Special Issue "Materials: 10th Anniversary"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maryam Tabrizian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
James McGill Professor, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Professor of Bioengineering, Professor of Experimental Surgery, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine/Faculty of Dentistry, Duff Medical Science Building, 3775 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B4, Canada
Tel. 514-398-8129; Fax: +1 514 3987461
Interests: cell-biomaterial interactions; LbL self-assembly systems; theranostic devices for gene/protein therapy and tissue engineering; nanostructured interface by surface molecular engineering; microfluidic platforms for biorecognition systems and Lab-on-a-chip devices; real-time monitoring of cellular activities; characterization of biomaterials debris in biological tissues; polymer synthesis and characterization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ali Khademhosseini
grade E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Departments of Bioengineering, Radiology, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California - Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Interests: micro- and nanoscale biomaterials for tissue engineering; ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems; formation of vascularized tissues with appropriate microarchitectures as well as regulating stem cell differentiation within microengineered systems; biomaterials for medical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are celebrating the 10th anniversary of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944) in 2017. On behalf of the former Editor in Chief, Prof. Dr. Andreas Taubert, members of the Editorial Office, and ourselves, I want to take the opportunity to thank our authors and reviewers for their valuable contributions and for making Materials a successful and respected journal in the field. To highlight this anniversary, we will be editing a Special Issue that will gather various topics related to materials, as listed below:

  • Biomaterials and Biointerface
  • Energy Materials
  • Advanced Nanomaterials
  • Advanced Composites
  • Smart Materials
  • Thin Films
  • Catalytic Materials
  • Carbon Materials
  • Porous Materials
  • Structure Analysis and Characterization
  • Manufacturing Processes and Systems

We keep the scope of this Special Issue broad to reflect the diversity and inclusiveness of the original research covered by Materials (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/materials).

On behalf of the co-editor and myself, I warmly invite the Materials community to submit their original work or an up-to-date review to this Special Issue, which will provide to the readership a comprehensive survey of many the topics covered by our discipline.

Prof. Dr. Maryam Tabrizian
Prof. Dr. Ali Khademhosseini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomaterials and Biointerface
  • Energy Materials
  • Advanced Nanomaterials
  • Advanced Composites
  • Smart Materials
  • Thin Films
  • Catalytic Materials
  • Carbon Materials
  • Porous Materials
  • Structure Analysis and Characterization
  • Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Nanoporous 3D-Printed Scaffolds for Local Doxorubicin Delivery in Bone Metastases Secondary to Prostate Cancer
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091485 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The spine is the most common site of bone metastasis, often originating from prostate, lung, and breast cancers. High systemic doses of chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin (DOX), cisplatin, or paclitaxel often have severe side effects. Surgical removal of spine metastases also leaves large [...] Read more.
The spine is the most common site of bone metastasis, often originating from prostate, lung, and breast cancers. High systemic doses of chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin (DOX), cisplatin, or paclitaxel often have severe side effects. Surgical removal of spine metastases also leaves large defects which cannot spontaneously heal and require bone grafting. To circumvent these issues, we designed an approach for local chemotherapeutic delivery within 3D-printed scaffolds which could also potentially serve as a bone substitute. Direct treatment of prostate cancer cell line LAPC4 and patient derived spine metastases cells with 0.01 µM DOX significantly reduced metabolic activity, proliferation, migration, and spheroid growth. We then assessed uptake and release of DOX in a series of porous 3D-printed scaffolds on LAPC4 cells as well as patient-derived spine metastases cells. Over seven days, 60–75% of DOX loaded onto scaffolds could be released, which significantly reduced metabolic activity and proliferation of both LAPC4 and patient derived cells, while unloaded scaffolds had no effect. Porous 3D-printed scaffolds may provide a novel and inexpensive approach to locally deliver chemotherapeutics in a patient-specific manner at tumor resection sites. With a composite design to enhance strength and promote sustained drug release, the scaffolds could reduce systemic negative effects, enhance bone repair, and improve patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Aluminium Flakes in Fabrication of Open-Cell Aluminium Foams by Space Holder Method
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081420 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the current study, a first attempt at using aluminum flakes for the manufacture of open-cell aluminum foams with the space holder method is presented. The method involves powder mixing, compaction, leaching, and sintering processes. Saccharose particles were used as space holders, and [...] Read more.
In the current study, a first attempt at using aluminum flakes for the manufacture of open-cell aluminum foams with the space holder method is presented. The method involves powder mixing, compaction, leaching, and sintering processes. Saccharose particles were used as space holders, and multiple parameters were investigated to optimize the manufacturing processing route in order to produce high-quality open-cell aluminum foams with a simple, economic, and environmentally friendly method. The implementation of aluminum flakes leads to foams with 80 vol.% porosity, an excellent internal open-cell porous structure, low green compaction pressures, and does not require the use of binding additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Cleaning Ceramic Tiles Produced via Stable Coating of TiO2 Nanoparticles
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061003 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The high photocatalytic power of TiO2 nanoparticles has drawn great attention in environmental and medical applications. Coating surfaces with these particles enables us to benefit from self-cleaning properties and decomposition of pollutants. In this paper, two strategies have been introduced to coat [...] Read more.
