Special Issue "Biomass Fuels"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Karen N. Finney
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Energy 2050, Energy Engineering Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
Interests: thermal treatments of fossil/biomass/waste fuels; fuel processing; carbon capture; gas turbines; metal aerosol emissions; particulate matter
Dr. Leilani I. Darvell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, UK, LS2 9JT, UK
Interests: characterisation of solid fuels; pre-treatment of biomass; thermal conversion processes; reduction of NOx emissions from combustion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The need for low-carbon fuels and energy technologies, such as biomass and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), is due to the fact that we must mitigate climate change and, therefore, deal with the emissions from power and heat generation, as well as industry and transport. Biomass offers many options for reducing the carbon intensity of these sectors and will be explored in this Special Issue on “Biomass Fuels”.

As a result of this, biofuel production continues to grow and bioenergy utilisation is thus also increasing rapidly. Despite this deployment across large and small scales, there remain a number of issues with the associated efficiency, sustainability and costs—which are openings for extensive research in this field.

This Special Issue aims to cover the technical aspects of the entire biomass fuel supply chain—from the harvesting and characterisation of biomass resources, through to their conversion and utilisation. It is therefore my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript on any of the following areas: including biomass resources, biomass processing, biofuel production, thermo-/bio-chemical treatments (incorporating combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, etc.), technology integration, emissions and BECCS. Original research and review papers are both welcome.

Dr. Karen N. Finney
Dr. Leilani I. Darvell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomass resources
  • biofuels
  • gasification and pyrolysis
  • combustion and emissions
  • bioenergy with carbon capture

