Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 33024

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Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Oporto University, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
Interests: metal matrix nanocomposites; nanomaterials; reactive multilayers; microstructural characterization; advanced materials; joining technologies; titanium alloys; diffusion bonding
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Dear Colleagues,

Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) is a material characterization technique that attracts many researchers for the characterization of different types of materials. This technique presents itself as an asset in the characterization of the materials since it presents an excellent resolution, and the possibility of characterizing several microstructural aspects that is not possible with other techniques. Some of these microstructural characteristics can be the grain size with a high resolution, crystallographic orientation, texture, and aspects related to the texture and character of the grain boundaries, among others.

Sample preparation can be challenging, depending on the material and the purpose of the characterization. All recent advances in this area in addition to the application of this technique are also essential.

In this context, this Special Issue will aim to include works on the application of EBSD to characterize metallic materials at different scales and present the greatest challenges encountered in the application of this technique as well as its main applications and full potential in advanced materials characterization. We welcome submissions of both theoretical and experimental research, review articles, and novel results.

Prof. Dr. Sónia Simões
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • EBSD
  • microstructural characterization
  • texture
  • grain boundaries
  • grain size
  • crystallographic orientation
  • grain boundary texture

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD
by Sónia Simões
Metals 2021, 11(9), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11091452 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) is a material characterization technique that attracts many researchers to characterize different types of materials [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD)

Research

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22 pages, 14054 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the ECAP Processed Copper: Microstructural Evolution, Crystallographic Texture and Hardness Homogeneity
by A. I. Alateyah, Mohamed M. Z. Ahmed, Yasser Zedan, H. Abd El-Hafez, Majed O. Alawad and W. H. El-Garaihy
Metals 2021, 11(4), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040607 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3031
Abstract
The current study presents a detailed investigation for the equal channel angular pressing of pure copper through two regimes. The first was equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processing at room temperature and the second was ECAP processing at 200 °C for up to [...] Read more.
The current study presents a detailed investigation for the equal channel angular pressing of pure copper through two regimes. The first was equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processing at room temperature and the second was ECAP processing at 200 °C for up to 4-passes of route Bc. The grain structure and texture was investigated using electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) across the whole sample cross-section and also the hardness and the tensile properties. The microstructure obtained after 1-pass at room temperature revealed finer equiaxed grains of about 3.89 µm down to submicrons with a high density of twin compared to the starting material. Additionally, a notable increase in the low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) density was observed. This microstructure was found to be homogenous through the sample cross section. Further straining up to 2-passes showed a significant reduction of the average grain size to 2.97 µm with observable heterogeneous distribution of grains size. On the other hand, increasing the strain up to 4-passes enhanced the homogeneity of grain size distribution. The texture after 4-passes resembled the simple shear texture with about 7 times random. Conducting the ECAP processing at 200 °C resulted in a severely deformed microstructure with the highest fraction of submicron grains and high density of substructures was also observed. ECAP processing through 4-passes at room temperature experienced a significant increase in both hardness and tensile strength up to 180% and 124%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD)
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19 pages, 13274 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Strain Partitioning in Intercritically Deformed Microstructures via Interrupted Tensile Tests
by Unai Mayo, Nerea Isasti, José M. Rodríguez-Ibabe and Pello Uranga
Metals 2021, 11(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11010112 - 8 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Intercritically deformed steels present combinations of different types of ferrite, such as deformed ferrite (DF) and non-deformed ferrite (NDF) grains, which are transformed during the final deformation passes and final cooling step. Recently, a grain identification and correlation technique based on EBSD has [...] Read more.
Intercritically deformed steels present combinations of different types of ferrite, such as deformed ferrite (DF) and non-deformed ferrite (NDF) grains, which are transformed during the final deformation passes and final cooling step. Recently, a grain identification and correlation technique based on EBSD has been employed together with a discretization methodology, enabling a distinction to be drawn between different ferrite populations (NDF and DF grains). This paper presents a combination of interrupted tensile tests with crystallographic characterization performed by means of Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), by analyzing the evolution of an intercritically deformed micro-alloyed steel. In addition to this, and using the nanoindentation technique, both ferrite families were characterized micromechanically and the nanohardness was quantified for each population. NDF grains are softer than DF ones, which is related to the presence of a lower fraction of low-angle grain boundaries. The interrupted tensile tests show the different behavior of low- and high-angle grain boundary evolution as well as the strain partitioning in each ferrite family. NDF population accommodates most of the deformation at initial strain intervals, since strain reaches 10%. For higher strains, NDF and DF grains behave similarly to the strain applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD)
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14 pages, 9029 KiB  
Article
EBSD Study of Delta-Processed Ni-Based Superalloy
by Pedro Jacinto Páramo Kañetas, Jessica Calvo, Pablo Rodriguez-Calvillo, José María Cabrera Marrero, Marco Antonio Zamora Antuñano and Martha Patricia Guerrero-Mata
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111466 - 3 Nov 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
Nickel-based superalloys are extensively used in the aerospace and power generation industries due to their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and good corrosion resistance. Typically, these alloys require accomplishing critical standards during their manufacturing process. In this study, an Inconel 718 (IN718) [...] Read more.
Nickel-based superalloys are extensively used in the aerospace and power generation industries due to their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and good corrosion resistance. Typically, these alloys require accomplishing critical standards during their manufacturing process. In this study, an Inconel 718 (IN718) Ni-based superalloy was subjected to a delta-processing treatment (DP718) and subsequently deformed at high temperature. Samples were compressed below and above the δ-solvus temperature at two different strain rates of 0.001 s−1 and 0.01 s−1. A detailed microstructural characterization was carried out by the electron backscattered diffraction technique (EBSD). Kikuchi patterns and the orientation relationship of the δ-phase were identified. For samples deformed above the δ-solvus at 0.01 s−1, an increase in the percentage of low angle grain boundaries (LAGB) within deformed grains and a decrease in high angle grain boundaries (HAGB) were observed. Comprehensive observation of the microstructural evolution of IN718 subjected to DP718 using orientation map images was also performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD)
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10 pages, 5243 KiB  
Article
Texture Evolution of a Rolled Aluminum Sheet in Multi-Pass Conventional Spinning
by Shiori Gondo, Hirohiko Arai, Satoshi Kajino and Shizuka Nakano
Metals 2020, 10(6), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060793 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2234
Abstract
This study clarified the evolution of texture in the thickness direction of the cylindrical cup which was spun from a rolled aluminum sheet in 13 passes, using electron backscatter diffraction pattern analysis. The study also obtained the relationship between the strain and layer [...] Read more.
This study clarified the evolution of texture in the thickness direction of the cylindrical cup which was spun from a rolled aluminum sheet in 13 passes, using electron backscatter diffraction pattern analysis. The study also obtained the relationship between the strain and layer structure, characterized by the textures. The spun workpiece had three layers in the thickness direction. The layer structure was composed of four types of textures: the Cu texture, “texture-I”, which rotated 20° around <111> from the Cu texture; “texture-II”, which rotated 5° around its <110> from the Cu texture; and “texture-III”, which rotated 10° around its <001> from texture-I. When a blank disk had the sandwich-type layer structure Cu-I-Cu in its thickness direction, the structure changed to the Cu-II-II and Cu-III-III layer structures for the negative and positive thickness directional strains, respectively. A complex-type structure was found in the transition from Cu-I-Cu to Cu-II-II and Cu-III-III. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD)
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Review

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32 pages, 25311 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in EBSD Characterization of Metals
by Íris Carneiro and Sónia Simões
Metals 2020, 10(8), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10081097 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 18352
Abstract
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has been attracting enormous interest in the microstructural characterization of metals in recent years. This characterization technique has several advantages over conventional ones, since it allows obtaining a wide range of characterization possibilities in a single method, which is [...] Read more.
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has been attracting enormous interest in the microstructural characterization of metals in recent years. This characterization technique has several advantages over conventional ones, since it allows obtaining a wide range of characterization possibilities in a single method, which is not possible in others. The grain size, crystallographic orientation, texture, and grain boundary character distribution can be obtained by EBSD analysis. Despite the limited resolution of this technique (20–50 nm), EBSD is powerful, even for nanostructured materials. Through this technique, the microstructure can be characterized at different scales and levels with a high number of microstructural characteristics. It is known that the mechanical properties are strongly related to several microstructural aspects such as the size, shape, and distribution of grains, the presence of texture, grain boundaries character, and also the grain boundary plane distribution. In this context, this work aims to describe and discuss the possibilities of microstructural characterization, recent advances, the challenges in sample preparation, and the application of the EBSD in the characterization of metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microstructural Characterization of Metals by EBSD)
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