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Applied Engineering and Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 September 2024 | Viewed by 4331

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 75-453 Koszalin, Poland
Interests: material engineering; electronic devices; thin layers; dielectric materials; alloys
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface engineering is an interdisciplinary topic which contains many branches of science related to materials science, chemistry, and physics. At present, multidisciplinary teams are working on new materials and novel coatings with optimized mechanical, electrical, electrochemical, and antibacterial properties. Surface modification methods such as electropolishing (EP, MEP); plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO, also known as micro arc oxidation—MAO); electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and ion implantation (IM); chemical and physical vapor deposition (CVD, PVD); anodic oxidation; carburization, nitrocarburization, and passivation; laser treatments and hydrothermal treatments; abrasive treatments and shot peening; as well as thermoreactive deposition and sol–gel coatings are still under development in many laboratories all over the world. In addition, additive manufacturing technologies open up new possibilities in the production of machine elements and at the same time introduce new challenges related to surface treatment, creating new trends in the field broadly understood as surface engineering.

Prof. Dr. Krzysztof Rokosz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • surface functionalization and modification
  • electropolishing (EP, MEP) and plasma electrolytic oxidation (micro arc oxidation)
  • electrophoretic deposition (EPD), ion implantation (IM), chemical or physical vapor deposition (CVD, PVD)
  • anodic oxidation and passivation
  • laser treatments, hydrothermal treatments
  • sol-gel coatings and thermoreactive deposition
  • biomaterials and self-assembling structures
  • abrasive treatments and shot peening
  • additive manufacturing

