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Open AccessArticle

Caucasian Gentiana Species: Untargeted LC-MS Metabolic Profiling, Antioxidant and Digestive Enzyme Inhibiting Activity of Six Plants

1
Laboratory of Medical and Biological Research, Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Science, 6 Sakh’yanovoy Street, 670047 Ulan-Ude, Russia
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Azerbaijan Medical University, Anvar Gasimzade Street 14, Baku AZ1022, Azerbaijan
3
Siberian Botanic Garden, Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 34/1, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
4
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, North-Eastern Federal University, 58 Belinsky Street, 677027 Yakutsk, Russia
5
Regulatory and Medical Scientific Affairs, Padma AG, 30 Haldenstrasse, CH-8620 Wetzikon, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(11), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9110271
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics)
The members of Gentiana genus are widely distributed in the Caucasus region where they are used as phytoremedies, but they still have not been studied for their chemical composition and bioactivity. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray triple quadrupole mass detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-QQQ-MS) was used to investigate metabolites of herb and roots of six gentians (Gentiana asclepiadea, G. cruciata, G. gelida, G. paradoxa, G. pneumonanthe, G. septemfida) grown in the Caucasus. In total, 137 compounds were found including three carbohydrates, 71 iridoid glycosides (mostly loganic acid), loganin, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside derivatives, 40 flavones C-, O-, C,O-glycosides (such as luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, and acacetin derivatives), two phenolic O-glycosides, five hydroxycinnamates, eight xanthones, and seven triterpene glycosides. Most of these compounds were identified in gentian samples for the first time. Quantitative differences were found in levels of seven iridoid glycosides, nine glycosylflavones, and two xanthones obtained by HPLC-DAD assay. The gentian extracts were evaluated for their radical-scavenging properties against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and α-amylase/α-glycosidase inhibition. The herb extracts showed higher activity than root extracts. Positive correlations were found between the content of quantified phenolics and antioxidant and digestive enzymes inhibiting activity. The findings presented in our work suggest that the Caucasian gentians are a good source of bioactive phytocompounds with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gentiana; LC-MS profile; iridoid glycosides; flavone glycosides; xanthones; antioxidant activity; amylase/glycosidase inhibition Gentiana; LC-MS profile; iridoid glycosides; flavone glycosides; xanthones; antioxidant activity; amylase/glycosidase inhibition
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Olennikov, D.N.; Gadimli, A.I.; Isaev, J.I.; Kashchenko, N.I.; Prokopyev, A.S.; Kataeva, T.N.; Chirikova, N.K.; Vennos, C. Caucasian Gentiana Species: Untargeted LC-MS Metabolic Profiling, Antioxidant and Digestive Enzyme Inhibiting Activity of Six Plants. Metabolites 2019, 9, 271.

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