Special Issue "Functional Electroceramics"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Manuel Hinterstein
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technolo-gy, Karlsruhe, Germany
Interests: piezoceramics; electroceramics; diffraction; multiscale characterisation; simulation; ion conduction; domain walls; phase transitions; in situ; in operando; energy materials; ferroelectrics; ceramic semiconductors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functional Electroceramics are among the most important functional materials and are indispensable for outstanding technological developments. They increasingly gain importance in digitisation and telecommunications as miniaturised electronic components, as electrode materials for batteries or fuel cells, or as actuators and sensors.

Piezoceramics especially have become a hot topic within the past decade. Legislations against the use of hazardous substances sparked research into environmentally friendly alternative materials. This has an extraordinary impact on research on lead-free piezoceramics. A wide range of new material systems was created or already known ones were rediscovered. The combination of already promising systems also led to promising results. In this way, new aspects were discovered that are important for other applications. These include extraordinary ion-conducting or semiconducting properties, as well as mechanical, electrical and structural processes under the influence of external stimuli. For materials science, these properties are of particular importance in connection with the transition from a fossil fuel-based society to the use of renewable energies. Together with the development of sophisticated characterisation methods, materials science in this field has made a great leap forward.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Manuel Hinterstein
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • electroceramics
  • piezoceramics
  • ferroelectrics
  • ion conduction
  • electric field
  • piezoelectric effect
  • energy materials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Electric-Field-Induced Phase Transformation and Frequency-Dependent Behavior of Bismuth Sodium Titanate–Barium Titanate
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051054 - 27 Feb 2020
Abstract
The electric field response of the lead-free solid solution (1−x)Bi0.53Na0.47TiO3xBaTiO3 (BNT–BT) in the higher BT composition range with x = 0.12 was investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. An introduced [...] Read more.
The electric field response of the lead-free solid solution (1−x)Bi0.53Na0.47TiO3xBaTiO3 (BNT–BT) in the higher BT composition range with x = 0.12 was investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. An introduced Bi-excess non-stoichiometry caused an extended morphotropic phase boundary, leading to an unexpected fully reversible relaxor to ferroelectric (R–FE) phase transformation behavior. By varying the field frequency in a broad range from 10−4 up to 102 Hz, BNT–12BT showed a frequency-dependent gradual suppression of the field induced ferroelectric phase transformation in favor of the relaxor state. A frequency triggered self-heating within the sample was found and the temperature increase exponentially correlated with the field frequency. The effects of a lowered phase transformation temperature TR–FE, caused by the non-stoichiometric composition, were observed in the experimental setup of the freestanding sample. This frequency-dependent investigation of an R–FE phase transformation is unlike previous macroscopic studies, in which heat dissipating metal contacts are used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Electroceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of the Magnetoelectric Effect in NdFeB-Driven A-Line Shape Terfenol-D/PZT-5A Structures
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071055 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, the magnetoelectric (ME) effect is investigated in two kinds of A-line shape Terfenol-D/PZT-5A structures by changing the position of the NdFeB permanent magnet. The experimental results show that both ME composite structures had multiple resonance peaks. For the ME structure [...] Read more.
In this paper, the magnetoelectric (ME) effect is investigated in two kinds of A-line shape Terfenol-D/PZT-5A structures by changing the position of the NdFeB permanent magnet. The experimental results show that both ME composite structures had multiple resonance peaks. For the ME structure with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) trestles, the resonance peak was different for different places of the NdFeB permanent magnet. Besides, the maximum of the ME coefficient was 4.142 V/A at 32.2 kHz when the NdFeB permanent magnet was on top of the Terfenol-D layer. Compared with the ME coefficient with a DC magnetic field, the ME coefficient with NdFeB magnets still maintained high values in the frequency domain of 65~87 kHz in the ME structure with mica trestles. Through Fourier transform analysis of the transient signal, it is found that the phenomenon of multiple frequencies appeared at low field frequency but not at high field frequency. Moreover, the output ME voltages under different AC magnetic fields are shown. Changing the amplitude of AC magnetic field, the magnitude of the output voltage changed, but the resonant frequency did not change. Finally, a finite element analysis was performed to evaluate the resonant frequency and the magnetic flux distribution characteristics of the ME structure. The simulation results show that the magnetic field distribution on the surface of Terfenol-D is non-uniform due to the uneven distribution of the magnetic field around NdFeB. The resonant frequencies of ME structures can be changed by changing the location of the external permanent magnet. This study may provide a useful basis for the improvement of the ME coefficient and for the optimal design of ME devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Electroceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Effects of Magnetostrictive Materials on the Magnetoelectric Response of Particulate CZFO/NKNLS Composites
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071053 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, magnetostrictive powders of CoFe2O4 (CFO) and Zn-substituted CoFe2O4 (CZFO, Zn = 0.1, 0.2) were synthesized in order to decrease the optimal dc magnetic field (Hopt.), which is required to obtain a [...] Read more.
In this study, magnetostrictive powders of CoFe2O4 (CFO) and Zn-substituted CoFe2O4 (CZFO, Zn = 0.1, 0.2) were synthesized in order to decrease the optimal dc magnetic field (Hopt.), which is required to obtain a reliable magnetoelectric (ME) voltage in a 3-0 type particulate composite system. The CFO powders were prepared as a reference via a typical solid solution process. In particular, two types of heterogeneous CZFO powders were prepared via a stepwise solid solution process. Porous-CFO and dense-CFO powders were synthesized by calcination in a box furnace without and with pelletizing, respectively. Then, heterogeneous structures of pCZFO and dCZFO powders were prepared by Zn-substitution on calcined powders of porous-CFO and dense-CFO, respectively. Compared to the CFO powders, the heterogeneous pCZFO and dCZFO powders exhibited maximal magnetic susceptibilities (χmax) at lower Hdc values below ±50 Oe and ±10 Oe, respectively. The Zn substitution effect on the Hdc shift was more dominant in dCZFO than in pCZFO. This might be because the Zn ion could not diffuse into the dense-CFO powder, resulting in a more heterogeneous structure inducing an effective exchange-spring effect. As a result, ME composites consisting of 0.948Na0.5K0.5NbO3–0.052LiSbO3 (NKNLS) with CFO, pCZFO, and dCZFO were found to exhibit Hopt. = 966 Oe (NKNLS-CFO), Hopt. = 689–828 Oe (NKNLS-pCZFO), and Hopt. = 458–481 Oe (NKNLS-dCZFO), respectively. The low values of Hopt. below 500 Oe indicate that the structure of magnetostrictive materials should be considered in order to obtain a minimal Hopt. for high feasibility of ME composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Electroceramics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Damage from Coexistence of Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Domains and Clustering of O Vacancies in PZT: An Elastic and Raman Study
Materials 2019, 12(6), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060957 - 22 Mar 2019
Abstract
It is often suggested that oxygen vacancies (VO) are involved in fatigue and pinning of domain walls in ferroelectric (FE) materials, but generally without definite evidence or models. Here the progress of damage induced by the coexistence of FE and antiferroelectric [...] Read more.
It is often suggested that oxygen vacancies (V O ) are involved in fatigue and pinning of domain walls in ferroelectric (FE) materials, but generally without definite evidence or models. Here the progress of damage induced by the coexistence of FE and antiferroelectric (AFE) domains in the absence of electric cycling is probed by monitoring the Young’s modulus, which may undergo more than fourfold softenings without significant changes in the Raman spectra, but may end with the disaggregation of PZT with ∼5% Ti. At these compositions, the FE and AFE phases coexist at room temperature, as also observed with micro-Raman, and hence the observations are interpreted in terms of the aggregation of V O at the interfaces between FE and AFE domains, which are sources of internal electric and stress fields. The V O would coalesce into planar defects whose extension grows with time but can be dissolved by annealing above 600 K, which indeed restores the original stiffness. The observed giant softening is interpreted by assimilating the planar aggregations of V O to flat inclusions with much reduced elastic moduli, due to the missing Zr/Ti−O bonds. A relationship between the coalescence of a fixed concentration of V O into planar defects and softening is then obtained from the existing literature on the effective elastic moduli of materials with inclusions of various shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Electroceramics)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

A review of recent advances in phase-field modeling of the domain structure evolution in ferroelectric nanoceramics

 Yu Su, Ph.D., P.E.

Department of Mechanics, School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China

In this article we review recent advances in phase-field modeling of the domain structure evolution in nanocrystalline ferroelectric ceramics. We provide an overview of various phase-filed models that have been utilized on this topic and the latest progress made in this field. Among these studies, special attentions are given to the correlation between the microstructural dynamics within the material and the corresponding overall physical properties. On one hand, a ferroelectric nanoceramic consists of complex microstructures - the widely varying crystallographic textures, the diverse grain lattice orientations and the distinct local grain-boundary properties can directly influence the overall physical properties of the material. On the other, the microstructural characteristics are very likely to affect the domain structure dynamics, hence, the electromechanical behaviors of the ferroelectrics. These aspects are particularly worthy of investigation once the average size of the constituent grains reduces below several hundreds of nanometers. We shall feature several key factors that are correlated with the grain-size dependence of the material properties, and we shall summarize and demonstrate through a series of examples that one is able to discover the intrinsic and extrinsic role played by the microstructure of the nanoceramics with the phase-filed approaches.

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