creep resistance even at higher application temperatures. Therefore, the creep behavior and failure mechanisms of creep loaded particle reinforced L-MMCs have been investigated intensively. Until now, creep damage analyses are usually performed ex situ by means of interrupted creep experiments. However, ex situ methods do not provide sufficient information about the evolution of creep damage. Hence, in situ synchrotron X-ray 3D-µ-tomography investigations were carried out enabling time and space resolved studies of the damage mechanisms in particle-reinforced titanium- and aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) during creep. The 3D-data were visualized and existing models were applied, specifying the phenomenology of the damage in the early and late creep stages. During the early stages of creep, the damage is determined by surface diffusion in the matrix or reinforcement fracture, both evolving proportionally to the macroscopic creep curve. In the late creep stages the damage mechanisms are quite different: In the Al-MMC, the identified mechanisms persist proportional to creep strain. In contrast, in the titanium-MMC, a changeover to the mechanism of dislocation creep evolving super-proportionally to creep strain occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LightMat 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Al-Mg-Si Wire Rod Heat Treatment on Its Electrical Conductivity and Strength
Metals 2020, 10(8), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10081027 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
The raw material for the production of Al-Mg-Si wires is wire rods, created in the Continuus Properzi line in temper T1 (cooled after forming at an elevated temperature and after natural aging). The general technologies for shaping the mechanical and electrical properties of [...] Read more.
The raw material for the production of Al-Mg-Si wires is wire rods, created in the Continuus Properzi line in temper T1 (cooled after forming at an elevated temperature and after natural aging). The general technologies for shaping the mechanical and electrical properties of Al-Mg-Si wire rods include two kinds: high- and low-temperature heat treatments. High-temperature heat treatment includes a homogenization process and a supersaturation process. Low-temperature heat treatment takes place after supersaturation and includes natural or artificial aging. This study shows how the amount of Mg and Si influences the mechanical and electrical properties of EN-AW 6101 wire rods after different kinds of heat treatments. As the general aim of this study was to determine the effect of the material’s temper on its mechanical and electrical properties, the research considered the initial parameters of the starting materials being examined. These parameters can be modified by selecting the chemical composition of the Al-Mg-Si alloy and the value of precipitation hardening obtained with artificial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LightMat 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Quench Interruption and Direct Artificial Aging on the Hardening Response in AA6082 during Hot Deformation and In-Die Quenching
Metals 2020, 10(7), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10070935 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
The automotive industry is searching for lightweight solutions to meet emission regulations. Development of an integrated hot forming and in-die quenching process will leverage use of age-hardenable aluminum alloys with high specific strength for applications in volume car manufacturing. Quench interruption and direct [...] Read more.
The automotive industry is searching for lightweight solutions to meet emission regulations. Development of an integrated hot forming and in-die quenching process will leverage use of age-hardenable aluminum alloys with high specific strength for applications in volume car manufacturing. Quench interruption and direct artificial aging may reduce the cycle time in a die-quenching process. However, this alters the temperature exposure of the part and results in an altered precipitation and clustering sequence during hardening. To investigate the effect of modified precipitation and clustering on mechanical properties, the process has been simulated by application of a water-cooled compression tool to control the combination of a temperature drop and simultaneous deformation prior to aging. Extruded 4.6 mm thick AA6082 profiles were deformed during different quenching rates and directly transferred to subsequent artificial aging from various temperatures between room temperature and 200 °C. The results indicate insignificant changes of strength and elongation after direct aging from 200 °C compared to specimens cooled to room temperature before aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LightMat 2019)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Recycling of Titanium Alloy Powders and Swarf through Continuous Extrusion (ConformTM) into Affordable Wire for Additive Manufacturing
Metals 2020, 10(6), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060843 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Over the last 20 years, there has been growing research and development investment to exploit the benefits of wire deposition additive manufacturing (AM) for the production of near-net shape components in aircraft and space applications. The wire feedstock for these processes is a [...] Read more.
Over the last 20 years, there has been growing research and development investment to exploit the benefits of wire deposition additive manufacturing (AM) for the production of near-net shape components in aircraft and space applications. The wire feedstock for these processes is a significant part of the overall process costs, especially for high-value materials such as alloyed titanium. Powders for powder-based AM have tight specifications regarding size and morphology, resulting in a significant amount of waste during the powder production. In the aerospace sector, up to 95% of forged billet can be machined away, and with increasing aircraft orders, stockpiles of such machining swarf are increasing. In this study, the continuous extrusion process—ConformTM—was employed to consolidate waste titanium alloy feedstocks in the forms of gas atomised powder and machining swarf into wire. Samples of wire were further cold-drawn down to 40% reduction, using conventional wiredrawing equipment. As close to 100% of the waste powder can be converted to wire by using the ConformTM process. This technology offers an attractive addition to the circular economy for manufacturers and, with further development, could be an important addition as industries move toward more sustainable supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LightMat 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Texture Evolution in Biocompatible Mg-Y-Re Alloy After Friction Stir Processing
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111181 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
The presented study deals with the investigation of biocompatible WE 43 Mg-based alloy processed via the combination of rotary swaging (RS) and friction stir processing (FSP) at three different rotational speeds of 400 RPM, 800 RPM, and 1200 RPM. The structure observations primarily [...] Read more.
The presented study deals with the investigation of biocompatible WE 43 Mg-based alloy processed via the combination of rotary swaging (RS) and friction stir processing (FSP) at three different rotational speeds of 400 RPM, 800 RPM, and 1200 RPM. The structure observations primarily focused on texture development and characterizations of grain sizes and grain boundaries. The results showed that swaging plus processing at 400 RPM and 1200 RPM lead to substantial recrystallization and grain refinement. The fractions of low angle grain boundaries within the 400 RPM and 1200 RPM samples were approximately 11%, while for the 800 RPM sample exhibiting secondary recrystallization it was about 22%. The grains were also the finest in the 1200 RPM sample (average grain diameter of 1.8 µm). The processed structures exhibited a slight tendency to form the {10-10} <0001> preferential fiber texture (especially the 800 RPM sample). Tensile testing showed the FSP to have positive influence on the ultimate tensile stress, as well as ductility of all the samples; the mechanical properties improved with increasing FSP rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LightMat 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Numerical and Experimental Structural Resistance of a Safety Relevant Aluminum Automotive Component
Metals 2019, 9(9), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090949 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Accurate implementation of weight reduction for the development of innovative safety-relevant components, such as suspension assemblies, requires a careful evaluation of the structural resistance. The validation of these critical parts usually employs Finite Element Analysis (FEA) during the design phase and laboratory tests [...] Read more.
Accurate implementation of weight reduction for the development of innovative safety-relevant components, such as suspension assemblies, requires a careful evaluation of the structural resistance. The validation of these critical parts usually employs Finite Element Analysis (FEA) during the design phase and laboratory tests on prototypes during later stages. However, the results of these established methods have rarely been numerically compared. The present paper introduces a method for comparing FEA and testing, based on the elaboration of micro-strains acquired with strain gauges positioned in specific regions. The model was applied to the real case study of an innovative lightweight cross beam. FEA simulations and bench tests under different conditions that were representative of the operating environments were carried out. Two different relevant configurations of fatigue bench tests were considered. Then, the data obtained from testing were numerically elaborated in order to compare them with the analytical results. Real data from in-field measurements were used. The cross beam endured at the elevate mission loads reproduced at the bench test. The FEA and testing results were aligned. The correlation method was proven to be reliable, since it made it possible not only to numerically evaluate the testing output, but also to validate the calculation tools, and it could be extended to similar applications in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LightMat 2019)
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