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Special Issue "Materials for Clean Processes in Energy"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mejdi Jeguirim

Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, 3 rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: pyrolysis; gasification and combustion of different biomasses, including agriculture residues and agro-industrial byproducts; gaseous and aqueous effluent treatments
Guest Editor
Dr. Simona Bennici

Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse, IS2M - CNRS UMR 7361 - UHA, 3 rue Alfred Werner, 68093, Mulhouse Cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: catalysis; thermal analysis; thermochemical heat storage; biosourced Products valorisation; depollution; clean processes

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

There is an overwhelming compulsion in the development of new materials aiming to diminish the environmental footprint of processes in the energy field and to adapt their properties to target applications. Generally, materials developed for specific applications are reconverted for other uses and slightly modified to reach higher performances. A different approach is to create new and target materials for a definite application by varying the synthesis and activation conditions and methodology during preparation. This way, numerous new materials have recently been developed for specific applications in the field of energy. Thanks to the advances in material science, several energy storage and production processes have been transformed/reconverted into clean processes (biofuel industry, fatal energy recovery, renewable energy storage, etc.).

The topic of this Special Issue is the implementation of new materials in clean processes in the energy field:

  • Biosourced material for energy recovery (biofuel, chars, etc.);
  • Materials and composites for energy storage (PCM, salt hydrate, zeolites, etc.);
  • Materials and catalytic materials for energy related processes (biofuels production and purification, biogas purification, etc.).

Dr. Mejdi Jeguirim
Dr. Simona Bennici
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biofuels
  • Biomass precursors for electrochemical electrodes
  • Biosorbents for energy accumulators
  • Synthetic graphite for fuel cell and batteries
  • Activation
  • Catalysis
  • Chars
  • Purification of biogas and biofuel.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Binary Oxides Prepared by Microwave-Assisted Solution Combustion: Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity
Materials 2019, 12(6), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060910
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Three different alumina-based Ni, Cu, Co oxide catalysts with metal loading of 10 wt %, and labeled 10Ni–Al, 10Co–Al and 10Cu–Al, were prepared by microwave-assisted solution combustion. Their morphological, structural and surface properties were deeply investigated by complementary physico-chemical techniques. Finally, the three [...] Read more.
Three different alumina-based Ni, Cu, Co oxide catalysts with metal loading of 10 wt %, and labeled 10Ni–Al, 10Co–Al and 10Cu–Al, were prepared by microwave-assisted solution combustion. Their morphological, structural and surface properties were deeply investigated by complementary physico-chemical techniques. Finally, the three materials were tested in CO oxidation used as test reaction for comparing their catalytic performance. The 10Cu–Al catalyst was constituted of copper oxide phase, while the 10Ni–Al and 10Co–Al catalysts showed the presence of “spinels” phases on the surface. The well-crystallized copper oxide phase in the 10Cu–Al catalyst, obtained by microwave synthesis, allowed for obtaining very high catalytic activity. With a CO conversion of 100% at 225 °C, the copper containing catalyst showed a much higher activity than that usually measured for catalytic materials of similar composition, thus representing a promising alternative for oxidation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Clean Processes in Energy)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Tomato-Processing By-Product Combustion: Thermal and Kinetic Analyses
Materials 2019, 12(4), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040553
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper is part of a sustainable development approach, the aim being to develop a thermochemical energy recovery path while reducing the amount of tomato waste issued from agro-industrial units. The thermal process may contribute to an environmentally friendly management and help tomato [...] Read more.
This paper is part of a sustainable development approach, the aim being to develop a thermochemical energy recovery path while reducing the amount of tomato waste issued from agro-industrial units. The thermal process may contribute to an environmentally friendly management and help tomato processing industries creating new economic profitable circuits in an increasingly competitive context. The adopted approach was to follow the operating conditions needed for a complete thermal degradation through a thermal and kinetic analyses. The results of the tomato waste characterization confirmed their suitability to a thermochemical processing with high volatiles and fixed carbon and interesting high heating values comparable to sawdust biomass. We were able to isolate of the decomposition domains and extract kinetic parameters. Three kinetic models were applied; Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) simulated the best the combustion process. Calculated curves were validated by the first order (n = 1) model except for the slow heating rate of 5 °C/min which was fitted by the contracted cylinder model. The conclusions of this paper could help in optimizing the combustion process in order to achieve high energy recovery from tomato residues. Obtained kinetic data would help in the design of combustion reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Clean Processes in Energy)
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Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Investigation of biofuel briquettes by blending the olive mill solid waste with the corn starch binder under optimal temperature and pressure.

