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Special Issue "Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2020

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo

Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Napoli, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dental materials; dental surgery; restorative dentistry and endodontics

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In the last years, dental biomaterials have been improved following specific clinical needs. Typically, biomaterials have been used as scaffolds in reconstructive oral surgery, or as filling materials in order to repair/restore damaged tooth tissues. The latest trends in the scientific community are mainly focused on the development of bioactive dental materials, with a specific requirement to be active players in the regenerative process. Nowadays, the most frequently used dental materials include resin composite, polymers, glass ionomers, ceramics, titanium, zirconia and silicate cement. Biomaterials for tissue engineering are also frequently used for the regeneration of hard and soft oral tissue: the continuous development of additive technologies makes such biomaterials able to interact with different interfaces on the same surface. Moreover, the recent progress in software-based manufacturing, the use of biomimetic coatings and the most recent nanotechnologies are significantly improving the biological and clinical performance of future dental materials.

Comprehensive knowledge of the biological, chemical, physical and mechanical proprieties of dental materials requires a multidisciplinary approach; therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to stimulate worldwide researchers to share their most interesting and promising works. We strive to publish innovative results on several aspects of the biomaterials used in various dental applications. For this purpose, original research articles, review articles, and significant preliminary communications are invited, with particular interest in articles describing current research trends and future perspectives in the dental sciences.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • resin-based dental materials
  • dental alloys
  • dental composite
  • nanomaterials
  • metamaterials
  • tissue engineering devices and scaffolds
  • orthodontic alloys
  • dental adhesion
  • biocompatibility and toxicity of dental materials
  • endodontic cements and materials
  • dental irrigants
  • luting cements
  • impression materials
  • zirconia
  • bioceramics
  • silicate cements
  • dental polymers
  • dental implants
  • dentin bondings

Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • resin composite
  • endodontic cement
  • titanium implant
  • prosthetic dentistry
  • orthodontic materials
  • regenerative dentistry

