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Special Issue "Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2022 | Viewed by 28479

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Bożena Łosiewicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Material Engineering, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
Interests: batteries; biomaterials; corrosion and corrosion protection; electrocatalysis; electrochemistry of materials; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; hydrogen adsorption, absorption, and electroevolution phenomena; mechanism and kinetics of electrode processes; metallic hydrides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the Age of Materials, we have a large number of construction materials, including metals and their alloys. The selection of the right metallic material and its proper application is an important and responsible task in every branch of technology. There are no general rules that would allow choosing the right material for a given application in advance. The right decision should always be based on knowledge of the characteristics of the metals and their alloys, ease of processing, availability, price, and their mechanical, physical, and chemical properties.

Corrosion of metals and their alloys strongly affects many sectors of a nation’s economy. This physicochemical interaction between a metal or alloy and its environment results in changes in the properties of the metal or alloy, which may often lead to impairment of the function of the metal or alloy, the environment, or the technical system of which these form a part. Corrosion is one of the main sources of metallic material loss. It contributes to environmental pollution and poses a threat to human health. Therefore, the goal of corrosion science and engineering with a strong interdisciplinary character is to learn the mechanisms and kinetics of the gradual destruction of metallic materials as a result of the chemical or electrochemical interaction of the corrosive environment and the maximum slowdown of the process of metal and alloy returns to a thermodynamically stable state.

This Special Issue will be oriented toward all corrosion issues associated with the fundamentals of corrosion science of metals and their alloys, corrosion protection, testing to assess corrosion resistance, data collection and analysis, use of corrosion data in economic and risk analysis, in lifetime prediction, and in decision making. Subjects of interest will include the corrosion behavior of iron and low-alloy steels, corrosion-resistant steels, copper and its alloys, aluminum and its alloys, titanium and its alloys, nickel and its alloys, zinc and its alloys, and others. The development of methods to prevent and control corrosion of metals and their alloys are also of interest.

I would like to invite you with great pleasure to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

I would also like to acknowledge, first, the authors who will write the articles that will  form this new Special Issue. In addition, I would like to acknowledge the reviewers of the articles, who will carry out their work to help to maintain a high scientific level of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Bożena Łosiewicz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metals
  • alloys
  • corrosion
  • corrosion inhibition
  • corrosion protection

Published Papers (34 papers)

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Research

Article
Production and Characterization of the Third-Generation Oxide Nanotubes on Ti-13Zr-13Nb Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062321 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
In the group of vanadium-free titanium alloys used for applications for long-term implants, the Ti-13Zr-13Nb alloy has recently been proposed. The production of a porous layer of oxide nanotubes (ONTs) with a wide range of geometries and lengths on the Ti-13Zr-13Nb alloy surface [...] Read more.
In the group of vanadium-free titanium alloys used for applications for long-term implants, the Ti-13Zr-13Nb alloy has recently been proposed. The production of a porous layer of oxide nanotubes (ONTs) with a wide range of geometries and lengths on the Ti-13Zr-13Nb alloy surface can increase its osteoinductive properties and enable intelligent drug delivery. This work concerns developing a method of electrochemical modification of the Ti-13Zr-13Nb alloy surface to obtain third-generation ONTs. The effect of the anodizing voltage on the microstructure and thickness of the obtained oxide layers was conducted in 1 M C2H6O2 + 4 wt% NH4F electrolyte in the voltage range 5–35 V for 120 min at room temperature. The obtained third-generation ONTs were characterized using SEM, EDS, SKP, and 2D roughness profiles methods. The preliminary assessment of corrosion resistance carried out in accelerated corrosion tests in the artificial atmosphere showed the high quality of the newly developed ONTs and the slight influence of neutral salt spray on their micromechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Combined Electrochemical, Raman Analysis and Machine Learning Assessments of the Inhibitive Properties of an 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-2-Thiol Derivative against Carbon Steel Corrosion in HCl Solution
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062224 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The inhibiting properties of 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (PyODT) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 1.0 M HCl solution were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and SEM-EDX analysis. An approach based on machine learning algorithms and Raman data was also applied [...] Read more.
The inhibiting properties of 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (PyODT) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 1.0 M HCl solution were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and SEM-EDX analysis. An approach based on machine learning algorithms and Raman data was also applied to follow the carbon steel degradation in different experimental conditions. The electrochemical measurements revealed that PyODT behaves as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor, reaching an efficiency of about 93.1% at a concentration of 5 mM, after 1 h exposure to 1.0 M HCl solution. Due to the molecular adsorption and structural organization of PyODT molecules on the C-steel surface, higher inhibitive effectiveness of about 97% was obtained at 24 h immersion. The surface analysis showed a significantly reduced degradation state of the carbon steel surface in the presence of PyODT due to the inhibitor adsorption revealed by Raman spectroscopy and the presence of N and S atoms in the EDX spectra. The combination of Raman spectroscopy and machine learning algorithms was proved to be a facile and reliable tool for an incipient identification of the corrosion sites on a metallic surface exposed to corrosive environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Corrosion Behavior of an Mg2Sn Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062025 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
In the present work, the corrosion behavior of the Mg2Sn alloy (Mg66.7Sn33.3, concentration in at.%) has been studied. The alloy was prepared from high purity Sn and Mg lumps by induction melting in argon. The alloy was [...] Read more.
