Special Issue "Growth and Design of Inorganic Crystal"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Il Won Kim
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Republic of Korea
Interests: Biomineralization; Pharmaceutical crystallization; Interfacial phenomena
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Crystallization is one of the focal points for studies in chemistry, physics, materials science, and chemical engineering. The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a forum for researchers in the broad field of inorganic crystallization. The majority of inorganic materials are in the form of crystals, and the diverse disciplines of crystallization studies have contributed to the advancement of the field. Novel compositions of inorganic crystals have been formed to satisfy various engineering needs. Equally important to making the best use of the novel materials are efficient manufacturing processes to generate inorganic crystals or materials in appropriate forms. In the course of such developments, understanding the fundamental aspects of crystallization is inevitably critical. Therefore, this Special Issue is open to the original research and review articles on all aspects of inorganic crystallization, including:

  • Fundamentals of crystallization (nucleation, growth, thermodynamics);
  • Crystallization control of morphology and polymorphism;
  • Structural characterization of novel inorganic crystals;
  • Process development for inorganic crystals.

Prof. Il Won Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Inorganic crystals
  • Nucleation and growth
  • Crystal morphology
  • Polymorphism
  • Crystallization processes
  • Additives

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Combined Effects of Sr(II) and Poly(Acrylic Acid) on the Morphology of Calcite
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203339 - 13 Oct 2019
Abstract
Biomineralization of calcium carbonate has interesting characteristics of intricate morphology formation with controlled crystal polymorphs. In particular, modification of calcite morphology with diverse additives has been the focus of many biomimetic and bioinspired studies. The possible role of strontium ions in enhancing the [...] Read more.
Biomineralization of calcium carbonate has interesting characteristics of intricate morphology formation with controlled crystal polymorphs. In particular, modification of calcite morphology with diverse additives has been the focus of many biomimetic and bioinspired studies. The possible role of strontium ions in enhancing the morphology-modifying ability of macromolecules was investigated. In the present study, concentrations of strontium ions were comparable to that in seawater, and anionic poly(acrylic acid) and cationic poly(ethylene imine) were used as model macromolecules. When strontium ions were combined with anionic poly(acrylic acid), new types of calcite surfaces, most likely {hk0}, appeared to drastically change the morphology of the crystals, which was not observed with cationic poly(ethylene imine). This behavior of strontium ions was quite similar to that of magnesium ions, which is intriguing because both ions are available from seawater to be utilized during biomineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Design of Inorganic Crystal)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Improving the Vertical Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites by Forming Layer-by-Layer Contact of Inorganic Crystals
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193092 - 22 Sep 2019
Abstract
A carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is a light and rigid composite applicable in various fields, such as in aviation and automobile industry. However, due to its low thermal conductivity, it does not dissipate heat sufficiently and thus accumulates heat stress. Here, we reported [...] Read more.
A carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is a light and rigid composite applicable in various fields, such as in aviation and automobile industry. However, due to its low thermal conductivity, it does not dissipate heat sufficiently and thus accumulates heat stress. Here, we reported a facile and effective strategy to improve the through-thickness thermal conductivity of CFRP composites by using a layer-by-layer coating of inorganic crystals. They could provide efficient heat transfer pathways through layer-by-layer contact within the resulting composite material. The high thermally conductive CFRP composites were prepared by employing three types of inorganic crystal fillers composed of aluminum, magnesium, and copper on prepreg through the layer-by-layer coating process. The vertical thermal conductivity of pure CFRP was increased by up to 87% on using magnesium filler at a very low content of 0.01 wt %. It was also confirmed that the higher the thermal conductivity enhancement was, the better were the mechanical properties. Thus, we could demonstrate that the layer-by-layer inclusion of inorganic crystals can lead to improved through-thickness thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of composites, which might find applications in varied industrial fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Design of Inorganic Crystal)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dimensional Control in Polyoxometalate Crystals Hybridized with Amphiphilic Polymerizable Ionic Liquids
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142283 - 16 Jul 2019
Abstract
