Special Issue "Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Structural Lightweight Alloys"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Guillermo Requena
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Guest Editor
Department of Metallic Structures and Hybrid Materials Systems, Institute for Materials Research, German Aerospace Centre, Linder Höhe, 51147, Cologne, Germany
Interests: light alloys; metals for additive manufacturing; three-dimensional material characterization; synchrotron tomography; high energy synchrotron diffraction; aluminum alloys; titanium alloys; magnesium alloys; titanium aluminides; metal matrix composites; phase transformations; relationships microstructure-properties; thermo-mechanical behavior of metals
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The need to reduce the ecological footprint of (water, land, air) vehicles in this era of climate change requires pushing the limits in the development of lightweight structures and materials.

The development and optimization of lightweight metals for structural components requires a thorough understanding of their thermo-mechanical behavior at several stages of the production chain, as well during service conditions. For instance, thermo-mechanical treatments play a decisive role in the processing of wrought products and are beginning to see the light for application in wire-based additive manufacturing technologies. During service, the response of lightweight alloys under the simultaneous influence of mechanical loads and temperature can determine the lifetime and performance of a multitude of structural components used for transportation such as in combustion engines or aircraft turbines.

The present Special Issue is dedicated to disseminate current efforts around the globe aiming at advancing in the understanding of the thermo-mechanical behavior of structural lightweight alloys under processing or service conditions. It is therefore my pleasure to invite you to submit contributions that may take into account this thematic from and experimental or theoretical point of view for Mg, Al, Ti, TiAl alloys, as well innovative composites based on these systems or new lightweight metals.

Prof. Guillermo Requena
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Aluminum alloys
  • magnesium alloys
  • titanium alloys
  • titanium aluminides
  • lightweight metals
  • thermo-mechanical behavior

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Structural Lightweight Alloys
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152364 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
The need to reduce the ecological footprint of (water, land, air) vehicles in this era of climate change requires pushing the limits in the development of lightweight structures and materials [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Combined Calorimetry, Thermo-Mechanical Analysis and Tensile Test on Welded EN AW-6082 Joints
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081396 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Wide softening zones are typical for welded joints of age hardened aluminium alloys. In this study, the microstructure evolution and distribution of mechanical properties resulting from welding processes of the aluminium alloy EN AW-6082 (AlSi1MgMn) was analysed by both in-situ and ex-situ investigations. [...] Read more.
Wide softening zones are typical for welded joints of age hardened aluminium alloys. In this study, the microstructure evolution and distribution of mechanical properties resulting from welding processes of the aluminium alloy EN AW-6082 (AlSi1MgMn) was analysed by both in-situ and ex-situ investigations. The in-situ thermal analyses included differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which was used to characterise the dissolution and precipitation behaviour in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welded joints. Thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) by means of compression tests was used to determine the mechanical properties of various states of the microstructure after the welding heat input. The necessary temperature–time courses in the HAZ for these methods were measured using thermocouples during welding. Additionally, ex-situ tensile tests were done both on specimens from the fusion zone and on welded joints, and their in-depth analysis with digital image correlation (DIC) accompanied by finite element simulations serve for the description of flow curves in different areas of the weld. The combination of these methods and the discussion of their results make an essential contribution to understand the influence of welding heat on the material properties, particularly on the softening behaviour. Furthermore, the distributed strength characteristic of the welded connections is required for an applicable estimation of the load-bearing capacity of welded aluminium structures by numerical methods. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Microstructure Evolution in a 6082 Aluminium Alloy during Thermomechanical Treatment
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081319 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Thermomechanical treatments of age-hardenable wrought aluminium alloys provoke microstructural changes that involve the movement, arrangement, and annihilation of dislocations, the movement of boundaries, and the formation or dissolution of phases. Cold and hot compression tests are carried out using a Gleeble® 3800 [...] Read more.
