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Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2023) | Viewed by 33138

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Dabrowskiego Street 69, 42-240 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; materials chemistry; composites; use of recycled materials and byproduct in concrete; recycled materials for construction; sustainable structures and materials; ecological materials and technologies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue “Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Applications" aims to discuss the preparation and characterization of new ecologically friendly materials containing recycled materials or waste that should find use in specific engineering applications. Using waste and materials from recycling is a key part of decreasing present-day waste. In concrete and other composite materials, recycled materials such as plastics, steel and other metals, ash, glass, ceramics, and industrial wastes see the most use. The application of recycled materials or waste to the production of new materials is consistent with the idea of sustainable construction. Using recycled materials to synthesize composite materials saves the use of natural resources and has a positive influence on environmental protection. Unfortunately, the production of composite materials containing waste, by-products, or recycled materials requires a substantial amount of research, and is a very relevant issue for materials engineers and chemists. For this reason, this Special Issue is an excellent opportunity to present and publish the latest research results in the field of composite material synthesis, particularly cement-based composites and their physicochemical and mechanical properties.

Prof. Malgorzata Ulewicz
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • recycled materials
  • waste, by-products, and industrial wastes
  • sustainable building materials
  • physicochemical and mechanical properties of composites
  • synthesis of concrete and other composite

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application
by Malgorzata Ulewicz
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227075 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1261
Abstract
In recent years, the construction sector has shown great interest in the use of various by-products and industrial waste, as well as the consumer products used [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

18 pages, 12103 KiB  
Article
Effect of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Waste on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete and Evaluation of Its Feasibility for Reuse in Concrete Applications
by Tianhao Zhao, Yong Lv, Jianzhong Chen, Pengfei Song, Mingqing Sun, Xiaoyu Zhang and Li Huang
Materials 2023, 16(20), 6772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16206772 - 19 Oct 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
The disposal of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) waste has become an urgent issue in both the engineering and environmental fields. In this study, the feasibility of reusing mechanically recycled GFRP in concrete was evaluated. Secondary screening of the recycled material was conducted to [...] Read more.
The disposal of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) waste has become an urgent issue in both the engineering and environmental fields. In this study, the feasibility of reusing mechanically recycled GFRP in concrete was evaluated. Secondary screening of the recycled material was conducted to obtain different types of products, and the recycled GFRP (rGFRP) was characterized. Subsequently, the effect of rGFRP on concrete performance was evaluated using different dosages (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%) of rGFRP powder and rGFRP cluster (with different sizes and fiber contents) to replace fine aggregate in concrete preparation. The experimental results indicated that the addition of rGFRP powder has no significant impact on the mechanical properties of concrete, while the addition of a small amount of rGFRP cluster slightly improves the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete. Additionally, the short fibers in rGFRP improve the failure mode of concrete, and increased fiber content and longer fiber length demonstrate a more pronounced reinforcing effect. The challenges and potential directions for future research in the realm of reusing rGFRP in concrete are discussed at the end. A systematic process for reusing GFRP waste in concrete is proposed to address the primary challenges and provide guidance for its practical engineering application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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10 pages, 2657 KiB  
Article
The Use of Biosilica to Increase the Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar: The Effect of the Mixing Method
by Nelli G. Muradyan, Avetik A. Arzumanyan, Marine A. Kalantaryan, Yeghiazar V. Vardanyan, Mkrtich Yeranosyan, Malgorzata Ulewicz, David Laroze and Manuk G. Barseghyan
