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Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials: Applications, Future Trends and Perspectives of Industry 4.0

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Simulation and Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 63506

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Automated Mechanical Engineering, South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Interests: metal cutting and cutting tools; increasing the efficiency of face milling operations by considering tool wear aspects; effect of tool wear and cutting parameters on tool life, cutting forces, the roughness of machined surfaces, and physical and mechanical processes in cutting materials; application of dynamometers, accelerometers, and power sensors for machining processes; artificial intelligence; mathematical modeling in machining processes; optimization of computer numerical control (CNC) and conventional machining processes
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E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland
Interests: sustainability; green manufacturing; life cycle assessment; metal cutting; additive manufacturing metal casting; optimization; artificial intelligence; cooling–lubrication in machining; tribology; heat treatment; effect of tool wear and cutting parameters on tool life; cutting forces; roughness of machined surfaces; physical and mechanical processes in cutting materials; application of additive manufacturing in different area; wear behavior; artificial intelligence; optimization of process parameters
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3 Website4
Guest Editor
Department of Production Engineering, Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: machining processes, cutting tools, and robotics; investigation of machining processes in the field of orthogonal and oblique cutting, especially the phenomena that affect surface quality and tool life using image recognition; research in the field of new solutions of cutting tools for oblique cutting, with reduced edge volume, reconfigurable tools, and mechatronic tools controlled by stepper motor abrasive machining; controlling the oscillatory superfinishing process for increased machining efficiency and accuracy; robotics, including intelligent machining using a robot equipped with special tools and vision sensors to recognize the shape of the surface and surface condition testing systems; teaching tasks to mobile robots; innovative, patented walking robots with extremally low DOF numbers (3, 4); application of mechatronics in manufacturing and robotics with own software; application of artificial intelligence and optimization of manufacturing processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce the launch of a new Special Issue on “Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials: Applications, Future Trends and Perspectives of Industry 4.0” in Materials. Original research papers, short communications, and state-of-the-art reviews which are within the scope of this Special Issue are invited.

Industry 4.0 is the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It includes the involvement of new and existing manufacturing processes which will be helpful in the next industrial revolution. This Special Issue deals with the additive and subtractive manufacturing of metals, alloys, composites, polymers, etc. for biomedical, structural, aerospace, and different applications. This includes additive manufacturing (selective laser melting, laser metal deposition, detonation spraying, fused deposition modeling, etc.) as well as methods of subtractive manufacturing (removing materials) using various types of machining (turning, milling, drilling, grinding, etc.). In other words, some of the topics of interest to be summarized in this Special Issue are the characteristics, principles, technological levels, applications, advantages, and limitations related to Industry 4.0. This Special Issue will include articles with both standard research approaches and industry 4.0 applications (e.g., artificial intelligence, machine learning).

There are two methods of production, traditional subtractive manufacturing and additive manufacturing, which are in continuous dynamic development. These methods both have their advantages and disadvantages. The subject of the research includes both the features of these processes and the possibility of their coexistence in one process. Additive manufacturing is available for a wide range of materials and opens up the possibility of sometimes ready-made production of whole pieces. Additive manufacturing enables the design and production of optimal detailed structures with a low mass, at the same time perfectly preserving the properties of the surface layer. At the same time, subtractive manufacturing supports additive manufacturing in the area of ​​surface calibration of the surface layer. This interaction of these different manufacturing techniques opens up new opportunities. Manufacturing processes in both subtractive and additive manufacturing are based on CAD models, which are the source code for developing manufacturing procedures from the outside of subtractive manufacturing and from the center of additive manufacturing. However, surfaces created in the additive manufacturing process sometimes need to be supplemented in the subtractive manufacturing process. Therefore, the material behavior in terms of tribological, physical, and mechanical properties, machining, surface integrity, surface quality, cost manufacturing, post processing methods, and precision manufacturing will be examined in detail.

Mr. Danil Yurievich Pimenov
Dr. Munish Kumar Gupta
Dr. Tadeusz Mikolajczyk
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • industry 4.0
  • artificial intelligence
  • additive manufacturing
  • advanced materials: metals, alloys, composites, polymers, etc.
  • tribological behavior
  • machining
  • structural applications
  • post processing methods
  • surface integrity
  • precision manufacturing
  • modelling and simulation