The high photocatalytic power of TiO2 nanoparticles has drawn great attention in environmental and medical applications. Coating surfaces with these particles enables us to benefit from self-cleaning properties and decomposition of pollutants. In this paper, two strategies have been introduced to coat ceramic tiles with TiO2 nanoparticles, and the self-cleaning effect of the surfaces on degradation of an organic dye under ultraviolent (UV) exposure is investigated. In the first approach, a simple one-step heat treatment method is introduced for coating, and different parameters of the heat treatment process are examined. In the second method, TiO2 nanoparticles are first aminosilanized using (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) treatment followed by their covalently attachment onto CO2 plasma treated ceramic tiles via N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. We monitor TiO2 nanoparticle sizes throughout the coating process using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and characterize developed surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, hydrophilicity of the coated surfaces is quantified using a contact angle measurement. It is shown that applying a one-step heat treatment process with the optimum temperature of 200 °C for 5 h results in successful coating of nanoparticles and rapid degradation of dye in a short time. In the second strategy, the APTES treatment creates a stable covalent coating, while the photocatalytic capability of the particles is preserved. The results show that coated ceramic tiles are capable of fully degrading the added dyes under UV exposure in less than 24 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Potential of Electrical Impedance Tomography for Tissue Engineering Applications
Materials 2018, 11(6), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060930 - 31 May 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
In tissue engineering, cells are generally cultured in biomaterials to generate three-dimensional artificial tissues to repair or replace damaged parts and re-establish normal functions of the body. Characterizing cell growth and viability in these bioscaffolds is challenging, and is currently achieved by destructive [...] Read more.
In tissue engineering, cells are generally cultured in biomaterials to generate three-dimensional artificial tissues to repair or replace damaged parts and re-establish normal functions of the body. Characterizing cell growth and viability in these bioscaffolds is challenging, and is currently achieved by destructive end-point biological assays. In this study, we explore the potential to use electrical impedance tomography (EIT) as a label-free and non-destructive technology to assess cell growth and viability. The key challenge in the tissue engineering application is to detect the small change of conductivity associated with sparse cell distributions in regards to the size of the hosting scaffold, i.e., low volume fraction, until they assemble into a larger tissue-like structure. We show proof-of-principle data, measure cells within both a hydrogel and a microporous scaffold with an ad-hoc EIT equipment, and introduce the frequency difference technique to improve the reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Effects of Set Retarders and Polymer Powder on the Properties of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Blended Cement Systems
Materials 2018, 11(5), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050825 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of set retarders on the properties of polymer-modified calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) and Portland cement blend systems at early and long-term ages. The fast setting of the cement blend systems is typically adjusted by using retarders to ensure an [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of set retarders on the properties of polymer-modified calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) and Portland cement blend systems at early and long-term ages. The fast setting of the cement blend systems is typically adjusted by using retarders to ensure an adequate workability. However, how the addition of retarders influences the age-dependent characteristics of the cement blend systems was rarely investigated. This study particularly examines the effects of retarders on the microstructure and strength development of polymer-modified CSA and Portland cement blend pastes and mortars from 2 h to 90 days. The macro- and microstructural properties are characterized by compression testing, powder X-ray diffraction, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The test results reveal that the use of retarders delayed the strength development of the cement blend systems at the very early age by hindering the production of ettringite, which was cumulative to the delaying effect of polymer, but it increased the ultimate strength by creating denser and finer pore structures with the evolution of hydration products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Magnesium Nickel Boride Aggregates via Borohydride Autogenous Pressure
Materials 2018, 11(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040480 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
We demonstrate synthesis of the ternary intermetallic MgNi3B2 using autogenous pressure from the reaction of NaBH4 with Mg and Ni metal powder. The decomposition of NaBH4 to H2 and B2H6 commences at low temperatures [...] Read more.
We demonstrate synthesis of the ternary intermetallic MgNi3B2 using autogenous pressure from the reaction of NaBH4 with Mg and Ni metal powder. The decomposition of NaBH4 to H2 and B2H6 commences at low temperatures in the presence of Mg and/or Ni and promotes formation of Ni-borides and MgNi3B2 with the increase in temperature. MgNi3B2 aggregates with Ni-boride cores are formed when the reaction temperature is >670 °C and autogenous pressure is >1.7 MPa. Morphologies and microstructures suggest that solid–gas and liquid–gas reactions are dominant mechanisms and that Ni-borides form at a lower temperature than MgNi3B2. Magnetic measurements of the core-shell MgNi3B2 aggregates are consistent with ferromagnetic behaviour in contrast to stoichiometric MgNi3B2 which is diamagnetic at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle
Hot Deformation Behavior and a Two-Stage Constitutive Model of 20Mn5 Solid Steel Ingot during Hot Compression
Materials 2018, 11(3), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030434 - 16 Mar 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft forging due to its strength, toughness, and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under a high temperature were not studied. For this article, hot [...] Read more.
20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft forging due to its strength, toughness, and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under a high temperature were not studied. For this article, hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850–1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01 s−1–1 s−1 were conducted using a Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Flow stress-strain curves and microstructure after hot compression were obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relationship and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 solid steel ingot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The 3 R’s for Platelet-Rich Fibrin: A “Super” Tri-Dimensional Biomaterial for Contemporary Naturally-Guided Oro-Maxillo-Facial Soft and Hard Tissue Repair, Reconstruction and Regeneration
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081293 - 26 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Platelet-Rich fibrin (PRF) is a three-dimensional (3-D) autogenous biomaterial obtained via simple and rapid centrifugation from the patient’s whole blood samples, without including anti-coagulants, bovine thrombin, additives, or any gelifying agents. At the moment, it is safe to say that in oral and [...] Read more.
Platelet-Rich fibrin (PRF) is a three-dimensional (3-D) autogenous biomaterial obtained via simple and rapid centrifugation from the patient’s whole blood samples, without including anti-coagulants, bovine thrombin, additives, or any gelifying agents. At the moment, it is safe to say that in oral and maxillofacial surgery, PRFs (particularly, the pure platelet-rich fibrin or P-PRF and leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin or L-PRF sub-families) are receiving the most attention, essentially because of their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and user-friendliness/malleability; they are a fairly new “revolutionary” step in second-generation therapies based on platelet concentration, indeed. Yet, the clinical effectiveness of such surgical adjuvants or regenerative platelet concentrate-based preparations continues to be highly debatable, primarily as a result of preparation protocol variability, limited evidence-based clinical literature, and/or poor understanding of bio-components and clinico-mechanical properties. To provide a practical update on the application of PRFs during oral surgery procedures, this critical review focuses on evidence obtained from human randomized and controlled clinical trials only. The aim is to serve the reader with current information on the clinical potential, limitations, challenges, and prospects of PRFs. Accordingly, reports often associate autologous PRFs with early bone formation and maturation; accelerated soft-tissue healing; and reduced post-surgical edema, pain, and discomfort. An advanced and original tool in regenerative dentistry, PRFs present a strong alternative and presumably cost-effective biomaterial for oro-maxillo-facial tissue (soft and hard) repair and regeneration. Yet, preparation protocols continue to be a source of confusion, thereby requiring revision and standardization. Moreover, to increase the validity, comprehension, and therapeutic potential of the reported findings or observations, a decent analysis of the mechanico-rheological properties, bio-components, and their bioactive function is eagerly needed and awaited; afterwards, the field can progress toward a brand-new era of “super” oro-dental biomaterials and bioscaffolds for use in oral and maxillofacial tissue repair and regeneration, and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview
CMOS-Compatible Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor: Technology Development toward Commercialization
Materials 2018, 11(5), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050785 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Owing to their two-dimensional confinements, silicon nanowires display remarkable optical, magnetic, and electronic properties. Of special interest has been the development of advanced biosensing approaches based on the field effect associated with silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Recent advancements in top-down fabrication technologies have paved [...] Read more.
Owing to their two-dimensional confinements, silicon nanowires display remarkable optical, magnetic, and electronic properties. Of special interest has been the development of advanced biosensing approaches based on the field effect associated with silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Recent advancements in top-down fabrication technologies have paved the way to large scale production of high density and quality arrays of SiNW field effect transistor (FETs), a critical step towards their integration in real-life biosensing applications. A key requirement toward the fulfilment of SiNW FETs’ promises in the bioanalytical field is their efficient integration within functional devices. Aiming to provide a comprehensive roadmap for the development of SiNW FET based sensing platforms, we critically review and discuss the key design and fabrication aspects relevant to their development and integration within complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview
The Multifaceted Uses and Therapeutic Advantages of Nanoparticles for Atherosclerosis Research
Materials 2018, 11(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050754 - 08 May 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Nanoparticles are uniquely suited for the study and development of potential therapies against atherosclerosis by virtue of their size, fine-tunable properties, and ability to incorporate therapies and/or imaging modalities. Furthermore, nanoparticles can be specifically targeted to the atherosclerotic plaque, evading off-target effects and/or [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles are uniquely suited for the study and development of potential therapies against atherosclerosis by virtue of their size, fine-tunable properties, and ability to incorporate therapies and/or imaging modalities. Furthermore, nanoparticles can be specifically targeted to the atherosclerotic plaque, evading off-target effects and/or associated cytotoxicity. There has been a wealth of knowledge available concerning the use of nanotechnologies in cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, in particular in animal models, but with a major focus on imaging agents. In fact, roughly 60% of articles from an initial search for this review included examples of imaging applications of nanoparticles. Thus, this review focuses on experimental therapy interventions applied to and observed in animal models. Particular emphasis is placed on how nanoparticle materials and properties allow researchers to learn a great deal about atherosclerosis. The objective of this review was to provide an update for nanoparticle use in imaging and drug delivery studies and to illustrate how nanoparticles can be used for sensing and modelling, for studying fundamental biological mechanisms, and for the delivery of biotherapeutics such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and even cells all with the goal of attenuating atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the various atherosclerosis processes targeted mainly for imaging studies have been summarized in the hopes of inspiring new and exciting targeted therapeutic and/or imaging strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials: 10th Anniversary)
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