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 9127 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Si (C,N) Silicon Carbonitride Layers on the Surface of Ni–Cr Alloys Used in Dental Prosthetics
by Leszek Klimek, Marcin Makówka, Anna Sobczyk-Guzenda and Zofia Kula
Materials 2024, 17(10), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17102450 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Chromium- and cobalt-based alloys, as well as chrome–nickel steels, are most used in dental prosthetics. Unfortunately, these alloys, especially nickel-based alloys, can cause allergic reactions. A disadvantage of these alloys is also insufficient corrosion resistance. To improve the properties of these alloys, amorphous [...] Read more.
Chromium- and cobalt-based alloys, as well as chrome–nickel steels, are most used in dental prosthetics. Unfortunately, these alloys, especially nickel-based alloys, can cause allergic reactions. A disadvantage of these alloys is also insufficient corrosion resistance. To improve the properties of these alloys, amorphous Si (C,N) coatings were deposited on the surfaces of metal specimens. This paper characterizes coatings of silicon carbide nitrides, deposited by the magnetron sputtering method on the surface of nickel–chromium alloys used in dental prosthetics. Depending on the deposition parameters, coatings with varying carbon to nitrogen ratios were obtained. The study analyzed their structure and chemical and phase composition. In addition, a study of surface wettability and surface roughness was performed. Based on the results obtained, it was found that amorphous coatings of Si (C,N) type with thicknesses of 2 to 4.5 µm were obtained. All obtained coatings increase the value of surface free energy. The study showed that Si (C,N)-type films can be used in dental prosthetics as protective coatings. Full article
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17 pages, 6183 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of V-O-N Coatings Synthesized by Cathodic Arc Evaporation
by Bogdan Warcholinski, Adam Gilewicz, Alexandr S. Kuprin, Galina N. Tolmachova, Elena N. Reshetnyak, Ilya O. Klimenko, Igor V. Kolodiy, Ruslan L. Vasilenko and Maria Tarnowska
Materials 2024, 17(2), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020419 - 14 Jan 2024
Viewed by 904
Abstract
The V-O-N coating set was produced at different relative oxygen concentrations of O2(x) = O2/(N2 +O2) using cathodic arc evaporation. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of oxygen on coating properties. The [...] Read more.
The V-O-N coating set was produced at different relative oxygen concentrations of O2(x) = O2/(N2 +O2) using cathodic arc evaporation. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of oxygen on coating properties. The coatings’ composition and structural properties (X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)) and mechanical properties—hardness, adhesion, and wear resistance (nano-indenter, scratch tester, ball-on-disc tester)—were extensively investigated. EDX and XRD analyses indicate that in coatings formed with a relative oxygen concentration in the range of 20–30%, the oxygen concentration in the coating increases dramatically from approximately 16 at.%. to 63 at.%, and the nitrogen concentration drops from about 34 at.% up to 3 at.%. This may indicate greater activity of oxygen compared to nitrogen in forming compounds with vanadium. The occurrence of the V5O9 phase belonging to the Magnéli phases was observed. Microscopic observations indicate that the number of surface defects increases with the oxygen concentration in the coating. The opposite effect is characterized by mechanical properties—hardness, adhesion, and wear resistance decrease with increasing oxygen concentration in the coating. Full article
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11 pages, 3572 KiB  
Article
Understanding Machining Process Parameters and Optimization of High-Speed Turning of NiTi SMA Using Response Surface Method (RSM) and Genetic Algorithm (GA)
by Yanzhe Zhao, Li Cui, Vinothkumar Sivalingam and Jie Sun
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175786 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
This study aimed to optimize machining parameters to obtain better surface roughness and remnant depth ratio values under dry turning of NiTi-shape memory alloy (SMA). During the turning experiments, various machining parameters were used, including three different cutting speeds vc (105, 144, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to optimize machining parameters to obtain better surface roughness and remnant depth ratio values under dry turning of NiTi-shape memory alloy (SMA). During the turning experiments, various machining parameters were used, including three different cutting speeds vc (105, 144, and 200 m/min), three different feed rates f (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mm/rev), and three different depths of cut ap (0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mm). The effects of machining parameters in turning experiments were investigated on the response surface methodology (RSM) with Box–Behnken design (BBD) using the Design Expert 11; how the cutting parameters affect the surface quality is discussed in detail. In this context, the cutting parameters were successfully optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA). The optimized processing parameters are vc = 126 m/min, f = 0.11 mm/rev, ap = 0.14 mm, resulting in surface roughness and remnant depth ratio values of 0.489 μm and 64.13%, respectively. Full article
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19 pages, 9954 KiB  
Article
Biocomposite Coatings Doped with Magnesium and Zinc Ions in Chitosan Matrix for Antimicrobial Applications
by Daniela Predoi, Carmen Steluta Ciobanu, Simona Liliana Iconaru, Steinar Raaen and Krzysztof Rokosz
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124412 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite doped with magnesium and zinc in chitosan matrix biocomposites have great potential for applications in space technology, aerospace, as well as in the biomedical field, as a result of coatings with multifunctional properties that meet the increased requirements for wide applications. In [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite doped with magnesium and zinc in chitosan matrix biocomposites have great potential for applications in space technology, aerospace, as well as in the biomedical field, as a result of coatings with multifunctional properties that meet the increased requirements for wide applications. In this study, coatings on titanium substrates were developed using hydroxyapatite doped with magnesium and zinc ions in a chitosan matrix (MgZnHAp_Ch). Valuable information concerning the surface morphology and chemical composition of MgZnHAp_Ch composite layers were obtained from studies that performed scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), metallographic microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The wettability of the novel coatings, based on magnesium and zinc-doped biocomposites in a chitosan matrix on a titanium substrate, was evaluated by performing water contact angle studies. Furthermore, the swelling properties, together with the coating’s adherence to the titanium substrate, were also analyzed. The AFM results emphasized that the composite layers exhibited the surface topography of a uniform layer, and that there were no evident cracks and fissures present on the investigated surface. Moreover, antifungal studies concerning the MgZnHAp_Ch coatings were also carried out. The data obtained from quantitative antifungal assays highlight the strong inhibitory effects of MgZnHAp_Ch against C. albicans. Additionally, our results underline that after 72 h of exposure, the MgZnHAp_Ch coatings display fungicidal features. Thus, the obtained results suggest that the MgZnHAp_Ch coatings possess the requisite properties that make them suitable for use in the development of new coatings with enhanced antifungal features. Full article
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