Non-destructive Evaluation, Structural Health Monitoring, Vibration Analysis and Maintenance of Bridges with Steel Elements

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Failure Analysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 9591

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Computing, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, EC 3602, Miami, FL 33174, USA
Interests: bridge engineering; non-destructive evaluation of bridges; structural health monitoring; vibration analysis and mitigation; structural performance evaluation; field and laboratory testing; bridge rehabilitation and corrosion mitigation; analysis and modeling of masonry and R/C frames; fiber-reinforced polymer applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bridges are critical links in the surface transportation system and are essential for providing reliable access during ordinary and extraordinary times. It is essential that the onset of damages to the bridge is detected early and preventive maintenance is performed on-time, long before the extent of the damage necessitates drastic actions such as closure and replacement of part or all of the bridge. The onset and progression of damage in bridges are not always visually detectable. There have been instances that hidden damage has caused catastrophic collapses costing life and money. Bridges with steel elements, especially those with distinct vulnerabilities are among vivid examples of such cases. Corrosion is perhaps the most prominent cause of damage to steel elements. Fatigue under repetitive tensile loading is another major reason for damage. These become even more critical when fracture-critical elements and fatigue-prone details are included in the design. For some steel elements, vibration creates the potential for further damage. As the many bridge failures over the past few decades have shown, conventional and routine bridge monitoring is insufficient to effectively evaluate the safety, and that more effective methods for damage detection and structural monitoring are needed to ensure the health of these structures as they continue to age and to prevent catastrophic collapses.

This Special Issue will compile articles on a wide range of topics related to the existing and new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods, structural health monitoring (SHM), and damage detection techniques applicable to bridge steel elements and steel bridges. Topics on damage detection and structural health monitoring using all varieties of methods including but not limited to hands-on non-destructive testing (NDT), the use of non-contact or vision-based sensors and instrumentation, load testing, and vibration analysis are encouraged. Maintenance approaches that use the results of NDE and SHM to devise preventive and preservation tactics for steel bridges and elements will also be considered for publication in this issue. It is understood that the structural health monitoring and condition assessment have evolved significantly in recent years with the introduction of innovative sensors, data communication, and non-destructive evaluation. These methods have been augmented by the use of drones and robots for rapid and efficient assessment of damages in small and large scales. Therefore, innovative approaches to health monitoring and condition assessment of bridge steel elements are solicited for this Special Issue, along with new approaches to maintenance.

Dr. Armin Mehrabi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Bridges
  • Steel bridges
  • Steel elements
  • Non-destructive evaluation
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Damage detection
  • Vibration analysis
  • Bridge maintenance
  • Preventive maintenance

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 10643 KiB  
Article
Application of Viscous Damper and Laminated Rubber Bearing Pads for Bridges in Seismic Regions
by Seyed Saman Khedmatgozar Dolati, Armin Mehrabi and Seyed Sasan Khedmatgozar Dolati
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111666 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5726
Abstract
Normally, Laminated Rubber Bearing Pads (LRBPs) are directly placed between girders and piers and their role is to provide the bridge span with horizontal movement, and to transmit the gravity loads from the deck to the piers. Although not designed for seismic loads, [...] Read more.
Normally, Laminated Rubber Bearing Pads (LRBPs) are directly placed between girders and piers and their role is to provide the bridge span with horizontal movement, and to transmit the gravity loads from the deck to the piers. Although not designed for seismic loads, they can act as a fuse, partially isolating the substructure from the superstructure and keeping the piers intact during earthquakes. However, recent investigations show that large relative displacement of superstructure against substructure caused by sliding at bearing (sliding between girders and LRBPs) can cause expansion joint failure or even bridge span collapse. Accordingly, proper restrainers should be selected to prevent large displacement. Among all types of restrainers, viscous dampers as passive energy dissipation devices have shown a great capacity in damping earthquake energy. This study investigates the effectiveness of a VD-LRBP system, a viscous damper in conjunction with LRBPs, in dissipating energy and reducing the displacement of the superstructure with reference to the substructure caused by sliding at bearing during a seismic event. A Finite Element (FE) model was first developed and validated using available experimental and numerical results. With the validated model, a 3D Nonlinear Time History Analysis (NTHA) was conducted on a reinforced concrete bridge model under various records of earthquakes using OpenSees, an open-source finite element software. The relative displacement histories were recorded for the bridge in two cases: 1- with only LRBPs and 2- with viscous dampers and LRBPs (VD-LRBP system). The results of this study show that applying viscous dampers can reduce the relative displacement of the superstructure with reference to the substructure for up to 60 percent. As importantly, it can also reduce the residual displacement after the earthquake to near zero. Full article
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28 pages, 10869 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of a CFRP Fatigue Strengthening for Stringer-Floor Beam Connections in a 19th Century Riveted Railway Bridge
by J. David Jimenez-Vicaria, M. Dolores Gomez-Pulido and Daniel Castro-Fresno
Metals 2021, 11(4), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040603 - 7 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
A local and global finite element analysis of the stringer-floor beam connection of a 19th century riveted railway bridge in Spain made of puddle iron were performed to obtain the maximum principal strains in the riveted connecting angles corresponding to bending moments from [...] Read more.
A local and global finite element analysis of the stringer-floor beam connection of a 19th century riveted railway bridge in Spain made of puddle iron were performed to obtain the maximum principal strains in the riveted connecting angles corresponding to bending moments from train loading on the bridge. Due to the anisotropic nature of puddle iron, the connecting angles were modelled using Hill anisotropic plasticity potential and a parametric study in the local FE model of the connection was performed. A laboratory specimen fabricated with original stringers dismantled from the railway bridge was tested to calibrate the numerical models, so the yield stress ratio that best fitted experimental results was obtained. Based on the method of constant fatigue-life diagram and modified Goodman fatigue failure criterion, it was detected that the connecting angles were prone to fatigue crack initiation, as the combination of mean stress and alternating stress amplitude at the toe of the angle fillet remained outside the infinite fatigue-life region. An innovative strengthening system based on adhesively-bonded carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) angles was designed to prevent fatigue crack initiation in the connecting angles of the stringer-floor beam connection. Different CFRP laminate layouts were numerically evaluated and a proper configuration was obtained that reduced both the mean stress and the alternating stress amplitude in the connecting angle to shift from finite fatigue-life region to infinite fatigue-life region in the constant fatigue-life diagram. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed CFRP strengthening method, its application on a second laboratory specimen fabricated with original stringers was evaluated experimentally and compared with numerical results. The research study conducted showed that the use of adhesively-bonded CFRP angles was an effective strengthening system in reducing the stress level in the fillet region of the puddle iron connecting angles (where fatigue cracks are prone to initiate) and consequently could increase fatigue life of the stringer-floor beam connection. Full article
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