Rapeseed is an important oilseed with proper fatty acid composition and abundant bioactive components. Canada and China are the two major rapeseed-producing countries all over the world. Meanwhile, Canada and Mongolia are major importers of rapeseed due to the great demand for rapeseed in China. To investigate the metabolites in rapeseeds from three countries, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based metabolomics was employed to analyze rapeseeds from China, Canada, and Mongolia. As results, 67, 53, and 68 metabolites showed significant differences between Chinese and Canadian, Chinese and Mongolian, and Canadian and Mongolian rapeseeds, respectively. Differential metabolites were mainly distributed in the metabolic pathways including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis. Among the differential metabolites, contents of sinapate and sinapine were higher in Chinese rapeseeds, while the contents of brassicasterol, stigmasterol, and campestanol were higher in Canadian rapeseeds. These findings might provide insight into the metabolic characteristics of rapeseeds from three countries to guide processing and consumption of the products of rapeseed.
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