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165516 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
In this work, the effect of biosilica concentration and two different mixing methods with Portland cement on the compressive strength of cement-based mortars were investigated. The following values of the biosilica concentration of cement weight were investigated։ 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt.%. [...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of biosilica concentration and two different mixing methods with Portland cement on the compressive strength of cement-based mortars were investigated. The following values of the biosilica concentration of cement weight were investigated։ 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt.%. The mortar was prepared using the following two biosilica mixing methods: First, biosilica was mixed with cement and appropriate samples were prepared. For the other mixing method, samples were prepared by dissolving biosilica in water using a magnetic stirrer. Compressive tests were carried out on an automatic compression machine with a loading rate of 2.4 kN/s at the age of 7 and 28 days. It is shown that, for all cases, the compressive strength has the maximum value of 10% biosilica concentration. In particular, in the case of the first mixing method, the compressive strength of the specimen over 7 days of curing increased by 30.5%, and by 36.5% for a curing period of 28 days. In the case of the second mixing method, the compressive strength of the specimen over 7 days of curing increased by 23.4%, and by 47.3% for a curing period of 28 days. Additionally, using the first and second mixing methods, the water absorption parameters were reduced by 22% and 34%, respectively. Finally, it is worth noting that the obtained results were intend to provide valuable insights into optimizing biosilica incorporation in cement mortar. With the aim of contributing to the advancement of construction materials, this research delves into the intriguing application of biosilica in cement mortar, emphasizing the significant impact of mixing techniques on the resultant compressive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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12 pages, 4155 KiB  
Article
Study on Alkali-Activated Prefabricated Building Recycled Concrete Powder for Foamed Lightweight Soils
by Yao Xiao, Zhengguang Wu and Yongfan Gong
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114167 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
The advantage of a prefabricated building is its ease of construction. Concrete is one of the essential components of prefabricated buildings. A large amount of waste concrete from prefabricated buildings will be produced during the demolition of construction waste. In this paper, foamed [...] Read more.
The advantage of a prefabricated building is its ease of construction. Concrete is one of the essential components of prefabricated buildings. A large amount of waste concrete from prefabricated buildings will be produced during the demolition of construction waste. In this paper, foamed lightweight soil is primarily made of concrete waste, a chemical activator, a foaming agent, and a foam stabilizer. The effect of the foam admixture on the wet bulk density, fluidity, dry density, water absorption, and unconfined compressive strength of the material was investigated. Microstructure and composition were measured by SEM and FTIR. The results demonstrated that the wet bulk density is 912.87 kg/m3, the fluidity is 174 mm, the water absorption is 23.16%, and the strength is 1.53 MPa, which can meet the requirements of light soil for highway embankment. When the foam content ranges from 55% to 70%, the foam proportion is increased and the material’s wet bulk density is decreased. Excessive foaming also increases the number of open pores, which reduces water absorption. At a higher foam content, there are fewer slurry components and lower strength. This demonstrates that recycled concrete powder did not participate in the reaction while acting as a skeleton in the cementitious material with a micro-aggregate effect. Slag and fly ash reacted with alkali activators and formed C-N-S(A)-H gels to provide strength. The obtained material is a construction material that can be constructed quickly and reduce post-construction settlement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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17 pages, 3944 KiB  
Article
Modification of Concrete Composition Doped by Sewage Sludge Fly Ash and Its Effect on Compressive Strength
by Tomasz Kalak, Patrycja Szypura, Ryszard Cierpiszewski and Malgorzata Ulewicz
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114043 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
The sustainable development of construction materials is an essential aspect of current worldwide trends. Reusing post-production waste in the building industry has numerous positive effects on the environment. Since concrete is one of the materials that people manufacture and use the most, it [...] Read more.