Ionic liquids are an important component for constructing functional materials, and polyxometalate cluster anion is a promising partner for building inorganic–organic hybrid materials comprising ionic liquids. In such hybrid materials, the precise control of the molecular arrangement in the bulk structures is crucial [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids are an important component for constructing functional materials, and polyxometalate cluster anion is a promising partner for building inorganic–organic hybrid materials comprising ionic liquids. In such hybrid materials, the precise control of the molecular arrangement in the bulk structures is crucial for the emergence of characteristic functions, which can be realized by introducing an amphiphilic moiety into the ionic liquids. Here, an amphiphilic polymerizable imidazolium ionic liquid with a methacryloyl group was firstly hybridized with polyoxometalate anions of octamolybdate ([Mo8O26]4−, Mo8) and silicotungstate ([SiW12O40]4−, SiW12) to obtain inorganic–organic hybrid crystals. The polymerizable ionic liquid with a octyl chain (denoted as MAImC8) resulted in the formation of anisotropic molecular arrangements in the bulk crystal structure, which was compared with the hybrid crystals composed from the polymerizable ionic liquid without a long alkyl chain (denoted as MAIm). Rather densely packed isotropic molecular arrangements were observed in the hybrid crystals of MAIm–Mo8 and MAIm–SiW12 due to the lack of the amphiphilic moiety. On the other hand, using the amphiphilic MAImC8 cation gave rise to a honeycomb-like structure with the Mo8 anion and a layered structure with the SiW12 anion, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Design of Inorganic Crystal)
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Open AccessArticle
Tuning the Hydrophobicity of a Hydrogel Using Self-Assembled Domains of Polymer Cross-Linkers
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101635 - 19 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hydrogels incorporated with hydrophobic motifs have received considerable attention to recapitulate the cellular microenvironments, specifically for the bio-mineralization of a 3D matrix. Introduction of hydrophobic molecules into a hydrogel often results in irregular arrangement of the motifs, and further phase separation of hydrophobic [...] Read more.
Hydrogels incorporated with hydrophobic motifs have received considerable attention to recapitulate the cellular microenvironments, specifically for the bio-mineralization of a 3D matrix. Introduction of hydrophobic molecules into a hydrogel often results in irregular arrangement of the motifs, and further phase separation of hydrophobic domains, but limited efforts have been made to resolve this challenge in developing the hydrophobically-modified hydrogel. Therefore, this study presents an advanced integrative strategy to incorporate hydrophobic domains regularly in a hydrogel using self-assembled domains formed with polymer cross-linkers, building blocks of a hydrogel. Self-assemblies formed by polymer cross-linkers were examined as micro-domains to incorporate hydrophobic motifs in a hydrogel. The self-assembled structures in a pre-gelled solution were confirmed with the fluorescence analysis and the hydrophobicity of a hydrogel could be tuned by incorporating the hydrophobic chains in a controlled manner. Overall, the results of this study would greatly serve to tuning performance of a wide array of hydrophobically-modified hydrogels in drug delivery, cell therapies and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Design of Inorganic Crystal)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Synthesis of Metallic Nanocrystals: From Noble Metals to Base Metals
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091497 - 08 May 2019
Abstract
Metallic nanocrystals exhibit superior properties to their bulk counterparts because of the reduced sizes, diverse morphologies, and controllable exposed crystal facets. Therefore, the fabrication of metal nanocrystals and the adjustment of their properties for different applications have attracted wide attention. One of the [...] Read more.
Metallic nanocrystals exhibit superior properties to their bulk counterparts because of the reduced sizes, diverse morphologies, and controllable exposed crystal facets. Therefore, the fabrication of metal nanocrystals and the adjustment of their properties for different applications have attracted wide attention. One of the typical examples is the fabrication of nanocrystals encased with high-index facets, and research on their magnified catalytic activities and selections. Great accomplishment has been achieved within the field of noble metals such as Pd, Pt, Ag, and Au. However, it remains challenging in the fabrication of base metal nanocrystals such as Ni, Cu, and Co with various structures, shapes, and sizes. In this paper, the synthesis of metal nanocrystals is reviewed. An introduction is briefly given to the metal nanocrystals and the importance of synthesis, and then commonly used synthesis methods for metallic nanocrystals are summarized, followed by specific examples of metal nanocrystals including noble metals, alloys, and base metals. The synthesis of base metal nanocrystals is far from satisfactory compared to the tremendous success achieved in noble metals. Afterwards, we present a discussion on specific synthesis methods suitable for base metals, including seed-mediated growth, ligand control, oriented attachment, chemical etching, and Oswald ripening, based on the comprehensive consideration of thermodynamics, kinetics, and physical restrictions. At the end, conclusions are drawn through the prospect of the future development direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Design of Inorganic Crystal)
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