  1. Khlifi1, M. Lajili 1*, B. Sarh2, S. Belghith3, S. Mezlini3, F. Tabet4
First-Third 1 Etude des milieux ionisés et réactifs (EMIR) à l' IPEIM, Université de Monastir, Rue Ibn Eljazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisie

2Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité, et Environnement (ICARE)-CNRS UPR3021, 1C avenue de la recherche scientifique, 45071, Orléans Cedex 2, France

3Laboratoire de Génie Mécanique, École Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Rue Ibn Eljazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisie

4Deutsche Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH (DBFZ)

* Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to prepare small briquettes with high quality from olive mill solid waste (OMSW) blended with corn starch as a binder agent. First, we focused on their physicochemical characteristics. Indeed, the OMSW and the binder agent were mixed in different mass percentages; 100-0, 90-10, 85-15 and 70-30% respectively. Densification of the raw mixtures was conducted on three selected biomass samples with a grind size less than 100 micrometers, while using three pressure values; 100, 125 and 150 MPa respectively. The physical properties on which we are focusing are the unit density and the compressive strength. Moreover, the chemical properties consist at determining the proximate and the thermogravimetric analysis. The realized tests confirm that the prepared sample using 15 % of corn starch gives the optimal mechanical properties. Also, the TG and the DTG analyses showed a notable discrepancy between the prepared biofuels using or not the binder. Additionally, we notice a small improvement in term of the high heating value (HHV), when adding the binder agent, from 16.3627 MJ/Kg for the 100-0 sample to 16.92 MJ/Kg for the 85-15% sample. Besides, a quite variation of the volatile matter and char contents were perceived. When carrying out the kinetic study based on Arrhenius theory, we concluded that for particle sizing less than 100 mm the activation energy is decreased during the pyrolysis process for both samples 100-0 and 85-15% respectively. Hence, all these obtained results show that our prepared sample with particles less than 100 mm sizing and blended with 15% of corn starch as a binder is the best material for producing briquettes of high quality.

Keywords: olive pomace, pelletization, compressive strength, binder, ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, kinetic parameters.

 

FROM OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY WSTES AND POLLUTANTS TO ALTENATIVE BIOFUELS

Marzouk Lajili

Université de Monastir, UR : Etude des milieux ionisés et réactifs (EMIR), rue Ibn Eljazzar IPEIM, 5019 Monastir, Tunisie

[email protected]

Abstract: Since last decade we have been focusing on lignocellulosic biomass characterization and biofuels energy conversion. Indeed, Mediterranean basin countries such as Spain, Italy, Greece and Tunisia produce every year huge quantities of olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) and olive mill wastewater (OMWW). If the OMSW was used as biofuel under its raw state for feeding traditional furnaces by our ancestors, the OMWW when stocked randomly in open sky basins can be considered as a potential pollutant affecting soil, air and underground water. Hence, we investigated some thermal processes for reusing these oil industry by-products. Indeed, we consider the drying of raw materials, then their densification after mixing them with woody biomass such as pine sawdust. This is done in order to improve their physicochemical properties conformingly to the European norm standards. The obtained samples as pellets, briquettes or logs present high heating value, high bulk densities and high durability. After, these produced solid biofuels were subject to pyrolysis tests using ATG device, to combustion tests using small powered household boilers (< 50 kW) or fixed bed reactors, and to gasification tests using different gasifier agents in order to produce syngas. Until now the obtained results were very encouraging when using these alternative bio-fuels during the cogeneration process for heat and/or electricity production. Furthermore, in order to reduce the OMWW pollution effect, we investigated the impregnation of lignocellulosic biomasses with this liquid mainly composed of water (> 90%), organic matter and inorganic elements such as K, Ca and Na. The impregnated and non- impregnated samples considered at pellets or powder states were tested to produce the biochar which is then used in a Macro-TG plant for the gasification process. The hydrogen enriched syngas yielded is mainly composed by hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. We found that rate of conversion and the char reactivity during the gasification depend strongly on the nature of the biofuel, the gasifier agent, the residence time, the isothermal temperature and the particle sizing.

 

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