The sustainable development of construction materials is an essential aspect of current worldwide trends. Reusing post-production waste in the building industry has numerous positive effects on the environment. Since concrete is one of the materials that people manufacture and use the most, it will continue to be an integral element of the surrounding reality. In this study, the relationship between the individual components and parameters of concrete and its compressive strength properties was assessed. In the experimental works, concrete mixes with different contents of sand, gravel, Portland cement CEM II/B-S 42.5 N, water, superplasticizer, air-entraining admixture, and fly ash from the thermal conversion of municipal sewage sludge (SSFA) were designed. According to legal requirements in the European Union, SSFA waste from the sewage sludge incineration process in a fluidized bed furnace should not be stored in landfills but processed in various ways. Unfortunately, its generated amounts are too large, so new management technologies should be sought. During the experimental work, the compressive strength of concrete samples of various classes, namely, C8/10, C12/15, C16/20, C20/25, C25/30, C30/37, and C35/45, were measured. The higher-class concrete samples that were used, the greater the compressive strength obtained, ranging from 13.7 to 55.2 MPa. A correlation analysis was carried out between the mechanical strength of waste-modified concretes and the composition of concrete mixes (the amount of sand and gravel, cement, and FA), as well as the water-to-cement ratio and the sand point. No negative effect of the addition of SSFA on the strength of concrete samples was demonstrated, which translates into economic and environmental benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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13 pages, 1763 KiB  
Article
Influence of Post-Consumer Waste Thermoplastic Elastomers Obtained from Used Car Floor Mats on Concrete Properties
by Alina Pietrzak and Malgorzata Ulewicz
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062231 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
In this paper, the influence of post-consumer thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) additive derived from used car floor mats on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete is presented. Waste elastomer (fractions 0–2 and 2–8 mm) was used as a substitute for sand or fine [...] Read more.
In this paper, the influence of post-consumer thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) additive derived from used car floor mats on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete is presented. Waste elastomer (fractions 0–2 and 2–8 mm) was used as a substitute for sand or fine aggregate in the amount of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% by weight of cement. For all series, the physical and mechanical properties of concrete (for example, compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, water absorption, density, and frost resistance), as well as its microstructure, were tested. It has been shown that post-consumer elastomer waste from used car floor mats in the amount of 2.5% of cement weight can replace sand and gravel aggregate in concrete without reducing their mechanical strength and without changing their microstructure. The compressive strength (after 28 days) of concretes in which the waste was introduced as a substitute for sand and aggregate was 57.0 and 57.2 MPa, respectively (the strength of the control sample was 57.0 MPa). The use of post-consumer waste in concrete allows for a reduction in the consumption of natural aggregate (the addition of 2.5% of waste material saves natural aggregate approximately 20 kg/m3), which reduces the cost of concrete production and also has a positive impact on the environment (i.e., it saves cost and space in landfills, where currently used car floor mat are deposited). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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24 pages, 6201 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Behavior of Mortars Containing Glass Powder: An Artificial Neural Network Analysis Approach to Classify the Hydration Modes
by Fouad Boukhelf, Daniel Lira Lopes Targino, Mohammed Hichem Benzaama, Lucas Feitosa de Albuquerque Lima Babadopulos and Yassine El Mendili
Materials 2023, 16(3), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16030943 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is proposed to predict the hydration process of a new alternative binder. This model overcomes the lack of input parameters of physical models, providing a realistic explanation with few inputs and fast calculations. Indeed, [...] Read more.
In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is proposed to predict the hydration process of a new alternative binder. This model overcomes the lack of input parameters of physical models, providing a realistic explanation with few inputs and fast calculations. Indeed, four mortars are studied based on ordinary Portland cement (CEM I), cement with limited environmental impact (CEM III), and glass powder (GP) as the cement substitution. These mortars are named CEM I + GP and CEM III + GP. The properties of the mortars are characterized, and their life cycle assessment (LCA) is established. Indeed, a decrease in porosity is observed at 90 days by 4.6%, 2.5%, 12.4%, and 7.9% compared to those of 3 days for CEMI, CEMIII, CEMI + GP, and CEMIII + GP, respectively. In addition, the use of GP allows for reducing the mechanical strength in the short term. At 90 days, CEMI + GP and CEMIII + GP present a decrease of about 28% and 57% in compressive strength compared to CEMI and CEMIII, respectively. Nevertheless, strength does not cease increasing with the curing time, due to the continuous pozzolanic reactions between Ca(OH)2 and silica contained in GP and slag present in CEMIII as demonstrated by the thermo-gravimetrical (TG) analysis. To summarize, CEMIII mortar provides similar performance compared to mortar with CEMI + GP in the long term. This can later be used in the construction sector and particularly in prefabricated structural elements. Moreover, the ANN model used to predict the heat of hydration provides a similar result compared to the experiment, with a resulting R² of 0.997, 0.968, 0.968, and 0.921 for CEMI, CEMIII, CEMI + GP, and CEMIII + GP, respectively, and allows for identifying the different hydration modes of the investigated mortars. The proposed ANN model will allow cement manufacturers to quickly identify the different hydration modes of new binders by using only the heat of hydration test as an input parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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23 pages, 8288 KiB  
Article
Influence of Waste Basalt Powder Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Autoclave Brick
by Paulina Kostrzewa-Demczuk, Anna Stepien, Ryszard Dachowski and Rogério Barbosa da Silva
Materials 2023, 16(2), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020870 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
In the production of building materials, there has been an increased interest in the use of by-products and industrial waste in recent years. Such modifications make it possible to solve not only technical and economic problems, but also environmental problems. This article describes [...] Read more.
In the production of building materials, there has been an increased interest in the use of by-products and industrial waste in recent years. Such modifications make it possible to solve not only technical and economic problems, but also environmental problems. This article describes the use of basalt powder waste in sand-lime products (silicates). The aim of the study was to manage basalt powder waste and to investigate the changes it causes in sand-lime products. The article describes the planning of the experiment, which directly determines the number of samples and their composition, which was necessary to conducting a full analysis and correctly illustrating the relationships occurring in the samples. Basic tests were carried out: compressive strength, density and water absorption, as well as optical tests and scanning microscopy. Based on the research conducted, it was concluded that the use of basalt powder as a component of sand-lime products has positive effects. Studies show that the best results are achieved with a proportion of powder in the raw material mass of about 10%—the compressive strength reaches almost 30 MPa, which is almost twice that of traditional silicate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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13 pages, 3255 KiB  
Article
Cement Bypass Dust as an Ecological Binder Substitute in Autoclaved Silica–Lime Products
by Katarzyna Borek, Przemysław Czapik and Ryszard Dachowski
Materials 2023, 16(1), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010316 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
The cement industry is one of the most developed industries in the world. However, it consumes excessive amounts of natural resources and can negatively impact the environment through its by-products: carbon dioxide (CO2), cement clinker dust (CKD) and cement bypass dust [...] Read more.
The cement industry is one of the most developed industries in the world. However, it consumes excessive amounts of natural resources and can negatively impact the environment through its by-products: carbon dioxide (CO2), cement clinker dust (CKD) and cement bypass dust (CBPD). The amount of dust generated in the cement clinker production process depends largely on the technology used. It typically ranges from 0 to 25% by weight of the clinker, and a single cement plant is capable of producing 1000 tons of CBPD per day. Despite practical applications in many areas, such as soil stabilisation, concrete mix production, chemical processing or ceramic and brick production, the dust is still stored in heaps. This poses an environmental challenge, so new ways of managing it are being sought. Due to the significant content of free lime (>30%) in CBPD, this paper uses cement bypass dust as a binder replacement in autoclaved silica–lime products. Indeed, the basic composition of silicate bricks includes 92% sand, 8% lime and water. The investigation shows that it is possible to completely replace the binder with CBPD dust in the autoclaved products. The obtained results showed that all properties of produced bricks were satisfactory. The study concluded that many benefits could be achieved by using cement bypass dust in the production of bricks, including economic bricks for building, reducing the dependency on natural resources, reducing pollution and reducing negative impacts on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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25 pages, 7106 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Strength Properties of Sand Stabilized with Wood Fly Ash (WFA) and Cement
by Sanja Dimter, Martina Zagvozda, Tea Tonc and Miroslav Šimun
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093090 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
The article describes the laboratory evaluation of mixtures of sand modified with wood fly ash (WFA) and additionally stabilized with different amounts of cement. Laboratory research includes determining the California Bearing Ratio (CBR), compressive and indirect tensile strengths of the mixtures, and the [...] Read more.
The article describes the laboratory evaluation of mixtures of sand modified with wood fly ash (WFA) and additionally stabilized with different amounts of cement. Laboratory research includes determining the California Bearing Ratio (CBR), compressive and indirect tensile strengths of the mixtures, and the resistance of mixtures to freezing/thawing cycles. The aim of the research is to determine if WFA, an alternative material, can improve sand bearing capacity and contribute to strength development while reducing necessary cement amounts and satisfying the technical regulation for use in pavement base courses. The test results obtained show that WFA has a considerable stabilization effect on the sand mixture and improves its load bearing capacity. By adding a small quantity of the cement, the hydraulic reaction in the stabilized mixture is more intense and results in greater strengths and an improved resistance to freezing. The test results show that, by replacement of part of the sand with WFA (in the quantity of 30%), greater strengths can be achieved in relation to the mixture of only sand and cement. Additionally, the content of cement necessary for the stabilization of sand (usually 8–12%) is considerably reduced, which enables cost savings in the construction of pavement structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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15 pages, 3485 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Possibility of Using Fly Ash from Biomass Combustion for Concrete
by Jakub Jura and Malgorzata Ulewicz
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216708 - 7 Nov 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
This article analyses the possibility of using fly ash from the combustion of wood–sunflower biomass in a fluidized bed boiler as an additive to concrete. The research shows that fly ash applied in an amount of 10–30% can be added as a sand [...] Read more.
This article analyses the possibility of using fly ash from the combustion of wood–sunflower biomass in a fluidized bed boiler as an additive to concrete. The research shows that fly ash applied in an amount of 10–30% can be added as a sand substitute for the production of concrete, without reducing quality (compression strength and low-temperature resistance) compared to control concrete. The 28-day compressive strength of concrete with fly ash increases with the amount of ash added (up to 30%), giving a strength 28% higher than the control concrete sample. The addition of fly ash reduces the extent to which the compression strength of concrete is lowered after low-temperature resistance tests by 22–82%. The addition of fly ash in the range of 10–30% causes a slight increase in the water absorption of concrete. Concretes containing the addition of fly ash from biomass combustion do not have a negative environmental impact with respect to the leaching of heavy metal ions into the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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17 pages, 73665 KiB  
Article
An Experimental and Empirical Study on the Use of Waste Marble Powder in Construction Material
by Muhammad Sufian, Safi Ullah, Krzysztof Adam Ostrowski, Ayaz Ahmad, Asad Zia, Klaudia Śliwa-Wieczorek, Muhammad Siddiq and Arsam Ahmad Awan
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143829 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 5116
Abstract
Marble is currently a commonly used material in the building industry, and environmental degradation is an inevitable consequence of its use. Marble waste occurs during the exploitation of deposits using shooting technologies. The obtained elements most mainly often have an irregular geometry and [...] Read more.
Marble is currently a commonly used material in the building industry, and environmental degradation is an inevitable consequence of its use. Marble waste occurs during the exploitation of deposits using shooting technologies. The obtained elements most mainly often have an irregular geometry and small dimensions, which excludes their use in the stone industry. There is no systematic way of disposing of these massive mounds of waste, which results in the occurrence of landfills and environmental pollution. To mitigate this problem, an effort was made to incorporate waste marble powder into clay bricks. Different percentage proportions of marble powder were considered as a partial substitute for clay, i.e., 5–30%. A total of 105 samples were prepared in order to assess the performance of the prepared marble clay bricks, i.e., their water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, salt resistance, and compressive strength. The obtained bricks were 1.3–19.9% lighter than conventional bricks. The bricks with the addition of 5–20% of marble powder had an adequate compressive strength with regards to the values required by international standards. Their compressive strength and bulk density decreased, while their water absorption capacity and porosity improved with an increased content of marble powder. The obtained empirical equations showed good agreement with the experimental results. The use of waste marble powder in the construction industry not only lowers project costs, but also reduces the likelihood of soil erosion and water contamination. This can be seen to be a crucial factor for economic growth in agricultural production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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15 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Properties of Concretes Incorporating Recycling Waste and Corrosion Susceptibility of Reinforcing Steel Bars
by Zinoviy Blikharskyy, Khrystyna Sobol, Taras Markiv and Jacek Selejdak
Materials 2021, 14(10), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102638 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
In this paper, properties of concretes incorporating recycling waste and corrosion susceptibility of reinforcing steel bars were studied. It was established that fineness of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA) and their simultaneous combination have an influence on the [...] Read more.