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of a Hollow Endodontic Post by Three Point Test and SEM Analysis: A Pilot Study
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121983
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of a fiber hollow endodontic post characterized by the presence of an empty central cylindrical channel extended along the whole length. This particular shape allows clinicians to use the post also as [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of a fiber hollow endodontic post characterized by the presence of an empty central cylindrical channel extended along the whole length. This particular shape allows clinicians to use the post also as a cementation resin carrier. Ten hollow posts were divided in two groups: the control group (unfilled hollow posts) (Group 0) and hollow posts filled with dual resin cement (Group 1). The samples of both groups were subjected to mechanical and micromorphological analysis by performing a three-point test and SEM observations. In the three-point test, the Group 1 samples exhibited a fracture load of 57.09 ± 5.06 N, a flexural strength of 1323.53 ± 110.09 MPa, and a Young’s modulus of 42.87 ± 0.86 GPa. The samples of Group 2 exhibited a fracture load of 38.17 ± 1.7 N, a flexural strength of 908.87 ± 30.98 MPa, and a Young’s modulus of 40.33 ± 1.9 GPa. The difference between fracture load, flexural strength, and deflection between the two groups was statistically highly significant (p < 0.01). Further, the difference between the Young’s modulus of the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The values obtained are similar to those of other posts available on the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sonic Application of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements on Push-Out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts to Root Dentin
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121930
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a sonic application of self-adhesive resin cements on the bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin. Eighty bovine incisors were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10). Four [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a sonic application of self-adhesive resin cements on the bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin. Eighty bovine incisors were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10). Four self-adhesive resin cements were used—RelyX U200 (3M/ESPE), Bifix SE (Voco), seT PP (SDI), and Panavia SA (Kuraray). The cements were inserted into the root canal in two different modes—Centrix syringe (control) or with a sonic device (Sonic Smart). The roots were sectioned and taken to a universal test machine (Instron 3342) to perform the push-out test. The fracture pattern was evaluated by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. The bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). The interaction between the main factors was significant (p = 0.002). The sonic application increased the bond strength in comparison with the conventional application for the RelyX U200 (p < 0.001) and Bifix SE (p < 0.017) cements. However, for the seT PP and Panavia SA cements, the bond strength values did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The fracture pattern showed adhesive at the interface between the luting cement and the dentin. Using a sonic device in the application of self-adhesive resin cement helpedpromote an increase in the bond strength for RelyX U200 and Bifix SE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fracture Resistance of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns in Implant Prostheses in Patients with Bruxism
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101623
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the minimum required thickness of a monolithic zirconia crown in the mandibular posterior area for patients with bruxism. Forty-nine full zirconia crowns, with seven different occlusal thicknesses of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the minimum required thickness of a monolithic zirconia crown in the mandibular posterior area for patients with bruxism. Forty-nine full zirconia crowns, with seven different occlusal thicknesses of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm, were made by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system (CAD/CAM). Seven crowns in each group were subjected to cyclic loading at 800 N and 5 Hz in a servohydraulic testing machine until fracture or completion of 100,000 cycles. Seven finite element models comprising seven different occlusal thicknesses of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm were simulated using three different loads of vertical 800 N, oblique 10 degrees 800 N, and vertical 800 N + x N torque (x = 10, 50, and 100). The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the fracture resistance of the crown was positively associated with thickness. Specimen breakage differed significantly according to the different thicknesses of the prostheses (p < 0.01). Lowest von Mises stress values were determined for prostheses with a minimal thickness of 1.0 mm in different loading directions and with different forces. Zirconia specimens of 1.0 mm thickness had the lowest stress values and high fracture resistance and under 800 N of loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Physico-Chemical Characterization and Standardized In Vivo Evaluation of Biocompatibility of a New Synthetic Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071186
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
This study’s aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility and bioabsorption of a new membrane for guided bone regeneration (polylactic-co-glycolic acid associated with hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate) with three thicknesses (200, 500, and 700 µm) implanted in mice subcutaneously. Scanning electron [...] Read more.
This study’s aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility and bioabsorption of a new membrane for guided bone regeneration (polylactic-co-glycolic acid associated with hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate) with three thicknesses (200, 500, and 700 µm) implanted in mice subcutaneously. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the quantification of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen were used to characterize the physico-chemical properties. One hundred Balb-C mice were divided into 5 experimental groups: Group 1—Sham (without implantation); Group 2—200 μm; Group 3—500 μm; Group 4—700 μm; and Group 5—Pratix®. Each group was subdivided into four experimental periods (7, 30, 60 and 90 days). Samples were collected and processed for histological and histomorphometrical evaluation. The membranes showed no moderate or severe tissue reactions during the experimental periods studied. The 500-μm membrane showed no tissue reaction during any experimental period. The 200-μm membrane began to exhibit fragmentation after 30 days, while the 500-μm and 700-µm membranes began fragmentation at 90 days. All membranes studied were biocompatible and the 500 µm membrane showed the best results for absorption and tissue reaction, indicating its potential for clinical guided bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Finish Line Design and Fatigue Cyclic Loading on Phase Transformation of Zirconia Dental Ceramics: A Qualitative Micro-Raman Spectroscopic Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(6), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060863
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
Objectives: Stresses produced during the fabrication of copings and by chewing activity can induce a tetragonal-to-monoclinic (t–m) transformation of zirconia. As a consequence, in the m-phase, the material is not able to hinder possible cracks by the favorable mechanism known as “transformation toughening”. [...] Read more.
Objectives: Stresses produced during the fabrication of copings and by chewing activity can induce a tetragonal-to-monoclinic (t–m) transformation of zirconia. As a consequence, in the m-phase, the material is not able to hinder possible cracks by the favorable mechanism known as “transformation toughening”. This study aimed at evaluating if different marginal preparations of zirconia copings can cause a premature phase transformation immediately after manufacturing milling and after chewing simulation. Methods: Ninety copings using three commercial zirconia ceramics (Nobel Procera Zirconia, Nobel Biocare Management AG; Lava Classic, 3M ESPE; Lava Plus, 3M ESPE) were prepared with deep-chamfer, slight-chamfer, or feather-edge finish lines (n = 10). Specimens were tested in a chewing simulator (CS-4.4, SD Mechatronik) under cyclic occlusal loads simulating one year of clinical service. Raman spectra were acquired and analyzed for each specimen along the finish lines and at the top of each coping before and after chewing simulation, respectively. Results: Raman analysis did not show any t–m transformation both before and after chewing simulation, as the typical monoclinic bands at 181 cm−1 and 192 cm−1 were not detected in any of the tested specimens. Conclusions: After a one-year simulation of chewing activity, irrespective of preparation geometry, zirconia copings did not show any sign of t–m transformation, either in the load application areas or at the margins. Consequently, manufacturing milling even in thin thickness did not cause any structural modification of zirconia ceramics “as received by manufacturers” both before and after chewing simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Surface Treatments on Titanium Dental Implant Micro-Morphology
Materials 2019, 12(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050733
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Background: Titanium dental implants are today widely used with osseointegration mainly dependently on the implant surface properties. Different processing routes lead to different surface characteristics resulting, of course, in different in situ behaviors of the implants. Materials: The effect of different treatments, whether [...] Read more.
Background: Titanium dental implants are today widely used with osseointegration mainly dependently on the implant surface properties. Different processing routes lead to different surface characteristics resulting, of course, in different in situ behaviors of the implants. Materials: The effect of different treatments, whether mechanical or chemical, on the surface morphology of titanium implants were investigated. To this aim, various experimental methods, including roughness analysis as well scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, were applied. Results: The results showed that, in contrast to the mechanical treatments, the chemical ones gave rise to a more irregular surface. SEM observations suggested that where commercial pure titanium was used, the chemical treatments provided implant surfaces without contaminations. In contrast, sandblasted implants could cause potential risks of surface contamination because of the presence of blasting particles remnants. Conclusions: The examined implant surfaces showed different roughness levels in relation to the superficial treatment applied. The acid-etched surfaces were characterized by the presence of deeper valleys and higher peaks than the sandblasted surfaces. For this reason, acid-etched surfaces can be more easily damaged by the stress produced by the peri-implant bone during surgical implant placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
PLA-Based Mineral-Doped Scaffolds Seeded with Human Periapical Cyst-Derived MSCs: A Promising Tool for Regenerative Healing in Dentistry
Materials 2019, 12(4), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040597
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (13388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs) are a newly discovered cell population innovatively collected from inflammatory periapical cysts. The use of this biological waste guarantees a source of stem cells without any impact on the surrounding healthy tissues, presenting a valuable potential [...] Read more.
Human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs) are a newly discovered cell population innovatively collected from inflammatory periapical cysts. The use of this biological waste guarantees a source of stem cells without any impact on the surrounding healthy tissues, presenting a valuable potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In the present study, hPCy-MSCs were collected, isolated, and seeded on three experimental mineral-doped porous scaffolds produced by the thermally-induced phase-separation (TIPS) technique. Mineral-doped scaffolds, composed of polylactic acid (PLA), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and/or hydraulic calcium silicate (CaSi), were produced by TIPS (PLA-10CaSi, PLA-5CaSi-5DCPD, PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD). Micro-CT analysis evaluated scaffolds micromorphology. Collected hPCy-MSCs, characterized by cytofluorimetry, were seeded on the scaffolds and tested for cell proliferation, cells viability, and gene expression for osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation (DMP-1, OSC, RUNX-2, HPRT). Micro-CT revealed an interconnected highly porous structure for all the scaffolds, similar total porosity with 99% open pores. Pore wall thickness increased with the percentage of CaSi and DCPD. Cells seeded on mineral-doped scaffolds showed a superior proliferation compared to pure PLA scaffolds (control), particularly on PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD at day 12. A higher number of non-viable (red stained) cells was observable on PLA scaffolds at days 14 and 21. DMP-1 expression increased in hPCy-MSCs cultured on all mineral-doped scaffolds, in particular on PLA-5CaSi-5DCPD and PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD. In conclusion, the innovative combination of experimental scaffolds colonized with autologous stem cells from periapical cyst represent a promising strategy for regenerative healing of periapical and alveolar bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
FEM Analysis of Dental Implant-Abutment Interface Overdenture Components and Parametric Evaluation of Equator® and Locator® Prosthodontics Attachments
Materials 2019, 12(4), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040592
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this investigation was to analyze the mechanical features of two different prosthetic retention devices. By applying engineering tools like the finite element method (FEM) and Von Mises analyses, we investigated how dental implant devices hold out against masticatory strength during [...] Read more.
The objective of this investigation was to analyze the mechanical features of two different prosthetic retention devices. By applying engineering tools like the finite element method (FEM) and Von Mises analyses, we investigated how dental implant devices hold out against masticatory strength during chewing cycles. Two common dental implant overdenture retention systems were analyzed and then compared with a universal—common dental abutment. The Equator® attachment system and the Locator® arrangement were processed using the FEM Ansys® Workbench. The elastic features of the materials used in the study were taken from recent literature. Results revealed different responses for both the devices, and both systems guaranteed a perfect fit over the axial load. However, the different design and shape involves the customized use of each device for a typical clinical condition of applying overdenture systems over dental implants. The data from this virtual model showed different features and mechanical behaviors of the overdenture prosthodontics attachments. A three-dimensional system involved the fixture, abutment, and passant screws of three different dental implants that were created and analyzed. Clinicians should find the best prosthetic balance to better distribute the stress over the component, and to guarantee the patients clinical long-term results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
10-MDP Based Dental Adhesives: Adhesive Interface Characterization and Adhesive Stability—A Systematic Review
Materials 2019, 12(5), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050790
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incorporation of functional monomers in dental adhesive systems promotes chemical interaction with dental substrates, resulting in higher adhesion forces when compared to micromechanical adhesion only. The 10-MDP monomer, whose chemical structure allows for a polar behavior which is favorable to adhesion, also [...] Read more.
The incorporation of functional monomers in dental adhesive systems promotes chemical interaction with dental substrates, resulting in higher adhesion forces when compared to micromechanical adhesion only. The 10-MDP monomer, whose chemical structure allows for a polar behavior which is favorable to adhesion, also promotes the protection of collagen fibers through the formation of MDP-calcium salts. This systematic review aimed to characterize the interface created by 10-MDP containing adhesive systems through an evaluation of the following parameters: Formation of nano-layered structures, capacity to produce an acid-base resistant zone, and adhesion stability. The research was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Embase, limited to English, Spanish, and Portuguese articles. The research was done according to the PICO strategy. The 10-MDP monomer has the capacity to produce an acid-base resistant zone on the adhesive interface, which increases the response to acid-base challenges. The adhesion established by these systems is stable over time. To have the best of these adhesive solutions, a scrubbing technique must be used to apply the adhesive system on dental substrates, in order to improve monomers infiltration and to create a stable bond. Time must be given for the solution to infiltrate, hybridize and form the MDP-Ca, improving adhesive stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Title: Compositional, Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Ni-Free Orthodontic Wires Compared to Their Stainless Steel Counterparts

Authors: Daniela Brüngger, Theodoros Koutsoukis, Youssef S. Al Jabbari, Monika Hersberger-Zurfluh, Spiros Zinelis and Theodore Eliades

2. Title: The Effect of Mouthrinses on the Elution of Monomers from Dental Composite Materials

Author: Olga Polydorou

3. Title: A Comparative Study of Shock Absorption Capacities of Custom-Fabricated Mouthguards using a Triangulation LASER sensor

Authors: Rūta Sarac, Julia Helbig, Juliane Dräger and Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann

4. Title: A Study of Laser Micromachining of PM Processed Ti Compact for Dental Implants Applications

Authors: Peter Šugár, J. Kováčik, J. Šugárová and B. Ludrovcová

5. Author: Marco Tatullo

6. Author: Mikulas Krisztina

7. Author: Dauro Douglas Oliveira

8. Author: Mihaela Roxana Cimpan

9. Author: L. F. Jimenez-Garcia

 

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