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Special Issue "Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Iza Radecka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Wolverhampton School of Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
Interests: biodegradable polymers form wastes; antimicrobials and bioactive compounds; hydrogels; probiotics; bioremediation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Marek M. Kowalczuk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland
2. School of Biology, Chemistry and Forensic Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK
Interests: biocompatible and biodegradable polymer systems; polymer mass spectrometry; bioactive oligomers; controlled drug delivery systems; ring-opening polymerization; forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both natural and synthetic polymers represent the largest and the most versatile class of materials. In recent years, polymeric materials have constituted an important class of biomedical materials and are used in a variety of biomedical applications including drug delivery systems, wound healing, polymers with antibacterial properties, and tissue engineering. Polymeric materials can be designed to act as substitutes for the structure and function of body components. This adaptability to deliver a lardge range of effective therapies is mainly attributed to the fact that polymers can be designed with a wide variety of structures and appropriate physical, chemical and surface properties.

This Special Issue is dedicated to recent advances in natural and synthetic polymeric materials with desired physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties to match the various requirements of specific biomedical applications. Discussion of the manufacturing of the advanced polymeric materials and their application in the biomedical field is also welcome.

It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute a manuscript to this Special Issue. Full research papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Iza K. Radecka
Prof. Dr. Marek M. Kowalczuk
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biocompatible and biodegradable polymers
  • drug delivery systems
  • antimicrobials
  • wound healing

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
The Mould War: Developing an Armamentarium against Fungal Pathogens Utilising Thymoquinone, Ocimene, and Miramistin within Bacterial Cellulose Matrices
Materials 2021, 14(10), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102654 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
An increase in antifungal resistance has seen a surge in fungal wound infections in patients who are immunocompromised resulting from chemotherapy, disease, and burns. Human pathogenic fungi are increasingly becoming resistant to a sparse repertoire of existing antifungal drugs, which has given rise [...] Read more.
An increase in antifungal resistance has seen a surge in fungal wound infections in patients who are immunocompromised resulting from chemotherapy, disease, and burns. Human pathogenic fungi are increasingly becoming resistant to a sparse repertoire of existing antifungal drugs, which has given rise to the need to develop novel treatments for potentially lethal infections. Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus has been shown to possess many properties that make it innately useful as a next-generation biopolymer to be utilised as a wound dressing. The current study demonstrates the creation of a pharmacologically active wound dressing by loading antifungal agents into a biopolymer hydrogel to produce a novel wound dressing. Amphotericin B is known to be highly hepatotoxic, which reduces its appeal as an antifungal drug, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. This, coupled with an increase in antifungal resistance, has seen a surge in fungal wound infections in patients who are immunodeficient due to chemotherapy, disease, or injury. Antifungal activity was conducted via Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27, M38, M44, and M51 against Candida auris, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus niger. This study showed that thymoquinone has a comparable antifungal activity to amphotericin B with mean zones of inhibition of 21.425 ± 0.925 mm and 22.53 ± 0.969 mm, respectively. However, the mean survival rate of HEp-2 cells when treated with 50 mg/L amphotericin B was 29.25 ± 0.854% compared to 71.25 ± 1.797% when treated with 50 mg/L thymoquinone. Following cytotoxicity assays against HEp-2 cells, thymoquinone showed a 71.25 ± 3.594% cell survival, whereas amphotericin B had a mean cell survival rate of 29.25 ± 1.708%. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of thymoquinone, ocimene, and miramistin against amphotericin B in the application of novel antifungal dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Cell-Mediated Immunoreactivity of Poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) as Promising Formulation for Immunomodulation
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061371 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) represents a functional polymer with high potential for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and immunomodulation. The immunomodulatory efficiency of the PIPOx formulation has been studied in vitro following splenic cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages exposition. The cell-specific immunomodulative effect on production of [...] Read more.
Poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) represents a functional polymer with high potential for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and immunomodulation. The immunomodulatory efficiency of the PIPOx formulation has been studied in vitro following splenic cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages exposition. The cell-specific immunomodulative effect on production of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg signature cytokines has been demonstrated. The impact on the functionality of PIPOx-sensitized RAW 264.7 macrophages was assessed by cell phagocytosis. Time- and concentration-dependent cell internalization and intracellular organelles colocalization of fluorescently labeled PIPOx has been examined. The in vitro results demonstrated the PIPOx bioavailability and the capability of triggering immune cell responses resulting in the induced production of cell-specific signature interleukins, important prerequisite properties for future potential biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Evaluation of Biodegradable PVA-Based 3D Printed Carriers during Dissolution
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061350 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
The presence of additive manufacturing, especially 3D printing, has the potential to revolutionize pharmaceutical manufacturing owing to the distinctive capabilities of personalized pharmaceutical manufacturing. This study’s aim was to examine the behavior of commonly used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) under in vitro dissolution conditions. [...] Read more.
The presence of additive manufacturing, especially 3D printing, has the potential to revolutionize pharmaceutical manufacturing owing to the distinctive capabilities of personalized pharmaceutical manufacturing. This study’s aim was to examine the behavior of commonly used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) under in vitro dissolution conditions. Polylactic acid (PLA) was also used as a comparator. The carriers were designed and fabricated using computer-aided design (CAD). After printing the containers, the behavior of PVA under in vitro simulated biorelevant conditions was monitored by gravimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. The results show that in all the dissolution media PVA carriers were dissolved; the particle size was under 300 nm. However, the dissolution rate was different in various dissolution media. In addition to studying the PVA, as drug delivery carriers, the kinetics of drug release were investigated. These dissolution test results accompanied with UV spectrophotometry tracking indirectly determine the possibilities for modifying the output of quality by computer design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
pH-Sensitive Dairy-Derived Hydrogels with a Prolonged Drug Release Profile for Cancer Treatment
Materials 2021, 14(4), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040749 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
A novel versatile biocompatible hydrogel of whey protein isolate (WPI) and two types of tannic acid (TAs) was prepared by crosslinking of WPI with TAs in a one-step method at high temperature for 30 min. WPI is one common protein-based preparation which is [...] Read more.
A novel versatile biocompatible hydrogel of whey protein isolate (WPI) and two types of tannic acid (TAs) was prepared by crosslinking of WPI with TAs in a one-step method at high temperature for 30 min. WPI is one common protein-based preparation which is used for hydrogel formation. The obtained WPI-TA hydrogels were in disc form and retained their integrity after sterilization by autoclaving. Two TA preparations of differing molecular weight and chemical structure were compared, namely a polygalloyl glucose-rich extract-ALSOK 02-and a polygalloyl quinic acid-rich extract-ALSOK 04. Hydrogel formation was observed for WPI solutions containing both preparations. The swelling characteristics of hydrogels were investigated at room temperature at different pH values, namely 5, 7, and 9. The swelling ability of hydrogels was independent of the chemical structure of the added TAs. A trend of decrease of mass increase (MI) in hydrogels was observed with an increase in the TA/WPI ratio compared to the control WPI hydrogel without TA. This dependence (a MI decrease-TA/WPI ratio) was observed for hydrogels with different types of TA both in neutral and acidic conditions (pH 5.7). Under alkaline conditions (pH 9), negative values of swelling were observed for all hydrogels with a high content of TAs and were accompanied by a significant release of TAs from the hydrogel network. Our studies have shown that the release of TA from hydrogels containing ALSOK04 is higher than from hydrogels containing ALSOK 02. Moreover, the addition of TAs, which display a strong anti-cancer effect, increases the cytotoxicity of WPI-TAs hydrogels against the Hep-2 human laryngeal squamous carcinoma (Hep-2 cells) cell line. Thus, WPI-TA hydrogels with prolonged drug release properties and cytotoxicity effect can be used as anti-cancer scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Bioactive (Co)oligoesters as Potential Delivery Systems of p-Anisic Acid for Cosmetic Purposes
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184153 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 679
Abstract
This article reports the studies on bioactive (co)oligoesters towards their use as controlled delivery systems of p-anisic acid. The objects of the study were oligo[3-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzoyloxymethyl)propionate], (p-AA-CH2-HP)n oligoester, and oligo[(3-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzoyloxymethyl)propionate)-co-(3-hydroxybutyrate)] [(p-AA-CH2-HP)x-co-(HB)y (co)oligoesters containing p-anisic acid moiety [...] Read more.
This article reports the studies on bioactive (co)oligoesters towards their use as controlled delivery systems of p-anisic acid. The objects of the study were oligo[3-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzoyloxymethyl)propionate], (p-AA-CH2-HP)n oligoester, and oligo[(3-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzoyloxymethyl)propionate)-co-(3-hydroxybutyrate)] [(p-AA-CH2-HP)x-co-(HB)y (co)oligoesters containing p-anisic acid moiety (p-AA, as the bioactive end and side groups) connected to the polymer backbone through the susceptible to hydrolysis ester bonds. A thorough insight into the hydrolysis process of the bioactive (co)oligoesters studied has allowed us to determine the release profile of p-AA as well as to identify polymer carrier degradation products. The p-AA release profiles determined on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements showed that the release of the bioactive compound from the developed (co)oligoester systems was regular and no burst effect occurred. Biological studies demonstrated that studied (homo)- and (co)oligoesters were well tolerated by HaCaT cells because none of them showed notable cytotoxicity. They promoted keratinocyte growth at moderate concentrations. Bioactive (co)oligoesters containing p-anisic acid moiety had somewhat decreased cell proliferation at the highest concentration (100 µg/mL). The important practical inference of the current study is that the (co)oligoesters developed have a relatively large load of the biologically active substance (p-AA) per polymer macromolecule, which unlocks their potential application in the cosmetic industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Polydopamine Linking Substrate for AMPs: Characterisation and Stability on Ti6Al4V
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173714 - 22 Aug 2020
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Infections are common complications in joint replacement surgeries. Eradicated infections can lead to implant failure. In this paper, analogues of the peptide KR-12 derived from the human cathelicidin LL-37 were designed, synthesised, and characterised. The designed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were attached to the [...] Read more.
Infections are common complications in joint replacement surgeries. Eradicated infections can lead to implant failure. In this paper, analogues of the peptide KR-12 derived from the human cathelicidin LL-37 were designed, synthesised, and characterised. The designed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were attached to the surface of a titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V, by conjugation to a polydopamine linking substrate. The topography of the polydopamine coating was evaluated by electron microscopy and coating thickness measurements were performed with ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The subsequently attached peptide stability was investigated with release profile studies in simulated body fluid, using both fluorescence imaging and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Finally, the hydrophobicity of the coating was characterised by water contact angle measurements. The designed AMPs were shown to provide long-term bonding to the polydopamine-coated Ti6Al4V surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Communication
Hierarchical Composite Meshes of Electrospun PS Microfibers with PA6 Nanofibers for Regenerative Medicine
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081974 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
One of the most frequently applied polymers in regenerative medicine is polystyrene (PS), which is commonly used as a flat surface and requires surface modifications for cell culture study. Here, hierarchical composite meshes were fabricated via electrospinning PS with nylon 6 (PA6) to [...] Read more.
One of the most frequently applied polymers in regenerative medicine is polystyrene (PS), which is commonly used as a flat surface and requires surface modifications for cell culture study. Here, hierarchical composite meshes were fabricated via electrospinning PS with nylon 6 (PA6) to obtain enhanced cell proliferation, development, and integration with nondegradable polymer fibers. The biomimetic approach of designed meshes was verified with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and MTS assay up to 7 days of cell culture. In particular, adding PA6 nanofibers changes the fibroblast attachment to meshes and their development, which can be observed by cell flattening, filopodia formation, and spreading. The proposed single-step manufacturing of meshes controlled the surface properties and roughness of produced composites, allowing governing cell behavior. Within this study, we show the alternative engineering of nondegradable meshes without post-treatment steps, which can be used in various applications in regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
New Poly(Propylene Imine) Dendrimer Modified with Acridine and Its Cu(II) Complex: Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity
Materials 2019, 12(18), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12183020 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
A second-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimer modified with acridine and its Cu(II) complex have been synthesized for the first time. It has been found that two copper ions form complexes with the nitrogen atoms of the dendrimeric core by coordinate bonds. The new compounds [...] Read more.
A second-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimer modified with acridine and its Cu(II) complex have been synthesized for the first time. It has been found that two copper ions form complexes with the nitrogen atoms of the dendrimeric core by coordinate bonds. The new compounds have been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The spectral characteristics of the modified dendrimer have been measured in different organic solvents, and a negative fluorescence solvatochromism has been observed. The antimicrobial activity of the dendrimers has been tested against model pathogenic microorganisms in agar and by broth dilution method. The cotton fabric treated with both dendrimers has been evaluated towards pathogenic microorganisms. The obtained modified cotton fabrics have been shown to hamper bacterial growth and to prevent biofilm formation. Dendrimer cytotoxicity has been investigated in vitro in the model HEp-2 cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Communication
Electrospinning of Fish Gelatin Solution Containing Citric Acid: An Environmentally Friendly Approach to Prepare Crosslinked Gelatin Fibers
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172808 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
The majority of the crosslinking approaches employed to confer water resistance properties to electrospun gelatin mats are based on the use of potential cytotoxic agents, turning out to be not suitable for biomedical applications. Environmentally friendly chemical strategies based on the use of [...] Read more.
The majority of the crosslinking approaches employed to confer water resistance properties to electrospun gelatin mats are based on the use of potential cytotoxic agents, turning out to be not suitable for biomedical applications. Environmentally friendly chemical strategies based on the use of non-toxic agents are, therefore, strongly demanded. In the present work, the possibility to produce crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin mats by electrospinning an aqueous solution, containing citric acid as a crosslinking agent, is reported. The effect of pH on solution rheological properties, as well as on the electrospun mat morphology, chemistry, and crosslinking degree, is assessed. The increase of solution pH from 1.8 to 3.7 allows for obtaining fibers that maintain the fibrous morphology also in the mat. Subsequent thermal treatment of the electrospun mat (80 °C for 30 min) turns out to increase the crosslinking degree and morphological stability of the mat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymeric Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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