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Physical Properties and Biocompatibility of Restorative Dental Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 13502

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: dental materials; biomimetic materials; glass ionomer cements; adhesion; bio-mimetic procedures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent developments in the field of restorative dental materials represent the continuous search for an ideal restorative material which possesses several functions: mechanical, physical, biomimetic, and aesthetic. The aim of this Special Issue of Materials entitled “Physical Properties and Biocompatibility of Restorative Dental Materials” focuses on the integration of all these functions at both laboratory and clinical levels.

Regarding the clinical success of restoration, it is of the utmost importance that the physical properties of restorative dental materials closely emulate natural tooth properties. Today’s restorative dental materials should not only be biocompatible, but also bioactive and biomimetic and of course highly aesthetic. Recent studies showed that the biocompatibility of composite materials is an important issue. Monomer systems, filler technology, and adhesion on different surfaces are important topics for the improvement of different types of materials. How to make glass ionomer cements (GICs) better in terms of physical (flexural strength, compressive strength, fluoride release) and aesthetic properties in order to be more clinically accepted is also an important issue. Different types of restorative materials should be further evaluated, aiming at finding the best combination of physical, biomimetic, and aesthetic properties. Clinical studies are mandatory in order to prove laboratory-designed properties. I am therefore pleased to invite you to submit new studies on different aspects of physical, biomimetic properties, and clinical management of restorative dental materials.

Prof. Domagoj Glavina
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • composites
  • glass ionomer cements
  • ceramic materials
  • adhesion
  • mechanical properties
  • flexural strength
  • thermo-curing
  • surface roughness

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Chemical Degradation and Polishing on the Gloss of Composite Dental Materials
by Ružica Zovko, Stipo Cvitanović, Mirela Mabić, Zdenko Šarac, Anka Ćorić, Domagoj Glavina and Kristina Goršeta
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103727 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
This aim of this study was to investigate surface gloss changes of different composite dental materials after chemical degradation or polishing. Five different composites were used (Evetric, GrandioSO, Admira Fusion, Filtek Z550, Dynamic Plus). The gloss of the tested material was measured with [...] Read more.
This aim of this study was to investigate surface gloss changes of different composite dental materials after chemical degradation or polishing. Five different composites were used (Evetric, GrandioSO, Admira Fusion, Filtek Z550, Dynamic Plus). The gloss of the tested material was measured with a glossmeter before and after chemical degradation in different acidic beverages. Statistical analysis was performed using a t-test for dependent samples, ANOVA, and a post hoc test. For comparison between groups, a level of significance was set at 0.05. Initial gloss values ranged from 51 to 93 at baseline to 32 to 81 after chemical degradation. The highest values were obtained for Dynamic Plus (93.5 GU) and GrandioSO (77.8 GU), followed by Admira Fusion (82 GU) and Filtek Z550 (70.5 GU). Evetric showed the lowest initial gloss values. After acidic exposures, the gloss measurements revealed different patterns of surface degradation. The results showed that the gloss of the samples decreased with time regardless of the treatment. The interaction between chemical-erosive beverages and the composite could lead to a decrease in the surface gloss of the composite restoration. The nanohybrid composite showed less gloss changes under acidic conditions, suggesting that it is more suitable for anterior restorations. Full article
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12 pages, 5600 KiB  
Article
Influence of Polycaprolactone Concentration and Solvent Type on the Dimensions and Morphology of Electrosprayed Particles
by Laura Alberto, Lohitha Kalluri, Jing Qu, Yongfeng Zhao and Yuanyuan Duan
Materials 2023, 16(5), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16052122 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Polycaprolactone (PCL) micro- and nanoparticles produced using the electrospraying technique present high drug encapsulation capacity, a controllable surface area, and a good cost–benefit ratio. PCL is also considered a non-toxic polymeric material with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. All these characteristics make PCL micro- [...] Read more.
Polycaprolactone (PCL) micro- and nanoparticles produced using the electrospraying technique present high drug encapsulation capacity, a controllable surface area, and a good cost–benefit ratio. PCL is also considered a non-toxic polymeric material with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. All these characteristics make PCL micro- and nanoparticles a promising material for tissue engineering regeneration, drug delivery, and surface modification in dentistry. In this study, PCL electrosprayed specimens were produced and analyzed to determine their morphology and size. Three PCL concentrations (2, 4, and 6 wt%) and three solvent types (chloroform (CF), dimethylformamide (DMF), and acetic acid (AA)) with various solvent mixtures ratios (1:1 CF/DMF, 3:1 CF/DMF, 100% CF, 1:1 AA/CF, 3:1 AA/CF, and 100% AA) were used while keeping the remaining electrospray parameters constant. SEM images followed by ImageJ analysis showed a change in the morphology and size of the particles among various tested groups. A two-way ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant interaction (p < 0.001) between PCL concentration and solvents on the size of the particles. With the increase in the PCL concentration, an increase in the number of fibers was observed among all the groups. The morphology and dimensions of the electrosprayed particles, as well as the presence of fibers, were significantly dependent on the PCL concentration, choice of solvent, and solvent ratio. Full article
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15 pages, 11660 KiB  
Article
The Use of Toothpastes Containing Different Formulations of Fluoride and Bioglass on Bleached Enamel
by Zeynep Ergucu, Inci Yoruk, Ayşegül Erdoğan, Hayal Boyacıoğlu, Robert Hill and Aylin Baysan
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041368 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the application of toothpaste either containing calcium sodium phospho-silicate bioglass (NovaMin) or calcium fluorosilicate bioglass (BioMinF) on the surface mineral composition and morphology of enamel after bleaching procedure. Methods: Thirty extracted noncarious human teeth were allocated into five groups (n [...] Read more.
Objectives: To investigate the application of toothpaste either containing calcium sodium phospho-silicate bioglass (NovaMin) or calcium fluorosilicate bioglass (BioMinF) on the surface mineral composition and morphology of enamel after bleaching procedure. Methods: Thirty extracted noncarious human teeth were allocated into five groups (n = 6). Group 1: Bleaching using 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and fluoridated toothpaste containing bioactive glass (1450 ppm fluoride). Group 2: Bleaching using 40%HP and toothpaste containing calcium fluorosilicate bioglass (540 ppm fluoride). Group 3: Bleaching using 40%HP and fluoridated toothpaste (1450 ppm fluoride). Group 4: Bleaching alone using 40%HP. Group 5: Negative control with distilled water alone. The surface morphology was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). The concentration of elements as atomic percentages were determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Results: This laboratory-based study reported that SPM and SEM detected minor changes on the surfaces of all toothpaste-treated enamel samples (Groups 1–3) after 45 days. Bioactive glass deposits were observed on enamel surfaces in Groups 1 and 2, whilst the bleaching-alone samples (Group 4) had rough enamel surfaces. XPS reported that toothpaste containing calcium fluorosilicate bioglass (Group 2) had a high atomic% of calcium and phosphate, whilst silicon values were high in the toothpaste containing bioactive glass and 1450 ppm fluoride (Group 1) after bleaching procedure when compared to other groups (p < 0.05). In addition, EDS detected the highest %F in Groups 1, 2 and 5. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this laboratory-based study, there was no significant decrease in the Ca%, P% values and surface properties of enamel after the bleaching procedure following the use of different formulations of toothpastes for a period of 45 days. However, the Ca% and P% values were significantly high for the toothpaste containing calcium fluorosilicate bioglass (BioMinF) on the bleached enamel. Clinical relevance: The bleaching process can provide optimum aesthetic outcomes, but the effect of peroxides on hard tissues is still in question. Toothpastes containing different formulations of fluoride and bioactive glass might have the potential to prevent mineral loss on bleached enamel. However, further laboratory-based studies and controlled double-blind randomised clinical trials are required to interpret the effects of toothpastes with different fluoride and bioactive glass formulations on enamel surfaces following bleaching procedures. Full article
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19 pages, 4038 KiB  
Article
Influence of Cementation on the Aesthetical Appearance of Full-Ceramic Restorations
by Jörg Meister, Natalia Kaschuba, Michael Romer and Christoph Bourauel
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031236 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
The use of dental ceramics as restorative materials requires corresponding luting materials (cements) that, in turn, influence the visual appearance of the restoration. Due to the high light transmission through the ceramics, the cements can affect the color perception of the dental restoration. [...] Read more.
The use of dental ceramics as restorative materials requires corresponding luting materials (cements) that, in turn, influence the visual appearance of the restoration. Due to the high light transmission through the ceramics, the cements can affect the color perception of the dental restoration. This study aims to investigate the optical effects of various cements on the visual appearance of full-ceramic restorations. Three fixing polymer resins (Bifix SE (VOCO GmbH, Cuxhafen, Germany), BreezeTM (Pentron Clinical, West Collins Orange, CA, USA), and PanaviaTM F. 2.0 (Kuraray, Noritake, Osaka, Japan)), with layer thicknesses of 50, 100, 200, and 250 µm, were applied onto a ceramic base model (0.4 mm thick), and irradiated with laser light of wavelengths 532, 632.8, and 1064 nm. Light intensities and scattering effects of light of various wavelengths were angle-dependent, analyzed using a goniophotometer with perpendicular light incidence on the sample specimen (base model plus luting material). In addition, the transmitted power of the light through the sample specimen was determined as a function of the layer thickness. With increasing layer thickness, power losses of respectively 30% for Bifix SE and BreezeTM in the visible spectral range were comparable, whereas PanaviaTM F. 2.0 showed a power loss of ca. 44% here. For the near-infrared range, the power losses for all cements were 25%. This could be confirmed by the interpretation of the line widths. Moreover, the line widths for thin cement layer thicknesses (50 and 100 µm) in the visible spectral range displayed only a redistribution of light by scattering, which does not affect color perception at all. In addition, at 200 and 250 µm, absorption occurred which causes a change in color perception. Within the scope of this study, it could be shown that for thin-layer thicknesses of the cement applied here, there is no adverse optical effect on the aesthetic visual appearance of the restoration. Full article
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25 pages, 17935 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Porous Structures for Dental Implants: Experimental Study and Computational Homogenization
by Aleš Jíra, Michal Šejnoha, Tomáš Krejčí, Jan Vorel, Luboš Řehounek and Guido Marseglia
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164592 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
A combined experimental and numerical study on titanium porous microstructures intended to interface the bone tissue and the solid homogeneous part of a modern dental implant is presented. A specific class of trabecular geometries is compared to a gyroid structure. Limitations associated with [...] Read more.
A combined experimental and numerical study on titanium porous microstructures intended to interface the bone tissue and the solid homogeneous part of a modern dental implant is presented. A specific class of trabecular geometries is compared to a gyroid structure. Limitations associated with the application of the adopted selective laser melting technology to small microstructures with a pore size of 500 μm are first examined experimentally. The measured effective elastic properties of trabecular structures made of Ti6Al4V material support the computational framework based on homogenization with the difference between the measured and predicted Young’s moduli of the Dode Thick structure being less than 5%. In this regard, the extended finite element method is promoted, particularly in light of the complex sheet gyroid studied next. While for plastic material-based structures a close match between experiments and simulations was observed, an order of magnitude difference was encountered for titanium specimens. This calls for further study and we expect to reconcile this inconsistency with the help of computational microtomography. Full article
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12 pages, 2386 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Dental Alloys According to Manufacturing Process
by Ji-Min Yu, Seen-Young Kang, Jun-Seok Lee, Ho-Sang Jeong and Seung-Youl Lee
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123367 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the fabrication method of dental prosthesis on the mechanical properties. Casting was produced using the lost wax casting method, and milling was designed using a CAD/CAM program. The 3D printing method used [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the fabrication method of dental prosthesis on the mechanical properties. Casting was produced using the lost wax casting method, and milling was designed using a CAD/CAM program. The 3D printing method used the SLS technique to create a three-dimensional structure by sintering metal powder with a laser. When making the specimen, the specimen was oriented at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. All test specimens complied with the requirements of the international standard ISO 22674 for dental alloys. Tensile strength was measured for yield strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation by applying a load until fracture of the specimen at a crosshead speed of 1.5 ± 0.5 mm/min (n = 6, modulus of elasticity n = 3). After the tensile test, the cross section of the fractured specimen was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the statistics of the data were analyzed with a statistical program SPSS (IBM Corp. Released 2020. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 27.0. Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp.) and using Anova and multiple comparison post-tests (scheffe method). The yield strength was the highest at 1042 MPa at an angle of 0 degrees in the specimen produced by 3D printing method, and the elongation was the highest at 14% at an angle of 90 degrees in the specimen produced by 3D printing method. The modulus of elasticity was the highest at 235 GPa in the milled specimen. In particular, the 3D printing group showed a difference in yield strength and elongation according to the build direction. The introduction of various advanced technologies and digital equipment is expected to bring high prospects for the growth of the dental market. Full article
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9 pages, 1992 KiB  
Article
An In Vitro Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Bioactivity between Neo MTA Plus, Pro Root MTA, BIODENTINE & Glass Ionomer Cement Using Dye Penetration Method
by Mohmed Isaqali Karobari, Syed Nahid Basheer, Fazlur Rahman Sayed, Sufiyan Shaikh, Muhammad Atif Saleem Agwan, Anand Marya, Pietro Messina and Giuseppe Alessandro Scardina
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123159 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
The ideal root end filling material should form a tight seal in the root canal by adhering to the cavity walls. Several materials have been used for root end filling. The present study aims to find out and compare the bioactivity of Neo [...] Read more.
The ideal root end filling material should form a tight seal in the root canal by adhering to the cavity walls. Several materials have been used for root end filling. The present study aims to find out and compare the bioactivity of Neo MTA Plus, Pro Root MTA White, BIODENTINE & glass ionomer cement as root end filling materials using 1% methylene blue as tracer. Materials and methods: 80 extracted human permanent maxillary anterior teeth were used in the study. They were divided into four groups. Specimens were sectioned transversely in the cervical area to separate the crown from the root. The root canal was obturated with gutta percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealers. Thereafter, each sample was resected apically by removing 3 mm of the apex and filled with different materials. Samples were kept in buffering solution at 37 °C until the recommended evaluation periods. The specimens were then suspended in 1% methylene blue for 24 h, prior to the analysis. The teeth were then sectioned, and dye penetration was examined, photographed, and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Results: Vertical dye penetration showed significant differences across different groups. The minimum dye penetration was seen in Neo MTA plus followed by BIODENTINE, Pro Root MTA and maximum in GIC. There was no significant difference in dye penetration between Neo MTA plus and BIODENTINE both at fifteen days and one-month intervals. Conclusion: The present study suggests Neo MTA plus and BIODENTINE should be the preferred material for root end filling. Full article
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