In the present work, the corrosion behavior of the Mg2Sn alloy (Mg66.7Sn33.3, concentration in at.%) has been studied. The alloy was prepared from high purity Sn and Mg lumps by induction melting in argon. The alloy was composed of intermetallic Mg2Sn with a small amount of Mg2Sn + (Sn) eutectic. The corrosion behavior was studied by hydrogen evolution, immersion, and potentiodynamic experiments. Three aqueous solutions of NaCl (3.5 wt.%), NaOH (0.1 wt.%) and HCl (0.1 wt.%) were chosen as corrosion media. The alloy was found to be cathodic with respect to metallic Mg and anodic with respect to Sn. The corrosion potentials of the Mg2Sn alloy were −1380, −1498 and −1361 mV vs. sat. Ag/AgCl in HCl, NaCl and NaOH solutions, respectively. The highest corrosion rate of the alloy, 92 mmpy, was found in aqueous HCl. The high corrosion rate was accompanied by massive hydrogen evolution on the alloy’s surface. The corrosion rate was found to decrease sharply with increasing pH of the electrolyte. In the NaOH electrolyte, a passivation of the alloy was observed. The corrosion of the alloy involved a simultaneous oxidation of Mg and Sn. The main corrosion products on the alloy surface were MgSn(OH)6 and Mg(OH)2. The corrosion mechanism is discussed and implications for practical applications of the alloy are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Comparison of Corrosion Performance of Extruded and Forged WE43 Mg Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051622 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
Adjusting the microstructure through the deformation process is one of the ways to improve the properties of Mg alloys. Most studies have focused on the influence of the microstructure after deformation treatment on the mechanical properties of Mg alloys. In this paper, extruded [...] Read more.
Adjusting the microstructure through the deformation process is one of the ways to improve the properties of Mg alloys. Most studies have focused on the influence of the microstructure after deformation treatment on the mechanical properties of Mg alloys. In this paper, extruded and forged Mg-Gd-Y-Nd-Zr alloys were selected to investigate the corrosion performance of two deformed magnesium alloys immersed in 0.6 M NaCl solution using a hydrogen evolution test, a weight loss test, an immersion experiment, and an electrochemical test. The results showed that WE43 alloys undergoing different deformation treatments presented different microstructures, which led to different corrosion behaviors and corrosion resistance. The extruded WE43 alloy showed uniform corrosion, while the forged WE43 alloy suffered severe local galvanic corrosion. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate of the forged WE43 alloy was about four times faster than that of the extruded WE43 alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Corrosion Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloys Fabricated by High-Pressure Torsion
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031007 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
The influence of the nanocrystalline structure produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the corrosion behavior of CoCrFeMnNi alloys with Cr contents ranging from 0 to 20 at.% was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions. The [...] Read more.
The influence of the nanocrystalline structure produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the corrosion behavior of CoCrFeMnNi alloys with Cr contents ranging from 0 to 20 at.% was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M H2SO4 and 3.5% NaCl solutions. The resistance to general corrosion and pitting became higher in both the solutions, with higher passivation capability observed with increasing Cr content, and it is believed that the high corrosion resistance of CoCrFeMnNi alloys can be attributed to the incorporation of the Cr element. However, the impact of the nanocrystalline structure produced by SPD on the corrosion behavior was negligibly small. This is inconsistent with reports on nanocrystalline binary Fe–Cr alloys and stainless steels processed by SPD, where grain refinement by SPD results in higher corrosion resistance. The small change in the corrosion behavior with respect to grain refinement is discussed, based on the passivation process of Fe–Cr alloys and on the influence of the core effects of HEAs on the passivation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Pitting Corrosion Behavior and Surface Microstructure of Copper Strips When Rolled with Oil-in-Water Emulsions
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247911 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Copper strips experience severe corrosion when rolled with an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions lubricant. The effects of rolling reduction on the pitting corrosion behavior and surface microstructure of Cu strips were studied in detail using electrochemical measurements and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. [...] Read more.
Copper strips experience severe corrosion when rolled with an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions lubricant. The effects of rolling reduction on the pitting corrosion behavior and surface microstructure of Cu strips were studied in detail using electrochemical measurements and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. It was found that the corrosion current densities of the rolled Cu strips increased with accumulated reduction, which also lowered the pitting potentials and weakened their corrosion resistances. Therefore, the corrosive tendency of Cu strips under different rolling reductions (ε) followed the order of ε0% < ε20.7% < ε50.6% < ε77.3%. The Cu surface easily reacted with chlorine, sulfur, and carbon components from O/W emulsions to generate pitting corrosion. Under the interactive effect of pitting corrosion and stress corrosion, pits expanded along the rolling direction. The aggregation of anions in surface defects, such as dislocations, metastable pits, and microcracks, further accelerated the pitting corrosion of the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Quantitative Non-Linear Effect of High Ambient Temperature on Chloride Threshold Value for Steel Reinforcement Corrosion in Concrete under Extreme Boundary Conditions
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247595 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
This paper investigates the effect of high ambient temperatures on the chloride threshold value for reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Two commonly available carbon steel rebars were investigated under four different exposure temperatures (20 °C (68 °F), 35 °C (95 °F), 50 °C (122 [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the effect of high ambient temperatures on the chloride threshold value for reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Two commonly available carbon steel rebars were investigated under four different exposure temperatures (20 °C (68 °F), 35 °C (95 °F), 50 °C (122 °F), and 65 °C (149 °C)) using environmental chambers at a constant relative humidity of 80%. For each temperature, six different levels of added chloride ions (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.60%, 0.90%, and 1.20% by weight of cement) were used to study the chloride threshold value. Corrosion initiation was detected by monitoring the corrosion potential and corrosion rate using electrochemical techniques. The water-soluble (free) and acid-soluble (total) chlorides were determined using potentiometric titration according to the relevant ASTM standards. The threshold chloride content for each exposure temperature was determined by analyzing the corrosion potential, corrosion rate, and chloride content of each specimen. The results showed that the chloride threshold values were significantly temperature-dependent. At temperatures of 20 °C (68 °F) and 35 °C (95 °F), the chloride threshold value (expressed as free chlorides) was approximately 0.95% by weight of cement. However, as the temperature increased to 50 °C (122 °F), the chloride threshold decreased significantly to approximately 0.70% by weight of cement. The reduction in the chloride threshold value became more dramatic at an exposure temperature of 65 °C (149 °F), decreasing to approximately 0.25% by weight of cement. The trends were similar for the rebars from the two sources, indicating that the rebar source had little influence on the chloride threshold value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Role of Coating Processes on the Corrosion Kinetics and Mechanism of Zinc in Artificial Seawater
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237464 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) coating is being used to protect steel structures from corrosion. There are different processes to deposit the coating onto a steel substrate. Therefore, in the present study, a 100 µm thick Zn coating was deposited by arc and plasma arc thermal [...] Read more.