Thermomechanical treatments of age-hardenable wrought aluminium alloys provoke microstructural changes that involve the movement, arrangement, and annihilation of dislocations, the movement of boundaries, and the formation or dissolution of phases. Cold and hot compression tests are carried out using a Gleeble® 3800 machine to produce flow data as well as deformed samples for metallography. Electron backscattered diffraction and light optical microscopy were used to characterise the microstructure after plastic deformation and heat treatments. Models based on dislocation densities are developed to describe strain hardening, dynamic recovery, and static recrystallisation. The models can describe both the flow and the microstructure evolutions at deformations from room temperatures to 450 °C. The static recrystallisation and static recovery phenomena are modelled as a continuation of the deformation model. The recrystallisation model accounts also for the effect of the intermetallic particles in the movements of boundaries. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Revealing the Effect of Local Connectivity of Rigid Phases during Deformation at High Temperature of Cast AlSi12Cu4Ni(2,3)Mg Alloys
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081300 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The 3D microstructure and its effect on damage formation and accumulation during tensile deformation at 300 °C for cast, near eutectic AlSi12Cu4Ni2Mg and AlSi12Cu4Ni3Mg alloys has been investigated using in-situ synchrotron micro-tomography, complemented by conventional 2D characterization methods. An increase of Ni from [...] Read more.
The 3D microstructure and its effect on damage formation and accumulation during tensile deformation at 300 °C for cast, near eutectic AlSi12Cu4Ni2Mg and AlSi12Cu4Ni3Mg alloys has been investigated using in-situ synchrotron micro-tomography, complemented by conventional 2D characterization methods. An increase of Ni from 2 to 3 wt.% leads to a higher local connectivity, quantified by the Euler number χ, at constant global interconnectivity of rigid 3D networks formed by primary and eutectic Si and intermetallics owing to the formation of the plate-like Al-Ni-Cu-rich δ-phase. Damage initiates as micro-cracks through primary Si particles agglomerated in clusters and as voids at matrix/rigid phase interfaces. Coalescence of voids leads to final fracture with the main crack propagating along damaged rigid particles as well as through the matrix. The lower local connectivity of the rigid 3D network in the alloy with 2 wt.% Ni permits localized plastification of the matrix and helps accommodating more damage resulting in an increase of ductility with respect to AlSi12Cu4Ni3Mg. A simple load partition approach that considers the evolution of local connectivity of rigid networks as a function of strain is proposed based on in-situ experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Zn Content on the Mechanical Properties of Mg-4Nd-xZn Alloys (x = 0, 3, 5 and 8 wt.%)
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071103 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-4Nd-xZn (x = 0, 3, 5 or 8 wt.%) alloys were investigated both in situ and ex situ in as-cast and solution-treated conditions. The additions of 3 or 5 wt.% Zn in the base Mg-4Nd alloy did not [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-4Nd-xZn (x = 0, 3, 5 or 8 wt.%) alloys were investigated both in situ and ex situ in as-cast and solution-treated conditions. The additions of 3 or 5 wt.% Zn in the base Mg-4Nd alloy did not improve yield strength in comparison to the binary Mg-4Nd alloy. Mechanical properties were shown to improve only with the relatively high concentration of 8 wt.% Zn to Mg-4Nd. The change in intermetallic morphology from a continuous intermetallic to a lamella-like intermetallic was the primary reason for the decreased mechanical properties in Mg-4Nd-3Zn and Mg-4Nd-5Zn compared with Mg-4Nd and Mg-4Nd-8Zn. The dissolution of intermetallic at grain boundaries following heat treatment further indicated the importance of grain boundary reinforcement as shown in both in situ and ex situ compression testing. Azimuthal angle-time plots indicated little grain rotation most noticeably in Mg-4Nd, which also indicated the influence of a strong intermetallic network along the grain boundaries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Maintaining High Strength in Mg-LPSO Alloys with Low Yttrium Content Using Severe Plastic Deformation
Materials 2018, 11(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050733 - 05 May 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Alternative processing routes such as powder metallurgy, the extrusion of recycled chips, or equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) have been considered for effective methods of maintaining the high mechanical strength of Mg-Y-Zn alloys containing long-period stacking ordered structures with respect to the alloy [...] Read more.
Alternative processing routes such as powder metallurgy, the extrusion of recycled chips, or equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) have been considered for effective methods of maintaining the high mechanical strength of Mg-Y-Zn alloys containing long-period stacking ordered structures with respect to the alloy processed by the conventional extrusion of as-cast ingots with the advantage of minimizing the yttrium content. A yield stress similar to that found for extruded Mg97Y2Zn1 alloy can be attained with only half of the usual yttrium and zinc additions thanks to the grain refinement induced by ECAP processing. The properties of Mg98.5Y1Zn0.5 subjected to ECAP are maintained up to 200 °C, but superplastic behavior is found above this temperature when the alloy is processed through a powder metallurgy route. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Corrosion Resistance of Thermomechanically Processed AlZn6Mg0.8Zr Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(4), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040570 - 07 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The paper presents results of the investigations on the effect of low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTTT) on the microstructure of AlZn6Mg0.8Zr alloy (7000 series) and its mechanical properties as well as electrochemical and stress corrosion resistance. For comparison of the LTTT effect, the alloy [...] Read more.
