Special Issue "Advances in Materials Processing"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hansang Kwon
Website
Guest Editor
Nanocomposite Materials Lab. Department of Material System Engineering, Pukyong National University, 48513 Busan, Republic of Korea
Interests: nanomaterials; dissimilar materials; powder metallurgy; composite materials processing; functionally graded materials; surface modification; nanoparticles
Dr. Marc Leparoux
Website
Guest Editor
Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Dübendorf, Switzerland
Interests: nanomaterials; nanoparticles; nanocomposites; powder metallurgy; composite materials processing; plasma synthesis; laser processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Since the industrial development, materials processing has been central to the field of materials science and engineering and a vital step in manufacturing. Materials processing is an important process in realizing the structural features (e.g., crystal structure, microstructure, size, and shape) required for a given product to perform well in its intended application by properly utilizing and designing the composition of a given material. This involves a complex series of chemical, thermal, and physical processes that prepare a starting material, create a shape, retain that shape, and refine the structure and shape. The conversion of the starting material to the final product occurs in three steps: preparation of the starting material, processing operation, and post-processing operation(s). Recently, trends in the high-tech industry have been pushing toward miniaturization, the creation of products with complex shapes, and multifunctional materials. To keep up with ever-increasing demands, materials processing has seen continuously advancements in production and efficient and performance qualifications.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the topic of processing, manufacturing, the structure/property relationship, and applications in advanced materials. All of the single-phase, alloy, and composite materials in metals, ceramics, and polymers are of interest.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Hansang Kwon
Dr. Marc Leparoux
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • processing
  • manufacturing
  • powder metallurgy
  • composite materials processing
  • surface modification
  • plasma synthesis
  • laser processing

Published Papers (24 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Integrated Circular Triple-Wire Pulse GMAW of Q960E High-Strength Steel for Construction Machinery
Materials 2021, 14(2), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020375 - 14 Jan 2021
Abstract
Multi-wire welding has received much attention in the machinery industry due to its high efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel pulse gas metal arc welding (GMAW) that has circular triple-wire electrodes. The effect of the pulse phage angle [...] Read more.
Multi-wire welding has received much attention in the machinery industry due to its high efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel pulse gas metal arc welding (GMAW) that has circular triple-wire electrodes. The effect of the pulse phage angle on arc stability was particularly studied. Research showed that for typical phase angles the arc stability from low to high is 180°, 0°, and 120°, and the arcs are very stable at 120°. The triple-wire welding was used to weld a 9 mm thick Q960E steel, which is typically used for the arm of construction machinery. When the welding heat input was controlled at 1.26–1.56 kJ/mm, the weld zone was dominated by acicular ferrite, and the coarse-grained zone of the heat-affected zone was a mixed structure of lath martensite and lath bainite. The tensile strength of the welded joint reached 85% of the base metal and the impact toughness was above 62 J, which can meet the requirements of construction machinery. This indicates that the triple-wire welding has great potential to achieve efficient and high-quality welding for the construction machinery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Aluminothermic Reduction of Manganese Oxide from Selected MnO-Containing Slags
Materials 2021, 14(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020356 - 13 Jan 2021
Abstract
The aluminothermic reduction process of manganese oxide from different slags by aluminum was investigated using pure Al and two types of industrial Al dross. Two types of MnO-containing slags were used: a synthetic highly pure CaO-MnO slag and an industrial high carbon ferromanganese [...] Read more.
The aluminothermic reduction process of manganese oxide from different slags by aluminum was investigated using pure Al and two types of industrial Al dross. Two types of MnO-containing slags were used: a synthetic highly pure CaO-MnO slag and an industrial high carbon ferromanganese slag. Mixtures of Al and slag with more Al than the stoichiometry were heated and interacted in an induction furnace up to 1873 K, yielding molten metal and slag products. The characterization of the produced metal and slag phases indicated that the complete reduction of MnO occurs via the aluminothermic process. Moreover, as the Al content in the charge was high, it also completely reduced SiO2 in the industrial ferromanganese slag. A small mass transport of Ca and Mg into the metal phase was also observed, which was shown to be affected by the slag chemistry. The obtained results indicated that the valorization of both Al dross and FeMn slag in a single process for the production of Mn, Mn-Al, and Mn-Al-Si alloys is possible. Moreover, the energy balance for the process indicated that the energy consumption of the process to produce Mn-Al alloys via the proposed process is insignificant due to the highly exothermic reactions at high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Formation Behaviour of Al–Cu Intermetallic Compounds in Al–50vol%Cu Composites Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering under High Pressure
Materials 2021, 14(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020266 - 07 Jan 2021
Abstract
Al–Cu matrix composites with excellent mechanical and thermal properties are among the most promising materials for realising high performance in thermal management systems. However, intermetallic compounds (ICs) formed at the Al/Cu interfaces prevent direct contact between the metals and severely deteriorate the thermal [...] Read more.
