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Open AccessArticle

Cytotoxic Effects of Zoom® Whitening Product in Human Fibroblasts

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Institute of Experimental Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), area of Environment, Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Clinical Academic Center of Coimbra (CACC), 3004-561 Coimbra, Portugal
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Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Institute of Integrated Clinical Practice, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 300-075 Coimbra, Portugal
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Radiation Oncology Department, Coimbra University Hospital Center, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Laboratory of Oncobiology and Hematology (LOH) and Universitary Clinic of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 300-075 Coimbra, Portugal
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Coimbra Chemistry Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071491
Received: 3 March 2020 / Revised: 22 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
Tooth whitening procedures are increasing; however, side effects can occur, such as damage to pulp cells, by the whitening products. This study aims to assess the cellular effects promoted by a whitening product, namely, the oxidative stress fostered by the active agent hydrogen peroxide, with and without photoactivation. Additionally, if cellular recovery occurred, we intended to determine the time point where cells recover from the tooth whitening induced damage. Human fibroblasts were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, Zoom®, Zoom® + irradiation, and irradiation alone. The following analysis was performed: metabolic activity evaluation by the MTT assay; cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, peroxides production, superoxide radical production, and reduced glutathione expression by flow cytometry. We determined the IC50 value for all groups, and a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect was verified. At the times analyzed, hydrogen peroxide groups showed no metabolic activity recovery while a cell recovery was observed after 24 h (Zoom®) and 48 h (Zoom® + irradiation). Cell death was seen in hydrogen peroxide and Zoom® + irradiation groups, mainly by apoptosis, and the irradiation had a cytotoxic effect per se. This in vitro study supports that whitening products with moderate hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentration have a temporary effect on cells, allowing a cellular recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: tooth whitening; hydrogen peroxide; cytotoxicity; fibroblasts; oxidative stress tooth whitening; hydrogen peroxide; cytotoxicity; fibroblasts; oxidative stress
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Marto, C.M.; Laranjo, M.; Paula, A.; Coelho, A.S.; Abrantes, A.M.; Casalta-Lopes, J.; Gonçalves, A.C.; Sarmento-Ribeiro, A.B.; Ferreira, M.M.; Cabrita, A.; Botelho, M.F.; Carrilho, E. Cytotoxic Effects of Zoom® Whitening Product in Human Fibroblasts. Materials 2020, 13, 1491.

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