Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has been attracting enormous interest in the microstructural characterization of metals in recent years. This characterization technique has several advantages over conventional ones, since it allows obtaining a wide range of characterization possibilities in a single method, which is not possible in others. The grain size, crystallographic orientation, texture, and grain boundary character distribution can be obtained by EBSD analysis. Despite the limited resolution of this technique (20–50 nm), EBSD is powerful, even for nanostructured materials. Through this technique, the microstructure can be characterized at different scales and levels with a high number of microstructural characteristics. It is known that the mechanical properties are strongly related to several microstructural aspects such as the size, shape, and distribution of grains, the presence of texture, grain boundaries character, and also the grain boundary plane distribution. In this context, this work aims to describe and discuss the possibilities of microstructural characterization, recent advances, the challenges in sample preparation, and the application of the EBSD in the characterization of metals.
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