Al–Cu matrix composites with excellent mechanical and thermal properties are among the most promising materials for realising high performance in thermal management systems. However, intermetallic compounds (ICs) formed at the Al/Cu interfaces prevent direct contact between the metals and severely deteriorate the thermal conductivity of the composite. In this study, we systemically investigated the formation behaviour of Al–Cu ICs as a function of compaction pressure at a low temperature of 380 °C. The phases of the Al–Cu ICs formed during sintering were detected via X-ray diffraction, and the layer thickness and average area fraction of each IC at different compaction pressures were analysed via micro-scale observations of the cross-sections of the Al–Cu composites. The ICs were partially formed along the Al/Cu interfaces at high pressures, and the formation region was related to the direction of applied pressure. The Vickers hardness of the Al–Cu composites with ICs was nearly double those calculated using the rule of mixtures. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity of the composites increased with compaction pressure and reached 201 W·m−1·K−1. This study suggests the possibility of employing Al–Cu matrix composites with controlled IC formation in thermal management applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Shape Memory and Mechanical Properties of Cold Rolled and Annealed Fe-17Mn-5Si-5Cr-4Ni-1Ti-0.3C Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020255 - 06 Jan 2021
Abstract
In the present study, the shape, memory, and mechanical properties of cold-rolled and annealed Fe-17Mn-5Si-5Cr-4Ni-1Ti-0.3C (wt.%) alloy were investigated. The cold-rolled alloy was annealing heat-treated at different temperatures in the range of 500–900 °C for 30 min. The shape recovery behavior of the [...] Read more.
In the present study, the shape, memory, and mechanical properties of cold-rolled and annealed Fe-17Mn-5Si-5Cr-4Ni-1Ti-0.3C (wt.%) alloy were investigated. The cold-rolled alloy was annealing heat-treated at different temperatures in the range of 500–900 °C for 30 min. The shape recovery behavior of the alloy was investigated using strip bending test followed by recovery heating. The microstructural evolution and the stress-strain response of the alloy heat-treated at different temperatures revealed that the recovery took place at a heat-treatment temperature higher than 600 °C. Recrystallization occurred when the heat-treatment temperature was higher than 800 °C. Meaningful shape recovery was observed only when the alloy was annealed at temperatures higher than 600 °C. The highest recovery strain of up to 2.56% was achieved with a pre-strain of 5.26% and recovery heating temperature of 400 °C, when the alloy was heat-treated at 700 °C. Conversely, the yield strength reduced significantly with increasing annealing heat-treatment temperature. The experimental observations presented in this paper provide a guideline for post-annealing heat-treatment when a good compromise between mechanical property and shape recovery performance is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Novel Microwave-Assisted Method of Y2Ti2O7 Powder Synthesis
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245621 - 09 Dec 2020
Abstract
In the paper, a novel technique for highly dispersed pyrochlore Y2Ti2O7 is proposed. The experimental results proved that the application of microwave irradiation at a certain stage of calcination allowed synthesizing of Y2Ti2O7 [...] Read more.
In the paper, a novel technique for highly dispersed pyrochlore Y2Ti2O7 is proposed. The experimental results proved that the application of microwave irradiation at a certain stage of calcination allowed synthesizing of Y2Ti2O7 in much shorter time, which ensured substantial energy savings. An increase up to 98 wt.% in the content of the preferred phase with a pyrochlore-type structure Y2Ti2O7 was obtained after 25 h of yttrium and titanium oxides calcination at a relatively low temperature of 1150 °C, while the microwave-supported process took only 9 h and provided 99 wt.% of pyrochlore. The proposed technology is suitable for industrial applications, enabling the fabrication of large industrial amounts of pyrochlore without solvent chemistry and high-energy mills. It reduced the cost of both equipment and energy and made the process more environmentally friendly. The particle size and morphology did not change significantly; therefore, the microwave-assisted method can fully replace the traditional one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Resistance of Shape Recoverable Fe-17Mn-5Si-5Cr Alloy in Concrete Structures
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235531 - 04 Dec 2020
Abstract
The shape memory effect of steel (i.e., Fe-Mn-Si alloys) enables the tensile strengthening of concrete against tensile stress and unexpected structural vibrations. For practical application, the corrosion resistance of shape-memorable Fe-based steel should be verified. In this study, the corrosion resistance of an [...] Read more.
The shape memory effect of steel (i.e., Fe-Mn-Si alloys) enables the tensile strengthening of concrete against tensile stress and unexpected structural vibrations. For practical application, the corrosion resistance of shape-memorable Fe-based steel should be verified. In this study, the corrosion resistance of an Fe-based (Fe-16Mn-5Si-4Ni-5Cr-0.3C-1Ti) shape memory alloy (FSMA), a promising candidate for concrete reinforcement, was investigated by comparing it with general carbon steel (S400). The corrosion resistance of FSMA and S400 inserted in a cement mortar was evaluated using electrochemical methods. FSMA has a more stable passive oxide layer in aqueous solutions with various pH values. Thus, the corrosion resistance of the FSMA sample was much higher than that of the S400 carbon steel, which has a passivation layer in strongly alkaline solution. This stable oxide layer reduced the sensitivity of the corrosion resistance of FSMA to changes in the pH, compared to S400. Furthermore, owing to the stable passive oxide layer, FSMA exhibited a higher corrosion resistance in concrete and a lower decrease in corrosion resistance because of the neutralization of concrete. Therefore, FSMA is a promising candidate for providing reinforcement and reparability, resulting in stable and durable concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of the Preparation of Aluminium Alloy 2A50 Semi-Solid Billet by Electromagnetic Stirring
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235470 - 30 Nov 2020
Abstract
Electromagnetic stirring (EMS) has become one of the most important branches of the electromagnetic processing of materials. However, a deep understanding of the influence of the EMS on the thermo-fluid flow of the aluminium alloy melt, and consequently the refinement of the microstructure [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic stirring (EMS) has become one of the most important branches of the electromagnetic processing of materials. However, a deep understanding of the influence of the EMS on the thermo-fluid flow of the aluminium alloy melt, and consequently the refinement of the microstructure is still not available. This paper investigated the influence of the operating parameters of EMS on the magnetohydrodynamics, temperature field, flow field, and the vortex-shaped structure of the melt as well as the microstructure of the aluminium alloy 2A50 billet by numerical simulation and experiments. The operating parameters were categorised into three groups representing high, medium, and low levels of Lorentz forces generated by EMS. The numerical simulation matched well with the experimental result. It was found that a high level of EMS can improve the uniformity of the temperature and flow fields. The maximum speed was observed at the radius of around 25 mm under all EMS levels. Both the depth and diameter of the vortex-shaped structure generated increased with the enhancement in the EMS level. The average grain size of the edge sample of the billet was reduced by 48.3% while the average shape factor was increased by 51.0% under the medium-level EMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Characterizing the Local Material Properties of Different Fe–C–Cr-Steels by Using Deep Rolled Single Tracks
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214987 - 05 Nov 2020
Abstract
As part of a novel method for material development, deep rolling was used in this work to characterize the mechanical properties of macroscopic specimens of C45 (AISI 1045), S235 (AISI 1015), and 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) in various heat treatment states. Deep rolling is [...] Read more.
As part of a novel method for material development, deep rolling was used in this work to characterize the mechanical properties of macroscopic specimens of C45 (AISI 1045), S235 (AISI 1015), and 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) in various heat treatment states. Deep rolling is conventionally used to enhance surface and subsurface properties by reducing the surface roughness, introducing compressive residual stresses, and strain hardening. In the context of this work, it was utilized to determine material-specific variables via a mechanically applied load. For that purpose, the geometries of individual deep rolled tracks were measured. In dependence of the process parameters such as deep rolling pressure and tool size, the track geometry, i.e., the specific track depth, was for the first time compared for different materials. A functional relationship identified between the specific track depth and the material state dependent hardness forms the basis for a future characterization of the properties of alloy compositions belonging to the Fe–C–Cr system. Since deep rolling is performed in the same clamping as machining operations, hardness alterations could easily be determined at different points in the process chain using an optical in-process measurement of track geometries in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Low Temperature Sealing of Anodized Aluminum Alloy for Enhancing Corrosion Resistance
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214904 - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Sealing as a post treatment of anodized aluminum is required to enhance the corrosion resistance by filling nanopores, which allow the penetration of corrosive media toward the base aluminum. We designed a mixed sealing solution with nickel acetate and ammonium fluoride by modifying [...] Read more.
Sealing as a post treatment of anodized aluminum is required to enhance the corrosion resistance by filling nanopores, which allow the penetration of corrosive media toward the base aluminum. We designed a mixed sealing solution with nickel acetate and ammonium fluoride by modifying traditional nickel fluoride cold sealing. The concentration of mixed sealing solution affected the reaction rate of sealing and corrosion current density of anodized aluminum alloy. The higher concentration of mixed sealing solution improved the sealing rate, which was represented by a decrease of corrosion current density of anodized aluminum alloy. However, a mixed sealing solution with 2/3 concentration of general nickel fluoride sealing solution operated at room temperature showed the lowest corrosion current density compared to traditional methods (e.g., nickel fluoride cold sealing (NFCS) and nickel acetate hot sealing) and other mixed sealing solutions. Moreover, the mixed sealing solution with 2/3 concentration of general NFCS had a lower risk for over sealing, which increases the corrosion current density by excessive dissolution of anodic oxide. Therefore, the mixed sealing solution with optimized conditions designed in this work possibly provides a new method for enhancing the corrosion resistance of anodized aluminum alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Two-Step Laser Post-Processing for the Surface Functionalization of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Parts
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214872 - 30 Oct 2020
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is one of the additive manufacturing methods used to build metallic parts. To achieve the design requirements, the LPBF process chain can become long and complex. This work aimed to use different laser techniques as alternatives to traditional [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is one of the additive manufacturing methods used to build metallic parts. To achieve the design requirements, the LPBF process chain can become long and complex. This work aimed to use different laser techniques as alternatives to traditional post-processes, in order to add value and new perspectives on applications, while also simplifying the process chain. Laser polishing (LP) with a continuous wave laser was used for improving the surface quality of the parts, and an ultrashort pulse laser was applied to functionalize it. Each technique, individually and combined, was performed following distinct stages of the process chain. In addition to removing asperities, the samples after LP had contact angles within the hydrophilic range. In contrast, all functionalized surfaces presented hydrophobicity. Oxides were predominant on these samples, while prior to the second laser processing step, the presence of TiN and TiC was also observed. The cell growth viability study indicated that any post-process applied did not negatively affect the biocompatibility of the parts. The presented approach was considered a suitable post-process option for achieving different functionalities in localized areas of the parts, for replacing certain steps of the process chain, or a combination of both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Interface Control in Additive Manufacturing of Dissimilar Metals Forming Intermetallic Compounds—Fe-Ti as a Model System
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214747 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Laser metal deposition (LMD) has demonstrated its ability to produce complex parts and to adjust material composition within a single workpiece. It is also a suitable additive manufacturing (AM) technology for building up dissimilar metals directly. However, brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed [...] Read more.
Laser metal deposition (LMD) has demonstrated its ability to produce complex parts and to adjust material composition within a single workpiece. It is also a suitable additive manufacturing (AM) technology for building up dissimilar metals directly. However, brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed at the interface of the dissimilar metals fabricated by LMD. Such brittle phases often lead to material failure due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch, thermal stress, etc. In this work, we studied a Fe-Ti system with two brittle phases, such as FeTi and Fe2Ti, as a model system. Fe was grown on top of Ti at various process parameters. The morphologies and microstructures were characterized by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No cracks along the interface between pure Ti and bottom of the solidified melt pool were observed in the cross-sectional images. Chemical composition in the fabricated parts was measured by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was performed in addition to EDS to identify the crystalline phases. The Vickers hardness test was conducted in areas with different phases. The chemical composition in the melt pool region was found to be a determining factor for the occurrence of major cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sintering Kinetics of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 316L Modified with Nanographite Particles with Highly Developed BET Specific Surface Area
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204569 - 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
The subject of this work was the study of processes occurring during sintering of water atomized AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel powder modified by the addition of graphite nanoparticles. The main purpose of the work was to determine the effect of modification of [...] Read more.
The subject of this work was the study of processes occurring during sintering of water atomized AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel powder modified by the addition of graphite nanoparticles. The main purpose of the work was to determine the effect of modification of the AISI 316L stainless steel austenitic powder by the addition of graphite nanopowder on the sintering kinetics and oxide reduction mechanism. The phenomena occurring during the sintering process and oxide reduction mechanisms were subjected to detailed characterizations. Mixtures with two types of nanopowder with a high BET (measurement technique of the specific surface area of materials based on Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory) specific surface area of 350 and 400 m2/g and for comparison with graphite micropowder with a poorly developed BET specific surface area of 15 m2/g were tested. The conducted thermal analysis showed that the samples made of austenitic stainless steel doped with 0.2% and 0.3% by weight graphite nanopowder with a BET specific surface area of 400 m2/g, sintered best the oxide reduction reactions, with a more intensive participation of carbon, for these samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Nickel on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Properties of Niobium–Vanadium Microalloyed Powder Metallurgy Steels
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184021 - 10 Sep 2020
Abstract
In this study, the effects of adding Ni in different ratios to Fe-matrix material containing C-Nb-V produced by powder metallurgy on microstructure, tensile strength, hardness and corrosion behaviors were investigated. Fe-C and Fe-C-Nb-V powders containing 5%, 10%, 13%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of adding Ni in different ratios to Fe-matrix material containing C-Nb-V produced by powder metallurgy on microstructure, tensile strength, hardness and corrosion behaviors were investigated. Fe-C and Fe-C-Nb-V powders containing 5%, 10%, 13%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% nickel were pressed at 700 MPa and then sintered in an Ar atmosphere at 1400 °C. Microstructures of the samples were characterized with optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD. Corrosion behaviors were investigated by obtaining Tafel curves in an aqueous solution containing 3.5% NaCl. Mechanical properties were determined by hardness and tensile testing. While Fe-C alloy and Fe-C-Nb-V microalloyed steel without Ni typically have a ferrite-pearlite microstructure, the austenite phase has been observed in the microstructures of the alloys with 10% nickel and further. Yield and tensile strength increased with nickel content and reached the highest strength values with 13% Ni content. The addition of more nickel led to decrease the strength. Analysis of Tafel curves showed that corrosion resistance of alloys increased with increasing nickel concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Glow Discharge Plasma Treatment on Zirconia Surface to Enhance Osteoblastic-Like Cell Differentiation and Antimicrobial Effects
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173771 - 26 Aug 2020
Abstract
Peri-implantitis is the pathological condition of connective tissue inflammation and the progressive loss of supporting bone around dental implants. One of the primary causes of peri mucositis evolving into peri-implantitis is bacterial infection, including infection from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Enhancing the surface smoothness [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis is the pathological condition of connective tissue inflammation and the progressive loss of supporting bone around dental implants. One of the primary causes of peri mucositis evolving into peri-implantitis is bacterial infection, including infection from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Enhancing the surface smoothness of implants helps to prevent P. gingivalis adhesion to the implant’s surface. Interaction analyses between bacteria and the surface roughness of zirconia (Zr) discs subjected to a glow discharge plasma (GDP) treatment compared with non-plasma-treated autoclaved control Zr discs were done. Examinations of the material prosperities revealed that the GDP-treated Zr group had a smoother surface for a better wettability. The GDP-treated Zr discs improved the proliferation of the osteoblast-like cells MG-63, and the osteoblastic differentiation was assessed through alkaline phosphatase detection and marker gene bone sialoprotein (Bsp) and osteocalcin (OC) induction. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a relatively low P. gingivalis adhesion on GDP-treated Zr disks, as well as lower colonization of P. gingivalis compared with the control. Our findings confirmed that the GDP treatment of Zr discs resulted in a significant reduction of P. gingivalis adhesion and growth, demonstrating a positive correlation between surface roughness and bacteria adhesion. Therefore, the GDP treatment of Zr dental implants can provide a method for reducing the risk of peri-implantitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of Novel Lightweight Metastable Metal–(Metal + Ceramic) Composites Using a New Powder Metallurgy Approach
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13153283 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the current study, metal–(metal + ceramic) composites composed of biocompatible elements, magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) were synthesized using a sinter-less powder metallurgy method. The composite has a composition of Mg49Zn49Ca1Mn1 [...] Read more.
In the current study, metal–(metal + ceramic) composites composed of biocompatible elements, magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) were synthesized using a sinter-less powder metallurgy method. The composite has a composition of Mg49Zn49Ca1Mn1 (wt.%) in which the compositional ratio between Mg and Zn was chosen to be near eutectic Mg-Zn composition. The synthesis method was designed to avoid/minimize intermetallic formation by using processing temperatures lower than the Mg-Zn binary eutectic temperature (~ 340 °C). The synthesis process involved extrusion of green compacts at two different temperatures, 150 °C and 200 °C, without sintering. Extrusion was performed directly on the green compacts as well as on the compacts soaked at temperatures of 150 °C and 200 °C, respectively. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the materials synthesized under various processing conditions were investigated. Effect of extrusion temperature as well as soaking temperature on the materials’ properties were also evaluated in details and different properties showed an optimum under different conditions. All the synthesized materials showed no evidence of intermetallic formation which was confirmed by SEM/EDS, XRD, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The study establishes development of unconventional metal–(metal + ceramic) eco-friendly composites and provides important insight into realizing certain properties without using sintering step thus to minimize the energy consumption of the process. The study also highlights the use of magnesium turnings (recyclability) to develop advanced materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of TiB2–Al1050 Composites with Improved Microstructural and Mechanical Properties by a Liquid Pressing Infiltration Process
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071588 - 30 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study was conducted on titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced Al metal matrix composites (MMCs) with improved properties using a TiB2 and aluminum (Al) 1050 alloy. Al composites reinforced with fine TiB2 at volume ratios of more than 60% were [...] Read more.
This study was conducted on titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced Al metal matrix composites (MMCs) with improved properties using a TiB2 and aluminum (Al) 1050 alloy. Al composites reinforced with fine TiB2 at volume ratios of more than 60% were successfully fabricated via the liquid pressing infiltration (LPI) process, which can be used to apply gas pressure at a high temperature. The microstructure of the TiB2–Al composite fabricated at 1000 °C with pressurization of 10 bar for 1 h showed that molten Al effectively infiltrated into the high volume-fraction TiB2 preform due to the improved wettability and external gas pressurization. In addition, the interface of TiB2 and Al not only had no cracks or pores but also had no brittle intermetallic compounds. In conclusion, TiB2–Al composite, which has a sound microstructure without defects, has improved mechanical properties, such as hardness and strength, due to effective load transfer from the Al matrix to the fine TiB2 reinforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Annealing on the Interface and Mechanical Properties of Cu-Al-Cu Laminated Composite Prepared with Cold Rolling
Materials 2020, 13(2), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020369 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
Cu-Al-Cu laminated composite was prepared with cold roll bonding process and annealing was carried out to study the phase evolution during the annealing process and its effect on the mechanical properties of the composite. The experimental results showed that after annealing the brittle [...] Read more.
Cu-Al-Cu laminated composite was prepared with cold roll bonding process and annealing was carried out to study the phase evolution during the annealing process and its effect on the mechanical properties of the composite. The experimental results showed that after annealing the brittle intermetallics in the interface mainly includes Al4Cu9, AlCu and Al2Cu. With the increase of annealing temperature, the tensile strength of the composite decreases and the elongation shows a different variation which increases at the beginning and then decreases after a critical point. This phenomenon is related to the evolution of intermetallic compounds in the interface of the composite. It was also found that the crack source of the tensile sample is in the interface and delamination appeared at high annealing temperature (450 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Aluminum/Stainless Steel Clad Materials Fabricated via Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2020, 13(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010239 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aluminum (Al)/stainless steel (SUS) clad materials were fabricated via the process of spark plasma sintering (SPS) using Al powder/bulk and an SUS sheet. Three Al/SUS clad types were fabricated: powder/bulk (P/B), bulk/bulk (B/B), and bulk/powder/bulk (B/P/B). During the SPS, Al and SUS reacted [...] Read more.
Aluminum (Al)/stainless steel (SUS) clad materials were fabricated via the process of spark plasma sintering (SPS) using Al powder/bulk and an SUS sheet. Three Al/SUS clad types were fabricated: powder/bulk (P/B), bulk/bulk (B/B), and bulk/powder/bulk (B/P/B). During the SPS, Al and SUS reacted with each other, and intermetallic compounds were created in the clads. The thermal conductivity and thermal-expansion coefficient were measured using a laser flash analyzer and dynamic mechanical analyzer, respectively. The Al/SUS (P/B) clad had a thermal conductivity of 159.5 W/mK and coefficient of thermal expansion of 15.3 × 10−6/°C. To analyze the mechanical properties, Vickers hardness and three-point bending tests were conducted. The Al/SUS (P/B) clad had a flexural strength of about 204 MPa. The Al/SUS clads fabricated via SPS in this study are suitable for use in applications in various engineering fields requiring materials with high heat dissipation and high heat resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microstructural Evolution and Strengthening Mechanism of SiC/Al Composites Fabricated by a Liquid-Pressing Process and Heat Treatment
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203374 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Aluminum alloy (Al7075) composites reinforced with a high volume fraction of silicon carbide (SiC) were produced by a liquid-pressing process. The characterization of their microstructure showed that SiC particles corresponding to a volume fraction greater than 60% were uniformly distributed in the composite, [...] Read more.
Aluminum alloy (Al7075) composites reinforced with a high volume fraction of silicon carbide (SiC) were produced by a liquid-pressing process. The characterization of their microstructure showed that SiC particles corresponding to a volume fraction greater than 60% were uniformly distributed in the composite, and Mg2Si precipitates were present at the interface between the matrix and the reinforcement. A superior compressive strength (1130 MPa) was obtained by an effective load transfer to the hard ceramic particles. After solution heat treatment and artificial aging, the Mg2Si precipitates decomposed from rod-shaped large particles to smaller spherical particles, which led to an increase of the compressive strength by more than 200 MPa. The strengthening mechanism is discussed on the basis of the observed microstructural evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Welded Al-Si Coated Hot-Press-Forming Steel Joints
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203294 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
High strength steel has attracted a lot of attention due to its excellent advantage of weight reduction. A thin Al-Si coating covered on the surface of hot-press-forming (HPF) steel offers functions of antioxidation and decarburization under high temperature processing conditions. In this study, [...] Read more.
High strength steel has attracted a lot of attention due to its excellent advantage of weight reduction. A thin Al-Si coating covered on the surface of hot-press-forming (HPF) steel offers functions of antioxidation and decarburization under high temperature processing conditions. In this study, the microstructure characteristic, phase, microhardness, and tensile strength of laser welded Al-Si coated HPF steel joints were investigated at different laser powers. Experimental results show that the welding process becomes unstable because of metallic vapor generated by ablation of the coating. Some of the white bright rippled Fe-Al phase was observed to be distributed in the fusion zone randomly. It is found that microhardness, tensile strength, and cupping test qualification rate decreases with the increase of the laser power. For the 1.1 kW laser power, the sound weld performs the best mechanical properties: Microhardness of 466.53 HV and tensile strength of 1349.9 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Weld Formation Mechanism and Microstructural Evolution of TC4/304 Stainless Steel Joint with Cu-Based Filler Wire and Preheating
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193071 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Ti-Fe intermetallic compounds were effectively suppressed with Cu-based filler wire and weld formation was greatly improved with the preheating of substrates when joining TC4 titanium alloy and 304 stainless steel. A Ti/Cu transition zone consisting of complex TiCu, Ti2Cu3, [...] Read more.