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Techno-Economic Assessment of a Scaled-Up Meat Waste Biorefinery System: A Simulation Study
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071030 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
While exports from the meat industry in New Zealand constitute a valuable source of foreign exchange, the meat industry is also responsible for the generation of large masses of waste streams. These meat processing waste streams are largely biologically unstable and are capable [...] Read more.
While exports from the meat industry in New Zealand constitute a valuable source of foreign exchange, the meat industry is also responsible for the generation of large masses of waste streams. These meat processing waste streams are largely biologically unstable and are capable of leading to unfavourable environmental outcomes if not properly managed. To enable the effective management of the meat processing waste streams, a value-recovery based strategy, for the complete valorisation of the meat processing waste biomass, is proposed. In the present study therefore, a biorefinery system that integrates the biomass conversion technologies of hydrolysis, esterification, anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction has been modelled, simulated and optimized for enhanced environmental performance and economic performance. It was determined that an initial positive correlation between the mass feed rate of the waste to the biorefinery system and its environmental performance exists. However, beyond an optimal total mass feed rate of the waste stream there is a deterioration of the environmental performance of the biorefinery system. It was also determined that economies of scale ensure that any improvement in the economic performance of the biorefinery system with increasing total mass feed rate of the waste stream, is sustained. The present study established that the optimized meat waste biorefinery system facilitated a reduction in the unit production costs of the value-added products of biodiesel, biochar and biocrude compared the literature-obtained unit production costs of the respective aforementioned products when generated from stand-alone systems. The unit production cost of biogas was however shown to be comparable to the literature-obtained unit production cost of biogas. Finally, the present study showed that the optimized meat processing waste biorefinery could achieve enhanced economic performance while simultaneously maintaining favourable environmental sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Fuels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Entrained Metal Aerosol Emissions from Air-Fired Biomass and Coal Combustion for Carbon Capture Applications
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101819 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biomass energy with CO2 capture could achieve net negative emissions, vital for meeting carbon budgets and emission targets. However, biomass often has significant quantities of light metals/inorganics that cause issues for boiler operation and downstream processes; including deposition, corrosion, and solvent degradation. [...] Read more.
Biomass energy with CO2 capture could achieve net negative emissions, vital for meeting carbon budgets and emission targets. However, biomass often has significant quantities of light metals/inorganics that cause issues for boiler operation and downstream processes; including deposition, corrosion, and solvent degradation. This study investigated the pilot-scale combustion of a typical biomass used for power generation (white wood) and assessed the variations in metal aerosol release compared to bituminous coal. Using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, it was found that K aerosol levels were significantly greater for biomass than coal, on average 6.5 times, with peaks up to 10 times higher; deposition could thus be more problematic, although Na emissions were only 20% of those for coal. Transition metals were notably less prevalent in the biomass flue gas; with Fe and V release in particular much lower (3–4% of those for coal). Solvent degradation may therefore be less severe for biomass-generated flue gases. Furthermore, aerosol emissions of toxic/heavy metals (As/Cd/Hg) were absent from biomass combustion, with As/Cd also not detected in the coal flue gas. Negligible Cr aerosol concentrations were found for both. Overall, except for K, metal aerosol release from biomass combustion was considerably reduced compared to coal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Fuels)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Semi-Continuous Reverse Membrane Bioreactor in Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Citrus Waste
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081341 - 02 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The presence of an antimicrobial compound called D-Limonene in citrus waste inhibits methane production from such waste in anaerobic digestion. In this work, a two-stage anaerobic digestion method is developed using reverse membrane bioreactors (rMBRs) containing cells encased in hydrophilic membranes. The purpose [...] Read more.
The presence of an antimicrobial compound called D-Limonene in citrus waste inhibits methane production from such waste in anaerobic digestion. In this work, a two-stage anaerobic digestion method is developed using reverse membrane bioreactors (rMBRs) containing cells encased in hydrophilic membranes. The purpose of encasement is to retain a high cell concentration inside the bioreactor. The effectiveness of rMBRs in reducing cell washout is evaluated. Three different system configurations, comprising rMBRs, freely suspended cells (FCs), and a combination of both (abbreviated to rMBR–FCs), are incubated at three different organic loading rates (OLRs) each, namely 0.6, 1.2, and 3.6 g COD/(L cycle). Incubation lasts for eight feeding cycles at 55 °C. Methane yield and biogas composition results show that rMBRs perform better than rMBR–FCs and FCs at all three OLRs. Volatile fatty acid profiles and H2 production show that the reactors are working properly and no upset occurs. Additionally, a short digestion time of 4 days can be achieved using the rMBR configuration in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Fuels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Applicability of Mechanical Tests for Biomass Pellet Characterisation for Bioenergy Applications
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081329 - 31 Jul 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
In this paper, the applicability of mechanical tests for biomass pellet characterisation was investigated. Pellet durability, quasi-static (low strain rate), and dynamic (high strain rate) mechanical tests were applied to mixed wood, eucalyptus, sunflower, miscanthus, and steam exploded and microwaved pellets, and compared [...] Read more.
In this paper, the applicability of mechanical tests for biomass pellet characterisation was investigated. Pellet durability, quasi-static (low strain rate), and dynamic (high strain rate) mechanical tests were applied to mixed wood, eucalyptus, sunflower, miscanthus, and steam exploded and microwaved pellets, and compared to their Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI), and milling energies for knife and ring-roller mills. The dynamic mechanical response of biomass pellets was obtained using a novel application of the Split Hopkinson pressure bar. Similar mechanical properties were obtained for all pellets, apart from steam-exploded pellets, which were significantly higher. The quasi-static rigidity (Young’s modulus) was highest in the axial orientation and lowest in flexure. The dynamic mechanical strength and rigidity were highest in the diametral orientation. Pellet strength was found to be greater at high strain rates. The diametral Young’s Modulus was virtually identical at low and high strain rates for eucalyptus, mixed wood, sunflower, and microwave pellets, while the axial Young’s Modulus was lower at high strain rates. Correlations were derived between the milling energy in knife and ring roller mills for pellet durability, and quasi-static and dynamic pellet strength. Pellet durability and diametral quasi-static strain was correlated with HGI. In summary, pellet durability and mechanical tests at low and high strain rates can provide an indication of how a pellet will break down in a mill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Fuels)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Production by Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming (SESR) of Biomass in a Fluidised-Bed Reactor Using Combined Multifunctional Particles
Materials 2018, 11(5), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050859 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The performance of combined CO2-sorbent/catalyst particles for sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR), prepared via a simple mechanical mixing protocol, was studied using a spout-fluidised bed reactor capable of continuous solid fuel (biomass) feeding. The influence of particle size (300–500 and 710–1000 [...] Read more.
The performance of combined CO2-sorbent/catalyst particles for sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR), prepared via a simple mechanical mixing protocol, was studied using a spout-fluidised bed reactor capable of continuous solid fuel (biomass) feeding. The influence of particle size (300–500 and 710–1000 µm), CaO loading (60–100 wt %), Ni-loading (10–40 wt %) and presence of dicalcium silicate support (22.6 wt %) on SESR process performance were investigated. The combined particles were characterised by their density, porosity and CO2 carrying capacity with the analysis by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). All experiments were conducted with continuous oak biomass feeding at a rate of 0.9 g/min ± 10%, and the reactor was operated at 660 ± 5 °C, 1 atm and 20 ± 2 vol % steam which corresponds to a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.2:1. Unsupported combined particles containing 21.0 wt % Ni and 79 wt % CaO were the best performing sorbent/catalyst particle screened in this study, when accounting for the cost of Ni and the improvement in H2 produced by high Ni content particles. SESR tests with these combined particles produced 61 mmol H2/gbiomass (122 g H2/kgbiomass) at a purity of 61 vol %. Significant coke formation within the feeding tube and on the surfaces of the particles was observed which was attributed to the low steam to carbon ratio utilised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Fuels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop