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Open AccessArticle

Weld Formation Mechanism and Microstructural Evolution of TC4/304 Stainless Steel Joint with Cu-Based Filler Wire and Preheating

by 1,2, 1,2,*, 2, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2
1
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, China
2
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Special Welding Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, No.2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193071
Received: 24 August 2019 / Revised: 16 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Materials Processing)
Ti-Fe intermetallic compounds were effectively suppressed with Cu-based filler wire and weld formation was greatly improved with the preheating of substrates when joining TC4 titanium alloy and 304 stainless steel. A Ti/Cu transition zone consisting of complex TiCu, Ti2Cu3, TiFe, and TiFe2 phases was formed between Cu-weld/TC4 interface, while Cu-weld/304ss interface was mainly composed of α-Fe and ε-Cu solid solution. At lower heat input, the undercut defect in back surface had potential to cause crack initiation and joint fracture. Though increasing heat input would improve weld morphology, the formation of thick interfacial reaction layer and weld cracking led to low weld quality and joint strength. The preheating of substrates had an obvious effect on wetting ability of liquid filler metal and could achieve a better weld quality at lower heat input. The back formation of weld was improved to decrease the occurrence of weld defects. The highest tensile strength of 365 MPa occurred at welding heat input of 0.483 kJ/cm, increasing by 47% compared to the joint without preheating. The interfacial reaction mechanism was discussed to reveal the relationship between microstructural characteristics and fracture behavior of Ti/steel welded joints with Cu-based filler wire. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium alloys; stainless steel; cold metal transfer; intermetallic compounds; mechanical properties titanium alloys; stainless steel; cold metal transfer; intermetallic compounds; mechanical properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Liu, Y.; Zhen, Z.; Jin, P.; Sun, Q.; Feng, J. Weld Formation Mechanism and Microstructural Evolution of TC4/304 Stainless Steel Joint with Cu-Based Filler Wire and Preheating. Materials 2019, 12, 3071.

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