Ti-Fe intermetallic compounds were effectively suppressed with Cu-based filler wire and weld formation was greatly improved with the preheating of substrates when joining TC4 titanium alloy and 304 stainless steel. A Ti/Cu transition zone consisting of complex TiCu, Ti2Cu3, TiFe, and TiFe2 phases was formed between Cu-weld/TC4 interface, while Cu-weld/304ss interface was mainly composed of α-Fe and ε-Cu solid solution. At lower heat input, the undercut defect in back surface had potential to cause crack initiation and joint fracture. Though increasing heat input would improve weld morphology, the formation of thick interfacial reaction layer and weld cracking led to low weld quality and joint strength. The preheating of substrates had an obvious effect on wetting ability of liquid filler metal and could achieve a better weld quality at lower heat input. The back formation of weld was improved to decrease the occurrence of weld defects. The highest tensile strength of 365 MPa occurred at welding heat input of 0.483 kJ/cm, increasing by 47% compared to the joint without preheating. The interfacial reaction mechanism was discussed to reveal the relationship between microstructural characteristics and fracture behavior of Ti/steel welded joints with Cu-based filler wire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Use of the Kinetic Theory of Gases to Simulate the Physical Situations on the Surface of Autonomously Moving Parts During Multi-Energy Vibration Processing
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193054 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The multi-energy vibration processing, namely the combination of different energies or forces acting on a free abrasive medium for grinding of metal parts, is becoming more used in finishing processes, in recent years. However, the complexity that is involved in the aforementioned process [...] Read more.
The multi-energy vibration processing, namely the combination of different energies or forces acting on a free abrasive medium for grinding of metal parts, is becoming more used in finishing processes, in recent years. However, the complexity that is involved in the aforementioned process requires a careful look in the particularities of the process itself in general and the movement of the abrasive media, in particular. In this paper, the nature of the collective movement of abrasive granules between the independently oscillating surfaces of the reservoir and the processed parts is described. This study presents the dissipation of the kinetic energy of the granules in a pseudo-gas from the working medium granules. The motion of the medium granules near the part surface, which is caused by pseudo-waves initiated by vibrations of the working surfaces of the vibration machine reservoir, is demonstrated. Furthermore, the nature of the motion of the granules near the oscillating part surface is described. The analysis that is presented here permits the determination of metal removal quantity from the surface of the workpiece as a result of multi-agent group action of the vibrating reservoir surface and the processed part. The optimal conditions for the finishing process can be determined based on the analysis presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modelling of Guillotine Cutting of a Cold-Rolled Steel Sheet
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182954 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, the modelling of a cutting process of a cold-rolled steel sheet using a symmetrical cutting tool is presented. The fast-changing nonlinear dynamic cutting process was elaborated by means of the finite element method and the computer system LS-DYNA. Experimental investigations [...] Read more.
In this paper, the modelling of a cutting process of a cold-rolled steel sheet using a symmetrical cutting tool is presented. The fast-changing nonlinear dynamic cutting process was elaborated by means of the finite element method and the computer system LS-DYNA. Experimental investigations using scanning electron microscopy were performed and the results are presented in this work. The numerical results were compared with experimental ones. The comparison shows a good agreement between the results obtained by means of numerical modelling and those received from experimental investigations. The numerical simulations of the cutting process and the experimental investigations aimed to understand the mechanism of the cutting process. They serve as a highly professional tool for carrying out research investigating the behavior of complex nonlinear fast-changing dynamical cutting processes in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Operational Parameters on the Characteristics of Ripples in Double-Pulsed GMAW Process
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172767 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study focuses on the characteristics of the ripples of the weld bead formed during the double-pulsed gas metal arc welding (DP-GMAW) process. As a special output of the process, ripples include many useful information and can reflect the quality of the welding [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the characteristics of the ripples of the weld bead formed during the double-pulsed gas metal arc welding (DP-GMAW) process. As a special output of the process, ripples include many useful information and can reflect the quality of the welding process. The work analyzed the operational characteristics of the DP-GMAW process based on robot operation which used the latest twinpulse XT DP control process, and then selected five key operational parameters, such as average current, welding speed, twin pulse frequency, twin pulse relation, and twin pulse current change in percent, to explore their effects on the formation and characteristics of ripples. A reliable method of measuring the distance of the ripples was used to provide convincing data. According to a series of experimental observations and analyses, the distance of ripples and appearance under different conditions were obtained. Also, curve fitting equations between each operational parameter and corresponding distances of ripples was obtained. To testify the effectiveness of the curve fitting equations, corresponding verifying experiments were conducted, and the results showed that all the errors were below 10%. In addition, the different levels of the operational parameters on the formation and characteristics of ripples were provided. This work can be a reference for the process and quality control improvement for the DP-GMAW process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop