Special Issue "Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Malgorzata Ulewicz
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Dabrowskiego Street 69, Czestochowa 42-240, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; materials chemistry; composites; use of recycled materials and byproduct in concrete; recycled materials for construction; sustainable structures and materials; ecological materials and technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue on "Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites" focuses on the preparation and characterization of composites containing recycled materials that should find use in specific engineering applications, especially in the building industry. Using materials from recycling is a key part of decreasing present-day waste. In composites, the materials used are mainly, but not only, recycled materials, such as plastics, steel and other metals, glass, ceramics, and industrial wastes. Using recycled materials to synthesize composite materials saves natural resources and has a positive influence on environmental protection. Unfortunately, composite material synthesis produces waste, byproducts, and recycled materials that require research to deal with, creating challenges for materials engineers and chemists. For this reason, this Special Issue is an excellent opportunity to present and publish the latest research in the field of composite material synthesis, in particular cement-based composites and their physicochemical and mechanical properties.

Prof. Malgorzata Ulewicz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Recycled materials
  • Byproduct and industrial wastes
  • Environmentally friendly composites
  • Physicochemical and mechanical properties of composites
  • Synthesis of cement composites.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Post-Pyrolytic Carbon as a Phase Change Materials (PCMs) Carrier for Application in Building Materials
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061268 - 11 Mar 2020
Abstract
This article covers new application for char as a carrier of phase-change materials (PCM) that could be used as an additive to building materials. Being composed of bio-char and PCM, the granulate successfully competes with more expensive commercial materials of this type, such [...] Read more.
This article covers new application for char as a carrier of phase-change materials (PCM) that could be used as an additive to building materials. Being composed of bio-char and PCM, the granulate successfully competes with more expensive commercial materials of this type, such as Micronal® PCM. As a PCM carrier, char that was obtained from the pyrolysis of chestnut fruit (Aesculus hippocastanum) with different absorbances of the model phase-change material, Rubitherm RT22, was tested. DSC analysis elucidated several thermal properties (such as enthalpy, phase transition temperature, and temperature peak) of those mixtures and the results were compared with a commercial equivalent, Micronal DS 5040 X. Comparative research, approximating realistic conditions, were also performed by cooling and heating samples in a form of coatings that were made from chars with different content of RT22. These results indicated that the use of char as a PCM carrier was not only possible, but also beneficial from a thermodynamic point of view and it could serve as an alternative to commercial products. In this case, adsorption RT22 into char allowed for temperature stabilization comparable to Micronal DS 5040 X with ease of use as well as the economic advantages of being very low cost to produce due to microencapsulation. Other advantage of the proposed solution is related with the application of char obtained from waste biomass pyrolysis as a PCM carrier, and using this product in building construction to improve thermal comfort and increase energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Eco-Friendly Recycled Powder from CDW to Prepare Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC) and Properties Determination
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051143 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
Using eco-friendly recycled brick powder (RBP) derived from waste brick to prepare strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) provides a new way of recycling the construction and demolition waste (CDW), and the dosage of cement in SHCC can be decreased. This paper investigated the [...] Read more.
Using eco-friendly recycled brick powder (RBP) derived from waste brick to prepare strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) provides a new way of recycling the construction and demolition waste (CDW), and the dosage of cement in SHCC can be decreased. This paper investigated the micro-properties and mechanical properties of SHCC containing RBP by a series of experiments. The results showed that RBP had typical characteristics of supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The addition of RBP increased the SiO2 content and decreased the hydration products in cementitious materials; in this case, the mechanical properties of mortar decreased with increasing RBP replacements, and a linear relationship was observed between them. It was noticed that the adverse effect of RBP on the mechanical properties decreased with increasing PVA fiber content in mortar. For SHCC containing various RBP replacements, the ultimate load increased, and the ultimate displacement decreased with increasing curing days. When using RBP to replace cement by weight, the ultimate displacement increased with the addition of RBP. Meanwhile, there was no significant reduction in the ultimate load of SHCC. When using RBP to replace fly ash (FA) by weight, the incorporation of RBP decreased the ultimate displacement of SHCC, whereas the ultimate load was improved. For example, the ultimate load and displacement of SHCC with 54%RBP were 17.6% higher and 16.4% lower, respectively, than those of SHCC with 54% FA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study on Water Permeability of Architectural Mortar Using Waste Glass as Fine Aggregate
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051110 - 02 Mar 2020
Abstract
This paper investigates the water permeability, consistency and density of architectural mortar with various contents of glass sand as fine aggregate. To reduce the effect of alkali-silica-reaction (ASR), metakaolin (MK) was used as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) instead of a component of white [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the water permeability, consistency and density of architectural mortar with various contents of glass sand as fine aggregate. To reduce the effect of alkali-silica-reaction (ASR), metakaolin (MK) was used as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) instead of a component of white cement. The microstructure of glass sand mortar was visualized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The experimental results showed that the permeability of the mortar increased with the glass sand, reaching its maximum at about 60–80% glass sand content. The optimum MK content varied with the content of glass sand, and higher content of MK was required for 60% glass sand. In addition, the consistency and density of mortar had a negative correlation with the increase of glass sand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Recycled Glass as a Substitute for Quartz Sand in Silicate Products
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051030 - 25 Feb 2020
Abstract
In 2016, an average of 5.0 tons of waste per household was generated in the European Union (including waste glass). In the same year, 45.7% of the waste glass in the EU was recycled. The incorporation of recycled waste glass in building materials, [...] Read more.
In 2016, an average of 5.0 tons of waste per household was generated in the European Union (including waste glass). In the same year, 45.7% of the waste glass in the EU was recycled. The incorporation of recycled waste glass in building materials, i.e., concrete, cements, or ceramics, is very popular around the world because of the environmental problems and costs connected with their disposal and recycling. A less known solution, however, is using the waste glass in composite products, including sand-lime. The aim of this work was to assess the role of recycled container waste glass in a sand-lime mix. The waste was used as a substitute for the quartz sand. To verify the suitability of recycled glass for the production of sand-lime products, the physical and mechanical properties of sand-lime specimens were examined. Four series of specimens were made: 0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% of recycled waste glass (RG) as a sand (FA) replacement. The binder mass did not change (8%). The research results showed that ternary mixtures of lime, sand, and recycled waste glass had a higher compressive strength and lower density compared to the reference specimen. The sand-lime specimen containing 100% (RG) increased the compressive strength by 287% compared to that of the control specimen. The increase in the parameters was proportional to the amount of the replacement in the mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Compressive Behavior of Circular Sawdust-Reinforced Ice-Filled Flax FRP Tubular Short Columns
Materials 2020, 13(4), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040957 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Sawdust-reinforced ice-filled flax fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubular (SIFFT) columns are newly proposed to be used as structural components in cold areas. A SIFFT column is composed of an external flax FRP tube filled with sawdust-reinforced ice. The compressive behavior of circular SIFFT short [...] Read more.
Sawdust-reinforced ice-filled flax fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubular (SIFFT) columns are newly proposed to be used as structural components in cold areas. A SIFFT column is composed of an external flax FRP tube filled with sawdust-reinforced ice. The compressive behavior of circular SIFFT short columns was systematically investigated. Four types of short columns with circular sections, including three plain ice specimens, three sawdust-reinforced ice specimens (a mixture of 14% sawdust and 86% ice in weight), nine plain ice-filled flax FRP tubular (PIFFT) specimens and nine SIFFT specimens, were tested to assess the concept of the innovative composite columns. The test variables were the thickness of flax FRP tubes and the type of ice cores. The test results indicated that the lateral dilation and the development of cracks of the ice cores were effectively suppressed by outer flax FRP tubes, thus causing a considerable enhancement in the compressive strength. Moreover, the compressive behavior, energy-absorption capacity, and anti-melting property of sawdust-reinforced ice cores were better than those of plain ice cores confined by flax FRP tubes with the same thicknesses. The proposed equations for estimating ultimate bearing capacities of PIFFT and SIFFT short columns were shown to provide reasonable and accurate predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Compressive Strength, Chloride Ion Penetrability, and Carbonation Characteristic of Concrete with Mixed Slag Aggregate
Materials 2020, 13(4), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040940 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The shortage of natural aggregates has recently emerged as a serious problem owing to the tremendous growth of the concrete industry. Consequently, the social interest in identifying aggregate materials as alternatives to natural aggregates has increased. In South Korea’s growing steel industry, a [...] Read more.
The shortage of natural aggregates has recently emerged as a serious problem owing to the tremendous growth of the concrete industry. Consequently, the social interest in identifying aggregate materials as alternatives to natural aggregates has increased. In South Korea’s growing steel industry, a large amount of steel slag is generated and discarded every year, thereby causing environmental pollution. In previous studies, steel slag, such as blast furnace slag (BFS), has been used as substitutes for concrete aggregates; however, few studies have been conducted on concrete containing both BFS and Ferronickel slag (FNS) as the fine aggregate. In this study, the compressive strength, chloride ion penetrability, and carbonation characteristic of concrete with both FNS and BFS were investigated. The mixed slag fine aggregate (MSFA) was used to replace 0, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the natural fine aggregate volume. From the test results, the highest compressive strength after 56 days was observed for the B/F100 sample. The 56 days chloride ion penetrability of the B/F75, and B/F100 samples with the MSFA contents of 75% and 100% were low level, approximately 34%, and 54% lower than that of the plain sample, respectively. In addition, the carbonation depth of the samples decreased with the increase in replacement ratio of MSFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
An Analytical Mini-Review on the Compression Strength of Rubberized Concrete as a Function of the Amount of Recycled Tires Crumb Rubber
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051234 - 09 Mar 2020
Abstract
Since waste tires constitute a serious environmental concern, several studies are devoted to the use of finely divided recycled rubber for the production of rubberized concrete by partial substitution of the mineral aggregate fraction. The introduction of rubber into concrete presents several advantages [...] Read more.
Since waste tires constitute a serious environmental concern, several studies are devoted to the use of finely divided recycled rubber for the production of rubberized concrete by partial substitution of the mineral aggregate fraction. The introduction of rubber into concrete presents several advantages (e.g., improvement of toughness and thermal/electrical/acoustic insulation capacities). Unfortunately, the addition of a high content of rubber into concrete causes an important loss of mechanical resistance of the final composite. In this context, several scientific studies are devoted to investigate the best technical solutions for favoring the interfacial adhesion between rubber and cement paste, but the interpretation of the literature is often misleading. To overcome this issue, the metadata extrapolated from the single scientific works were critically re-analyzed, forming reference diagrams where the variability fields of the different rubber concrete formulations (in terms of mechanical responses as a function of the rubber content) were defined and the best performances discussed. This study evidenced the twofold role of reference diagrams, able in both presenting the data in an unambiguous manner (for a successful comparison) and providing the guidelines for future works in this research field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials for Concrete and Other Composites)
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