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Open AccessArticle

Comparative Metabolomics Unravel the Effect of Magnesium Oversupply on Tomato Fruit Quality and Associated Plant Metabolism

1
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
National Institutes of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea
3
Department of Systems Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
4
Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
5
Research Institute for Bioactive-Metabolome Network, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100231
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
In general, greenhouse cultivation involves the rampant application of chemical fertilizers, with the aim of achieving high yields. Oversaturation with mineral nutrients that aid plant growth, development, and yield may lead to abiotic stress conditions. We explore the effects of excess magnesium on tomato plant metabolism, as well as tomato fruit quality using non-targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic approaches. Tomato plants were subjected to three different experiments, including high magnesium stress (MgH), extremely high magnesium stress (MgEH), and a control with optimal nutrient levels. Leaves, roots, and fruits were harvested at 16 weeks following the treatment. A metabolic pathway analysis showed that the metabolism induced by Mg oversupply was remarkably different between the leaf and root. Tomato plants allocated more resources to roots by upregulating carbohydrate and polyamine metabolism, while these pathways were downregulated in leaves. Mg oversupply affects the fruit metabolome in plants. In particular, the relative abundance of threonic acid, xylose, fucose, glucose, fumaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, oxoglutaric acid, threonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and asparagine responsible for the flavor of tomato fruits was significantly decreased in the presence of Mg oversupply. Altogether, we concluded that Mg oversupply leads to drastically higher metabolite transport from sources (fully expanded leaves) to sinks (young leaves and roots), and thus, produces unfavorable outcomes in fruit quality and development. View Full-Text
Keywords: tomato; magnesium oversupply; metabolomics; metabolic pathway; fruit quality tomato; magnesium oversupply; metabolomics; metabolic pathway; fruit quality
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Kwon, M.C.; Kim, Y.X.; Lee, S.; Jung, E.S.; Singh, D.; Sung, J.; Lee, C.H. Comparative Metabolomics Unravel the Effect of Magnesium Oversupply on Tomato Fruit Quality and Associated Plant Metabolism. Metabolites 2019, 9, 231.

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