In this paper, properties of concretes incorporating recycling waste and corrosion susceptibility of reinforcing steel bars were studied. It was established that fineness of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA) and their simultaneous combination have an influence on the kinetics of strength development of Portland cements and concretes. The compressive strength of concrete containing 10% by mass of GGBFS and 10% by mass of FA even exceeds the compressive strength of control concrete by 6.5% and concrete containing 20% by mass of GGBFS by 8.8% after 56 days of hardening. The formation of the extra amount of ettringite, calcium hydrosilicates as well as hydroaluminosilicates causes tightening of a cement matrix of concrete, reducing its water absorption, and improving its resistance to freezing and thawing damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

23 pages, 559 KiB  
Review
Management of Solid Waste Containing Fluoride—A Review
by Małgorzata Olejarczyk, Iwona Rykowska and Włodzimierz Urbaniak
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103461 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2852
Abstract
Technological and economic development have influenced the amount of post-production waste. Post-industrial waste, generated in the most considerable amount, includes, among others, waste related to the mining, metallurgical, and energy industries. Various non-hazardous or hazardous wastes can be used to produce new construction [...] Read more.
Technological and economic development have influenced the amount of post-production waste. Post-industrial waste, generated in the most considerable amount, includes, among others, waste related to the mining, metallurgical, and energy industries. Various non-hazardous or hazardous wastes can be used to produce new construction materials after the “solidification/stabilization” processes. They can be used as admixtures or raw materials. However, the production of construction materials from various non-hazardous or hazardous waste materials is still very limited. In our opinion, special attention should be paid to waste containing fluoride, and the reuse of solid waste containing fluoride is a high priority today. Fluoride is one of the few trace elements that has received much attention due to its harmful effects on the environment and human and animal health. In addition to natural sources, industry, which discharges wastewater containing F− ions into surface waters, also increases fluoride concentration in waters and pollutes the environment. Therefore, developing effective and robust technologies to remove fluoride excess from the aquatic environment is becoming extremely important. This review aims to cover a wide variety of procedures that have been used to remove fluoride from drinking water and industrial wastewater. In addition, the ability to absorb fluoride, among others, by industrial by-products, agricultural waste, and biomass materials were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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19 pages, 3188 KiB  
Review
Influence of Rock Dust Additives as Fine Aggregate Replacement on Properties of Cement Composites—A Review
by Magdalena Dobiszewska, Orlando Bagcal, Ahmet Beycioğlu, Dimitrios Goulias, Fuat Köksal, Maciej Niedostatkiewicz and Hüsamettin Ürünveren
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082947 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
Concrete production consumes enormous amounts of fossil fuels, raw materials, and is energy intensive. Therefore, scientific research is being conducted worldwide regarding the possibility of using by-products in the production of concrete. The objective is not only to identify substitutes for cement clinker, [...] Read more.
Concrete production consumes enormous amounts of fossil fuels, raw materials, and is energy intensive. Therefore, scientific research is being conducted worldwide regarding the possibility of using by-products in the production of concrete. The objective is not only to identify substitutes for cement clinker, but also to identify materials that can be used as aggregate in mortar and concrete productions. Among the potential alternative materials that can be used in cement composite production is rock dust of different geological origin. However, some adversarial effects may be encountered when using rock dust regarding the properties and durability of mortars and concrete. Therefore, comprehensive research is needed to evaluate the adequacy of rock dust use in cementitious composite production. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the scientific findings from past studies concerning the use of various geological origins of rock dust in the production of mortars and concrete. The influence of rock dust as a replacement of fine aggregates on cementitious composites was analyzed and evaluated. In this assessment and review, fresh concrete and mortar properties, i.e., workability, segregation, and bleeding, mechanical properties, and the durability of hardened concrete and mortar were considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials in Civil Engineering Application)
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