In general, greenhouse cultivation involves the rampant application of chemical fertilizers, with the aim of achieving high yields. Oversaturation with mineral nutrients that aid plant growth, development, and yield may lead to abiotic stress conditions. We explore the effects of excess magnesium on tomato plant metabolism, as well as tomato fruit quality using non-targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic approaches. Tomato plants were subjected to three different experiments, including high magnesium stress (MgH), extremely high magnesium stress (MgEH), and a control with optimal nutrient levels. Leaves, roots, and fruits were harvested at 16 weeks following the treatment. A metabolic pathway analysis showed that the metabolism induced by Mg oversupply was remarkably different between the leaf and root. Tomato plants allocated more resources to roots by upregulating carbohydrate and polyamine metabolism, while these pathways were downregulated in leaves. Mg oversupply affects the fruit metabolome in plants. In particular, the relative abundance of threonic acid, xylose, fucose, glucose, fumaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, oxoglutaric acid, threonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and asparagine responsible for the flavor of tomato fruits was significantly decreased in the presence of Mg oversupply. Altogether, we concluded that Mg oversupply leads to drastically higher metabolite transport from sources (fully expanded leaves) to sinks (young leaves and roots), and thus, produces unfavorable outcomes in fruit quality and development.
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