The paper presents results of the investigations on the effect of low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTTT) on the microstructure of AlZn6Mg0.8Zr alloy (7000 series) and its mechanical properties as well as electrochemical and stress corrosion resistance. For comparison of the LTTT effect, the alloy was subjected to conventional precipitation hardening. Comparative studies were conducted in the fields of metallographic examinations and static tensile tests. It was found that mechanical properties after the LTTT were better in comparison to after conventional heat treatment (CHT). The tested alloy after low-temperature thermomechanical treatment with increasing plastic deformation shows decreased electrochemical corrosion resistance during potentiodynamic tests. The alloy after low-temperature thermomechanical treatment with deformation degree in the range of 10 to 30% is characterized by a high resistance to stress corrosion specified by the level of PSCC indices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strengthening of Aluminum Wires Treated with A206/Alumina Nanocomposites
Materials 2018, 11(3), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030413 - 10 Mar 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
This study sought to characterize aluminum nanocomposite wires that were fabricated through a cold-rolling process, having potential applications in TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding of aluminum. A206 (Al-4.5Cu-0.25Mg) master nanocomposites with 5 wt % γAl2O3 nanoparticles were first manufactured through [...] Read more.
This study sought to characterize aluminum nanocomposite wires that were fabricated through a cold-rolling process, having potential applications in TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding of aluminum. A206 (Al-4.5Cu-0.25Mg) master nanocomposites with 5 wt % γAl2O3 nanoparticles were first manufactured through a hybrid process combining semi-solid mixing and ultrasonic processing. A206/1 wt % γAl2O3 nanocomposites were fabricated by diluting the prepared master nanocomposites with a monolithic A206 alloy, which was then added to a pure aluminum melt. The fabricated Al–γAl2O3 nanocomposite billet was cold-rolled to produce an Al nanocomposite wire with a 1 mm diameter and a transverse area reduction of 96%. Containing different levels of nanocomposites, the fabricated samples were mechanically and electrically characterized. The results demonstrate a significantly higher strength of the aluminum wires with the nanocomposite addition. Further, the addition of alumina nanoparticles affected the wires’ electrical conductivity compared with that of pure aluminum and aluminum–copper alloys. The overall properties of the new material demonstrate that these wires could be an appealing alternative for fillers intended for aluminum welding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Achieving High Strength and Good Ductility in As-Extruded Mg–Gd–Y–Zn Alloys by Ce Micro-Alloying
Materials 2018, 11(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010102 - 10 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this study, the effect of Ce additions on microstructure evolution of Mg–7Gd–3.5Y–0.3Zn (wt %) alloys during the casting, homogenization, aging and extrusion processing are investigated, and novel mechanical properties are also obtained. The results show that Ce addition promotes the formation of [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of Ce additions on microstructure evolution of Mg–7Gd–3.5Y–0.3Zn (wt %) alloys during the casting, homogenization, aging and extrusion processing are investigated, and novel mechanical properties are also obtained. The results show that Ce addition promotes the formation of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phases in the as-cast Mg–Gd–Y–Zn–Ce alloys. A high content of Ce addition would reduce the maximum solubility of Gd and Y in the Mg matrix, which leads to the higher density of Mg12Ce phases in the as-homogenized alloys. The major second phases observed in the as-extruded alloys are micron-sized bulk LPSO phases, nano-sized stripe LPSO phases, and broken Mg12Ce and Mg5RE phases. Recrystallized grain size of the as-extruded 0.2Ce, 0.5Ce and 1.0Ce alloys can be refined to ~4.3 μm, ~1.0 μm and ~8.4 μm, respectively, which is caused by the synthesized effect of both micron phases and nano phases. The strength and ductility of as-extruded samples firstly increase and then decrease with increasing Ce content. As-extruded 0.5Ce alloy exhibits optimal mechanical properties, with ultimate strength of 365 MPa and ductility of ~15% simultaneously. Full article
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