Zinc (Zn) coating is being used to protect steel structures from corrosion. There are different processes to deposit the coating onto a steel substrate. Therefore, in the present study, a 100 µm thick Zn coating was deposited by arc and plasma arc thermal spray coating processes, and the corrosion resistance performance was evaluated in artificial seawater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the arc thermal spray coating exhibited splats and inflight particles, whereas plasma arc spraying showed a uniform and dense morphology. When the exposure periods were extended up to 23 d, the corrosion resistance of the arc as well as the plasma arc thermal spray coating increased considerably. This is attributed to the blocking characteristics of the defects by the stable hydrozincite (Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Wear and Corrosion Resistance of AlSi10Mg–CP–Ti Metal–Metal Composite Materials Produced by Electro-Sinter-Forging
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226761 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Metal–metal composites are a class of composite materials studied for their high ductility and strength, but their potential applications are currently limited by the complex manufacturing processes involved. Electro-sinter-forging (ESF) is a single-pulse electro discharge sintering technique that proved its effectiveness in the [...] Read more.
Metal–metal composites are a class of composite materials studied for their high ductility and strength, but their potential applications are currently limited by the complex manufacturing processes involved. Electro-sinter-forging (ESF) is a single-pulse electro discharge sintering technique that proved its effectiveness in the rapid sintering of several metals, alloys, and composites. Previous studies proved the processability of Ti and AlSi10Mg by ESF to produce metal–metal composites and defined a correlation between microstructure and processing parameters. This paper presents the wear and corrosion characterizations of two metal–metal composites obtained via ESF with the following compositions: 20% Ti/80% AlSi10Mg and 20% AlSi10Mg/80% Ti. The two materials showed complementary resistance to wear and corrosion. A higher fraction of AlSi10Mg is responsible for forming a protective tribolayer in dry-sliding conditions, while a higher fraction of Titanium confers improved corrosion resistance due to its higher corrosion potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Enhanced Long-Term Reliability of Seal DeltaSpot Welded Dissimilar Joint between 6061 Aluminum Alloy and Galvannealed Steel via Excimer Laser Irradiation
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226756 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Structural-adhesive-assisted DeltaSpot welding was used to improve the weldability and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between 6061 aluminum alloy and galvannealed HSLA steel. Evaluation of the spot-weld-bonded surfaces from lap shear tests after long-term exposure to chloride and a humid atmosphere (5% NaCl, [...] Read more.
Structural-adhesive-assisted DeltaSpot welding was used to improve the weldability and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints between 6061 aluminum alloy and galvannealed HSLA steel. Evaluation of the spot-weld-bonded surfaces from lap shear tests after long-term exposure to chloride and a humid atmosphere (5% NaCl, 35 °C) indicated that the long-term mechanical reliability of the dissimilar weld in a corrosive environment depends strongly on the adhesive–Al6061 alloy bond strength. Corrosive electrolyte infiltrated the epoxy-based adhesive/Al alloy interface, disrupting the chemical interactions and decreasing the adhesion via anodic undercutting of the Al alloy. Due to localized electrochemical galvanic reactions, the surrounding nugget matrix suffered accelerated anodic dissolution, resulting in an Al6061-T6 alloy plate with degraded adhesive strength and mechanical properties. KrF excimer laser irradiation of the Al alloy before adhesive bonding removed the weakly bonded native oxidic overlayers and altered the substrate topography. This afforded a low electrolyte permeability and prevented adhesive delamination, thereby enhancing the long-term stability of the chemical interactions between the adhesive and Al alloy substrate. The results demonstrate the application of excimer laser irradiation as a simple and environmentally friendly processing technology for robust adhesion and reliable bonding between 6061 aluminum alloy and galvannealed steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Chloride Ions Concentrations to Breakdown the Passive Film on Rebar Surface Exposed to L-Arginine Containing Pore Solution
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195693 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 509
Abstract
In the present study, 0.115 M L-arginine (LA) has been used as an eco-friendly inhibitor in simulated concrete pore solutions (SP-0) in order to form passive films on a steel rebar–solution interface until 144 h. Hence, 0.51 (SP-1) and 0.85 M NaCl (SP-2) [...] Read more.
In the present study, 0.115 M L-arginine (LA) has been used as an eco-friendly inhibitor in simulated concrete pore solutions (SP-0) in order to form passive films on a steel rebar–solution interface until 144 h. Hence, 0.51 (SP-1) and 0.85 M NaCl (SP-2) were added in LA containing SP-0 solution to breakdown the passive film and to initiate corrosion reactions. The electrochemical results show that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of steel rebar exposed to SP-1 and SP-2 solutions increased with respect to immersion periods. The sample exposed to the SP-2 solution initiated the corrosion reaction at the steel rebar–solution interface after 24 h of NaCl addition and formed pits; on the other hand, the sample without NaCl added, i.e., SP-0, showed agglomeration and dense morphology of corrosion products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Corrosion Behavior of Niobium-Coated 316L Stainless Steels as Metal Bipolar Plates for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174972 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Niobium was coated on 316L stainless steel by pulsed direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering to improve corrosion behavior. The applied bias voltage highly affected the microstructure and crystallographic features, which lead to improved corrosion behavior. Due to the increased bias voltage, the microstructure of [...] Read more.
Niobium was coated on 316L stainless steel by pulsed direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering to improve corrosion behavior. The applied bias voltage highly affected the microstructure and crystallographic features, which lead to improved corrosion behavior. Due to the increased bias voltage, the microstructure of the niobium coating layer presented a smaller crystallite size and a densified structure, which obviously reduced the number of pinholes in the coated layer. Additionally, an increase in the degree of orientation toward the (110) plane, the most densely packed plane, lead to reduced dissolution of metal ions. Therefore, a pure niobium coating layer effectively protected the metal bipolar plate from a highly corrosive environment of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks. In particular, higher bias voltages of 600 and 800 V induced improved corrosion resistance, which satisfied the demand for the bipolar plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Imidazole as Corrosion Inhibitor on Carbon Steel Weldment in District Heating Water
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164416 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Many research studies have been conducted on the corrosion inhibition performance of imidazole in acidic environments such as in the piping of a petrochemical plant. However, there has been no study on the effect of imidazole in alkaline conditions such as a local [...] Read more.
Many research studies have been conducted on the corrosion inhibition performance of imidazole in acidic environments such as in the piping of a petrochemical plant. However, there has been no study on the effect of imidazole in alkaline conditions such as a local district water heating environment. Therefore, in this study, the effect of imidazole as a corrosion inhibitor on carbon steel weldment was investigated in alkaline district heating water. Inhibition efficiency and electrochemical properties were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As the concentration of imidazole increased up to 500 ppm, inhibition efficiency increased up to 91.7%. At 1000 ppm, inhibition efficiency decreased. Atomic force microscopy showed that surface coverage of imidazole at 1000 ppm is lower than that of imidazole at 500 ppm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that with 500 ppm of imidazole, the amount of pyrrole type interaction is 4.8 times larger than pyridine type interaction. At 1000 ppm of imidazole, the amount of pyridine type interaction is 3.49 times larger than pyrrole type interaction. Depending on the concentration of imidazole, the ratio of interaction between carbon steel and imidazole affected inhibition efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effects of Zinc Addition on the Corrosion Behavior of Pre-Filmed Alloy 690 in Borated and Lithiated Water at 330 °C
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154105 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to quantify the effects of dissolved zinc cations on corrosion and release rates from a pre-filmed Alloy 690 steam generator tubing material that was subsequently exposed to water containing zinc. The corrosion tests were performed in circulating [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to quantify the effects of dissolved zinc cations on corrosion and release rates from a pre-filmed Alloy 690 steam generator tubing material that was subsequently exposed to water containing zinc. The corrosion tests were performed in circulating 2 ppm Li and 1000 ppm B water without and with 60 ppb zinc at 330 °C. Gravimetric analyses and oxide characterization revealed that the corrosion rates, release rates, and oxide thicknesses decreased by subsequent exposure of the pre-filmed Alloy 690 to zinc. These benefits are attributed to the formation of a chromium-rich inner oxide layer incorporating zinc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Influence of the Nb and V Addition on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of the Fe-B-Co-Si Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(14), 4045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144045 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The paper presents a comparison of the results of the corrosion resistance for three Fe-B-Co-Si-based newly developed alloys with the addition of Nb and V. The corrosion performance differences and microstructure variations were systematically studied using scanning electron microscope, electric corrosion equipment, X-ray [...] Read more.
The paper presents a comparison of the results of the corrosion resistance for three Fe-B-Co-Si-based newly developed alloys with the addition of Nb and V. The corrosion performance differences and microstructure variations were systematically studied using scanning electron microscope, electric corrosion equipment, X-ray diffractometer, and differential calorimeter. It has been shown that each alloying addition increased the corrosion resistance. The highest corrosion resistance obtained by potentiodynamic polarization was found for the alloy with both Nb and V addons (Fe57Co10B20Si5Nb4V4) and lowest in the case of the basic four-element Fe62Co15B14Si9 material. This shows that the proper choice of additions is of significant influence on the final performance of the alloy and allows tailoring of the material for specific applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Austenitic Steel Using Active Screen Plasma Nitriding and Nitrocarburising
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123320 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
AISI 316L steel was subjected to active screen plasma nitriding and nitrocarburising. The processes were carried out at 440 °C for 6 h. The nitriding process employed an atmosphere of nitrogen and hydrogen, while nitrocarburising was carried out in nitrogen, hydrogen and methane. [...] Read more.
AISI 316L steel was subjected to active screen plasma nitriding and nitrocarburising. The processes were carried out at 440 °C for 6 h. The nitriding process employed an atmosphere of nitrogen and hydrogen, while nitrocarburising was carried out in nitrogen, hydrogen and methane. The processes yielded structures consisting of nitrogen and nitro-carbon expanded austenite, respectively. Microhardness was measured via the Vickers method, surface roughness using an optical profilometer, microstructure by means of light microscopy, while a scanning electron microscope (SEM) served to determine surface topography. Phase composition, lattice parameter and lattice deformation tests were carried out using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Corrosion resistance measurements were performed in a 0.5 M NaCl solution using the potentiodynamic method. The produced layers showed very high resistance to pitting corrosion, while the pitting potential reached 1.5 V, a value that has not yet been recorded in a chloride environment. After the passive layer was broken down, there was a clear deceleration of pitting in the nitrocarburised layer. It was found that in the case of nitro-carbon expanded austenite, pits are formed much slower compared to the nitrogen austenite layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effect of the Alloying Metal on the Corrosion Resistance of Pd-Rich Binary Alloys with Pt, Rh, and Ru in Sulfuric Acid
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112923 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 954
Abstract
The paper presents the study of the corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Pd and its binary alloys with Pt, Rh, and Ru on a polycrystalline Au substrate. The corrosion resistance was tested in 0.5 M sulfuric acid at room temperature using potentiodynamic polarization and [...] Read more.
The paper presents the study of the corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Pd and its binary alloys with Pt, Rh, and Ru on a polycrystalline Au substrate. The corrosion resistance was tested in 0.5 M sulfuric acid at room temperature using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The morphology/composition and work function values were determined by scanning electron microscopy/energy–dispersive X–ray spectroscopy and scanning Kelvin probe, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the Pd electrode is the most resistant to corrosion, whereas the Pd-Ru electrode is the most susceptible to dissolution. It was found that the corrosion resistance of Pd-binary alloys decrease in the following order: Pd > Pd-Pt > Pd-Rh > Pd-Ru. This effect was assigned mainly to the difference in surface roughness factor of tested electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Benzotriazole on the Localized Corrosion of Copper Covered with Carbonaceous Residue
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112722 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Carbonaceous residues on copper pipes during the manufacturing process are known to be one of the main causes of pitting corrosion on copper pipes. This study examined the corrosion-inhibiting effect of benzotriazole (BTA) on C12200 copper pipes with carbonaceous film in synthetic tap [...] Read more.
Carbonaceous residues on copper pipes during the manufacturing process are known to be one of the main causes of pitting corrosion on copper pipes. This study examined the corrosion-inhibiting effect of benzotriazole (BTA) on C12200 copper pipes with carbonaceous film in synthetic tap water. In the absence of BTA, localized corrosion mechanisms due to galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and oxygen-concentration cell were proposed in the boundary part of the carbonaceous film on the copper through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analyses. Electrochemical tests showed that BTA inhibits corrosion by forming Cu−BTA complexes on all over the copper surface where carbonaceous film is present. BTA mitigates galvanic corrosion and crevice corrosion at the boundary of the carbonaceous film and suppresses the formation of oxygen-concentration cells through the formation of a Cu−BTA complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Study on the Purity of Gold Leaf in a SO2 Atmosphere at Ambient Temperature
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092425 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Gold leaf samples of different purities were corroded in a SO2 atmosphere at three different relative humidities (30%, 60%, 90%) at ambient temperature, and the effects on color, gloss, and morphology were studied. Results showed that a corrosion rate of 0.0898 g/cm [...] Read more.
Gold leaf samples of different purities were corroded in a SO2 atmosphere at three different relative humidities (30%, 60%, 90%) at ambient temperature, and the effects on color, gloss, and morphology were studied. Results showed that a corrosion rate of 0.0898 g/cm2 could be attained after 6 weeks at high humidity. Color changes also occurred during the gold leaf corrosion process, and many thin pits formed on the surfaces, as shown by SEM. EDX results showed that these pits contained C, O, and S compounds. By comparing the results of different gold purity samples and different relative humidity conditions, it could be concluded that both gold content and humidity play an important role in SO2 atmosphere corrosion. These conclusions are helpful for the conservation of gold leaf decorative cultural relics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Innovative Method for Coating of Natural Corrosion Inhibitor Based on Artemisia vulgaris
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092234 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
In this work, the production of a novel methodology for the application of natural corrosion inhibitors on steel, using an autoclave is presented. Tests were carried out using Artemisia vulgaris. The inhibitor was produced with a simple soxhlet extraction process using 15 [...] Read more.
In this work, the production of a novel methodology for the application of natural corrosion inhibitors on steel, using an autoclave is presented. Tests were carried out using Artemisia vulgaris. The inhibitor was produced with a simple soxhlet extraction process using 15 g of Artemisia vulgaris and 260 mL of Ether. Once the inhibitor was produced, the steel was immersed in it, to form a coating that protects the material against corrosion. Thermogravimetry analyzes (TGA) were performed on the inhibitor, to determine the degradation temperature; it was observed that, at 321 °C, the loss of organic mass begins. After applying the inhibitor to the steel, the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was used to determine the vibrational bands and the difference between the spectra for the steels before and after the coating was applied. For the evaluation of the method efficiency, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization resistance tests were performed, where Nyquist diagrams and Tafel curves were obtained, for steels with and without treatment. In this case, an increase of 93% in the corrosion resistance, and an 88% decrease in the corrosion rate were observed, proving that this methodology can be used to protect steel against corrosion and extend the steel’s useful life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Electrodeposition of Copper and Brass Coatings with Olive-Like Structure
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071762 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
One method of creating a brass coating is through electrodeposition, which is most often completed in cyanide galvanic baths. Due to their toxicity, many investigations focused on the development of more environmentally friendly alternatives. The purpose of the study was to explore a [...] Read more.
One method of creating a brass coating is through electrodeposition, which is most often completed in cyanide galvanic baths. Due to their toxicity, many investigations focused on the development of more environmentally friendly alternatives. The purpose of the study was to explore a new generation of non-aqueous cyanide-free baths based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic liquids. The study involved the formation of copper, zinc, and brass coatings. The influence of the bath composition, cathodic current density, and temperature was determined. The obtained coatings were characterized in terms of their morphology, chemical composition, phase composition, roughness, and corrosion resistance. It was found that the structure of the obtained coatings is strongly dependent on the process parameters. The three main structure types observed were as follows: fine-grained, porous, and olive-like. To the best knowledge of the authors, it is the first time the olive-like structure was observed in the case of an electrodeposited coating. The Cu-Zn coatings consisted of 19–96 at. % copper and exhibited relatively good corrosion resistance. A significant improvement of corrosion properties was found in the case of copper and brass coatings with the olive-like structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Corrosion Inhibitor-Modified Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on 6061 Aluminum Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(3), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030619 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
There are many methods for incorporating organic corrosion inhibitors to oxide coatings formed on aluminum alloys. However, typically they require relatively concentrated solutions of inhibitors, possibly generating a problematic waste and/or are time-/energy-consuming (elevated temperature is usually needed). The authors propose a three-step [...] Read more.
There are many methods for incorporating organic corrosion inhibitors to oxide coatings formed on aluminum alloys. However, typically they require relatively concentrated solutions of inhibitors, possibly generating a problematic waste and/or are time-/energy-consuming (elevated temperature is usually needed). The authors propose a three-step method of oxide layer formation on 6061-T651 aluminum alloy (AAs) via alternating current (AC) plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), impregnation with an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) solution, and final sealing by an additional direct current (DC) polarization in the original PEO electrolyte. The obtained coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, roughness tests, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, corrosion resistance was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization in a NaCl solution. Two types of the coating were formed (A—thicker, more porous at 440 mA cm−2; B—thinner, more compact at 220 mA cm−2) on the AA substrate. The 8-HQ impregnation was successful as evidenced by XPS. It increased the contact angle only for the B coatings and improved the corrosion resistance of both coating systems. Additional DC treatment destroyed superficially adsorbed 8-HQ. However, it served to block the coating pores (contact angle ≈ 80°) which improved the corrosion resistance of the coating systems. DC sealing alone did not bring about the same anti-corrosion properties as the combined 8-HQ impregnation and DC treatment which dispels the notion that the provision of the inhibitor was a needless step in the procedure. The proposed method of AA surface treatment suffered from unsatisfactory uniformity of the sealing for the thicker coatings, which needs to be amended in future efforts for optimization of the procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Corrosion Resistance of the CpTi G2 Cellular Lattice with TPMS Architecture for Gas Diffusion Electrodes
Materials 2021, 14(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010081 - 26 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
The corrosion of materials used in the design of metal-air batteries may shorten their cycle life. Therefore, metal-based materials with enhanced electrochemical stability have attracted much attention. The purpose of this work was to determine the corrosion resistance of commercially pure titanium Grade [...] Read more.
The corrosion of materials used in the design of metal-air batteries may shorten their cycle life. Therefore, metal-based materials with enhanced electrochemical stability have attracted much attention. The purpose of this work was to determine the corrosion resistance of commercially pure titanium Grade 2 (CpTi G2) cellular lattice with the triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) architecture of G80, D80, I-2Y80 in 0.1 M KOH solution saturated with oxygen at 25 °C. To produce CpTi G2 cellular lattices, selective laser melting technology was used which allowed us to obtain 3D cellular lattice structures with a controlled total porosity of 80%. For comparison, the bulk electrode was also investigated. SEM examination and statistical analysis of the surface topography maps of the CpTi G2 cellular lattices with the TPMS architecture revealed much more complex surface morphology compared to the bulk CpTi SLM. Corrosion resistance tests of the obtained materials were conducted using open circuit potential method, Tafel curves, anodic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The highest corrosion resistance and the lowest material consumption per year were revealed for the CpTi G2 cellular lattice with TPMS architecture of G80, which can be proposed as promising material with increased corrosion resistance for gas diffusion in alkaline metal-air batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
The Effect of Microstructural Changes on Mechanical and Electrochemical Corrosion Properties of Duplex Stainless Steel Aged for Short Periods
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235511 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
This work reports the effects of microstructural changes due to the secondary phases, in particular sigma (σ), on the mechanical properties and electrochemical behavior of thermally aged duplex stainless steel (DSS). Structural, morphological, mechanical, and electrochemical characterizations were performed. Sigma phase [...] Read more.
This work reports the effects of microstructural changes due to the secondary phases, in particular sigma (σ), on the mechanical properties and electrochemical behavior of thermally aged duplex stainless steel (DSS). Structural, morphological, mechanical, and electrochemical characterizations were performed. Sigma phase content increased with increasing aging treatment time. It had a net-like shape, as observed by electron backscatter diffractometry (EBSD). Its presence directly damaged mechanical properties. The corrosion assessment included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 1 M NaCl solution at temperatures of 25, 40, and 65 °C. EIS results demonstrate that an increase in the σ phase content decreased the corrosion resistance (21.1–0.8, 3.5–0.3, and 3.1–0.2 kΩ cm2 at 25, 40, and 60 °C, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Analysis of the Calcium Phosphate-Based Hybrid Layer Formed on a Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloy to Enhance the Ossseointegration Process
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235468 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
This paper reports on hybrid, bioactive ceramic Ca-P-based coating formation on a Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy substrate to enhance the osseointegration process. The Ti alloy was anodized in a Ca3(PO4)2 suspension and then the additional layer was formed by the [...] Read more.
This paper reports on hybrid, bioactive ceramic Ca-P-based coating formation on a Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy substrate to enhance the osseointegration process. The Ti alloy was anodized in a Ca3(PO4)2 suspension and then the additional layer was formed by the sol-gel technique to obtain a mixture of the calcium phosphate compounds. The oxide layer was porous and additional ceramic particles were formed after sol-gel treatment (scanning electron microscopy analysis coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy). The ceramic particles were formed on some parts of the oxide layer and did not completely fill the pores. The layer thickness of the anodized Ti alloy was comprised between 3.01 and 5.03 µm and increased to 7.52–12.30 µm after the formation of an additional layer. Post-treatment of the anodized Ti alloys caused a decrease in surface roughness, and the layer became strongly hydrophilic. Crystalline phase analysis (X-ray diffraction, XRD) showed that the hybrid layer was composed of TiO2 (anatase), Ca3(PO4)2, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and a partially amorphous phase; thus, the layer was also analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The hybrid layer showed worse adhesion to the substrate than the anodized layer only; however, the coating was not brittle, and the first delamination of the layer was determined at 1.84 ± 0.11 N during scratch-test measurement. The hybrid coating was favorable for collagen type I and lactoferrin adsorption, strongly influencing the proliferation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. The coatings were cytocompatible and may find applications in formation of the functional layers on long-term implants’ surface after. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effects of Sodium Phosphate and Sodium Nitrite on the Pitting Corrosion Process of X70 Carbon Steel in Sodium Chloride Solution
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235392 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
In this paper, effects of sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) on the pitting corrosion of X70 carbon steel in 0.10 mol/L NaCl solution were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method, scanning [...] Read more.
In this paper, effects of sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) on the pitting corrosion of X70 carbon steel in 0.10 mol/L NaCl solution were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). The SECM equipment was used to observe the dynamic processes of the pitting corrosion in situ. Na3PO4 or NaNO2 in the sodium chloride solution decreased the local anodic dissolution and increased the pitting resistance of the specimen. By analysis and comparison, it can be concluded that the inhibition effect of Na3PO4 is mainly due to the formation of a salt film, while the corrosion inhibition of NaNO2 is principally attributed to a protective oxide film on the electrode surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
The Importance of Phase Composition for Corrosion Resistance of Borided Layers Produced on Nickel Alloys
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225131 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 686
Abstract
The plasma paste boriding process was used for production of the borided layers on pure nickel and nickel-chromium alloys. The produced layers consisted of nickel borides only (in the case of nickel) or a nickel and chromium borides mixture (in the case Ni–Cr [...] Read more.
The plasma paste boriding process was used for production of the borided layers on pure nickel and nickel-chromium alloys. The produced layers consisted of nickel borides only (in the case of nickel) or a nickel and chromium borides mixture (in the case Ni–Cr alloys). The objective of this investigation was to indicate the importance of the presence of chromium for corrosion resistance of non-borided alloys, as well as to indicate the influence of phase composition of borided layers on their corrosion resistance. Pure nickel was characterized by higher corrosion resistance, in comparison to the nickel-based alloys. Increased chromium content in nickel alloys resulted in their high susceptibility for pitting corrosion. All borided samples were characterized by higher corrosion resistance than the non-borided samples. However, the phase composition of borided layers influenced their corrosion resistance. Due to the microstructure which consisted of one type of borides (nickel borides), borided nickel had the highest resistance to corrosion, whereas the presence of chromium borides in layers produced on nickel-chromium alloys caused a decrease in corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effect of SiO2–Al2O3 Glass Composite Coating on the Oxidation Behavior of Ti60 Alloy
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225085 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
A SiO2–Al2O3 glass composite coating was prepared on Ti60 alloy via air spraying slurry and then a suitable baking process. It was composed of potassium silicate glass, alumina and quartz powders. The high temperature oxidation performance of the [...] Read more.
A SiO2–Al2O3 glass composite coating was prepared on Ti60 alloy via air spraying slurry and then a suitable baking process. It was composed of potassium silicate glass, alumina and quartz powders. The high temperature oxidation performance of the alloy with and without coating was evaluated in static air at both 800 °C and 900 °C. The results show that catastrophic oxidation occurs for Ti60 bare alloy. It had a mass gain of about 2 mg/cm2 after oxidation at 800 °C and 17 mg/cm2 at 900 °C for 100 h. On the contrary, the oxidation resistance of alloy coated with composite coating was much improved with the mass gain about 0.36 mg/cm2 and 0.95 mg/cm2 at 800 °C and at 900 °C, respectively. The microstructure evolution of the composite coating and the alloy was analyzed by scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalyzer. The effect of the composite coating on the oxidation performance of the alloy is discussed especially in terms of oxygen diffusion and interfacial reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Autoclaving Time on Corrosion Resistance of Sandblasted Ti G4 in Artificial Saliva
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184154 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Titanium Grade 4 (Ti G4) is the most commonly used material for dental implants due to its excellent mechanical properties, chemical stability and biocompatibility. A thin, self-passive oxide layer with protective properties to corrosion is formed on its surface. However, the spontaneous TiO [...] Read more.
Titanium Grade 4 (Ti G4) is the most commonly used material for dental implants due to its excellent mechanical properties, chemical stability and biocompatibility. A thin, self-passive oxide layer with protective properties to corrosion is formed on its surface. However, the spontaneous TiO2 layer is chemically unstable. In this work, the impact of autoclaving time on corrosion resistance of Ti G4 in artificial saliva solution with pH = 7.4 at 37 °C was studied. Ti G4 was sandblasted with white Al2O3 particles and autoclaved for 30–120 min. SEM, EDS, 2D roughness profiles, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and a Kelvin scanning probe were used for the surface characterization of the Ti G4 under study. In vitro corrosion resistance tests were conducted using open circuit potential, polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. It was found that Sa parameter, electron work function, and thickness of the oxide layers, determined based on impedance measurements, increased after autoclaving. The capacitive behavior and high corrosion resistance of tested materials were revealed. The improvement in the corrosion resistance after autoclaving was due to the presence of oxide layers with high chemical stability. The optimal Ti G4 surface for dentistry can be obtained by sandblasting with Al2O3 with an average grain size of 53 µm, followed by autoclaving for 90 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Phosphate-Based Inhibitor on Corrosion Kinetics and Mechanism for Formation of Passive Film onto the Steel Rebar in Chloride-Containing Pore Solution
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163642 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
In the present study, different contents, i.e., 1–3% of 0.5 M ammonium phosphate mono basic (APMB), were used as corrosion inhibitor to reduce the corrosion of steel rebar. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that up to 24 h of exposure, polarization resistance [...] Read more.
In the present study, different contents, i.e., 1–3% of 0.5 M ammonium phosphate mono basic (APMB), were used as corrosion inhibitor to reduce the corrosion of steel rebar. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that up to 24 h of exposure, polarization resistance (Rp) and passive/oxide film resistance (Ro) gradually decreased in simulated concrete pore (SCP) + 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution owing to the reduction in pH of the solution. The steel rebar exposed in 2% inhibitor containing SCP + 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution exhibited 90% inhibition efficiency after 1 h of exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of thermodynamically very stable and sparingly soluble goethite (α-FeOOH), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and iron phosphate (FePO4) as passive/oxide film onto the steel rebar surface exposed to 2% inhibitor containing SCP + 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Dissolution of Metals in Different Bromide-Based Systems: Electrochemical Measurements and Spectroscopic Investigations
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163630 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The dissolution of the main metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb and Fe) found in waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) was investigated by electrochemical corrosion measurements (potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) in different bromide-based systems that could be used as lixiviants in [...] Read more.
The dissolution of the main metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb and Fe) found in waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) was investigated by electrochemical corrosion measurements (potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) in different bromide-based systems that could be used as lixiviants in hydrometallurgical route of metals recovery. The analysis of the corrosion products was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. All measurements showed that the addition of bromine in the electrolyte favors to great extents the dissolution process of all studied metals as compared to bromine-free electrolytes. In the investigated experimental conditions, the highest dissolution rates of the metals were obtained in acidic KBr solution containing 0.01 mol/L bromine and they decreased in the following order: Zn >> Sn > Pb > Fe > Cu. The XRD and XPS chemical assessment allowed the identification of the dissolution products formed on the metallic surfaces after exposure to the electrolytes. They consisted mainly of oxides in the case of Cu, Zn, Sn and Fe, while the presence of PbBr2 was also noticed on the lead surface. Based on the results of EIS and surface investigations, several models explaining the corrosion behavior of the metals were proposed and discussed. The obtained results demonstrate that all studied metals could be successfully leached using brominated solutions, providing a viable alternative for the selective and efficient recovery of the base metals from WPCBs through a multi-step hydrometallurgical processing route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
Temperature-Related Corrosion Resistance of AISI 1010 Carbon Steel in Sulfolane
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112563 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Sulfolane-induced corrosion can lead to severe impairment in industrial systems. Therefore, determination of solvent corrosivity is valid. Under standard conditions, pure sulfolane is considered to be thermally stable and chemically inert, hence non-aggressive towards carbon/stainless steel. Unfortunately, the sulfolane-evoked corrosion of the industrial [...] Read more.
Sulfolane-induced corrosion can lead to severe impairment in industrial systems. Therefore, determination of solvent corrosivity is valid. Under standard conditions, pure sulfolane is considered to be thermally stable and chemically inert, hence non-aggressive towards carbon/stainless steel. Unfortunately, the sulfolane-evoked corrosion of the industrial installations is observed for sulfolane-based systems polluted by small quantities of oxygen, water and some oxidizing agents. Moreover, sulfolane decomposition with formation of corrosive (by-)products can be escalated by some process parameters, e.g., temperature. The main objective of this study was to determine the corrosion resistance of AISI 1010 steel immersed in sulfolane at temperatures ranging from 25 to 230 °C. Evaluation of the corrosion damage was carried out using electrochemical techniques and scanning probe/electron microscopy, respectively. The general corrosion tendency, corrosion rate and surface corrosion degree were taken into account as well. It was noticed that the corrosion rate linearly increases with the enhancement of sulfolane temperature. Moreover, the interfacial reaction of steel with sulfolane resulted in the formation of corrosion product layer, which is a physical barrier between the corrosive environment and steel improving corrosion resistance of the latter. In fact, the increment of the sulfolane temperature caused a gradual breakdown of the protective layer and the increase in the corrosion degree of the investigated steel. Finally, it was found that the corrosion degree doubles approximately every 42 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
The Oxidation Resistance of Nb-Si-Based Alloys at Intermediate and High Temperatures
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051229 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
The oxidation behavior of three Nb-Si-based alloys were evaluated at intermediate (800 °C) and high (1250 °C) temperatures for 100 h in air. At 800 °C, the Nb-24Ti-15Si-13Cr-2Al-2Hf (at. %) alloy suffered from catastrophic pest oxidation. This pest phenomenon was suppressed by the [...] Read more.
The oxidation behavior of three Nb-Si-based alloys were evaluated at intermediate (800 °C) and high (1250 °C) temperatures for 100 h in air. At 800 °C, the Nb-24Ti-15Si-13Cr-2Al-2Hf (at. %) alloy suffered from catastrophic pest oxidation. This pest phenomenon was suppressed by the addition of Sn. However, Ta addition protected the Nb-Si-based alloys from pest oxidation for a short time. At 1250 °C, Sn could enhance the oxidation resistance of Nb-Si-based alloys due to the formation of a Sn-rich layer. In addition, the oxidation mechanisms of Nb-Si-based alloys at intermediate and high temperatures were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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Article
The Distribution of Li Ions in the Oxide Film Formed on Zircaloy-4 Corroded in Lithiated Water at 633 K
Materials 2020, 13(4), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040873 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), second ion mass spectrum (SIMS) and atom probe tomography (APT) techniques are used to study the Li ion distribution in the oxide formed on the rolling surface (SN) of Zircaloy-4 corroded in lithiated water with 0.01 M [...] Read more.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), second ion mass spectrum (SIMS) and atom probe tomography (APT) techniques are used to study the Li ion distribution in the oxide formed on the rolling surface (SN) of Zircaloy-4 corroded in lithiated water with 0.01 M LiOH at 633 K/18.6 MPa. The results showed that the Li ions segregated in the grain boundaries and subgrain boundaries in the oxide film, but nearly no Li ions were found in the oxide around the interface between the oxide and matrix. Finally, we discussed the mechanism of the LiOH influence on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy-4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
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