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 11795 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties and Drilling of Glass Bead/Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide 66 (PA66)-Based Hybrid Polymer Composites
by Recep Demirsöz, Nafiz Yaşar, Mehmet Erdi Korkmaz, Mustafa Günay, Khaled Giasin, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Muhammad Aamir and Huseyin Unal
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082765 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2638
Abstract
In this study, mechanical testing of glass bead (GB), glass fiber (GF), and hybrid (GB/GF) composites was carried out. Following that, drilling tests were undertaken on glass bead/fiber-reinforced hybrid Polyamide 66 (PA66) polymer composites. The purpose of this study is to determine the [...] Read more.
In this study, mechanical testing of glass bead (GB), glass fiber (GF), and hybrid (GB/GF) composites was carried out. Following that, drilling tests were undertaken on glass bead/fiber-reinforced hybrid Polyamide 66 (PA66) polymer composites. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of the cutting elements and the effect of cutting parameters (spindle speed and feed rate) and reinforcement ratios on thrust force and surface roughness (Ra). The contribution of the cutting parameters to the investigated outcomes was determined using statistical analysis. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to inspect the hole quality and damage mechanisms. The results revealed that the feed rate was the most contributing factor to thrust force (96.94%) and surface roughness (63.59%). Furthermore, in comparison to other hybrid composites, the lowest Ra value was obtained as 0.95 µm in samples containing 30% GB, while the Ra value was 1.04 µm in samples containing 10% GF + 20% GB. Polymer PA reinforced with 30% GF had the highest strength, modulus of elasticity, impact strength, and hardness. Full article
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20 pages, 2631 KiB  
Article
Hand and Abrasive Flow Polished Tungsten Carbide Die: Optimization of Surface Roughness, Polishing Time and Comparative Analysis in Wire Drawing
by Raman Kumar, Sehijpal Singh, Vivek Aggarwal, Sunpreet Singh, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin and Krzysztof Nadolny
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041287 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
This research work highlights the benefits of abrasive flow polishing (AFP) applied to tungsten carbide dies compared with conventional hand polishing (HP). An indigenous experimental set-up for AFP was developed. The effect of prominent process parameters viz. extrusion pressure, number of cycles, and [...] Read more.
This research work highlights the benefits of abrasive flow polishing (AFP) applied to tungsten carbide dies compared with conventional hand polishing (HP). An indigenous experimental set-up for AFP was developed. The effect of prominent process parameters viz. extrusion pressure, number of cycles, and abrasive particle concentration on the final surface roughness, percentage improvement in surface roughness, and polishing time was investigated by Taguchi-designed experiments. The multi-objective optimization (MOO) was performed using the Taguchi-TOPSIS-Equal weight approach to find the respective optimized AFP parametric settings. A set of skilled operators performed the conventional HP of dies, and the best hand-polished (HPed) die was selected using the TOPSIS technique. The operational performance of the HPed dies and the abrasive flow polished (AFPed) dies were compared on the three-stage wire drawing operation. The results revealed that AFP’s surface resulted in a better-quality surface than hand polishing with a 27.06% improvement in surface roughness. Furthermore, AFP can reduce the dependency on costly and tricky-to-locate skilled operators, with a reasonable amount of time saving (about 87.05%). Overall, the study’s findings show that abrasive flow polishing of dies is fast and cost-effective. Full article
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14 pages, 6505 KiB  
Article
Geometry, Structure and Surface Quality of a Maraging Steel Milling Cutter Printed by Direct Metal Laser Melting
by Michal Skrzyniarz, Lukasz Nowakowski and Slawomir Blasiak
Materials 2022, 15(3), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030773 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
This article considers the use of additive manufacturing to produce cutting tools for various machining operations, especially turning, milling, and drilling. The right geometry and material of the tool as well as coatings applied on cutting edges are crucial as they improve the [...] Read more.
This article considers the use of additive manufacturing to produce cutting tools for various machining operations, especially turning, milling, and drilling. The right geometry and material of the tool as well as coatings applied on cutting edges are crucial as they improve the life and performance of the tool. The study described here focused on a four-flute end mill made of maraging steel 1.2709 using a Concept Laser M2 Cusing Direct Metal Laser Melting (DMLM) machine. Before the printed tool was first used, it was examined to determine its dimensional and geometric accuracy, surface roughness, and surface structure. The measurement data showed that the tool required machining, e.g., grinding, to improve its geometry because the total runout of the shank and the cutting edge radius were too high, amounting to 120 μm and 217 μm, respectively. The cutting edges were sharpened to obtain a fully functional cutting tool ready to perform milling operations. The study aimed to check the dimensional and geometric accuracy of the 3D printed milling cutter and determine the optimal machining allowance for its finishing. Full article
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20 pages, 1932 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Optimization of Dimensional Accuracy and Porosity of High Impact Polystyrene Material Printed by FDM Process: PSO, JAYA, Rao, and Bald Eagle Search Algorithms
by Manjunath Patel Gowdru Chandrashekarappa, Ganesh Ravi Chate, Vineeth Parashivamurthy, Balakrishnamurthy Sachin Kumar, Mohd Amaan Najeeb Bandukwala, Annan Kaisar, Khaled Giasin, Danil Yurievich Pimenov and Szymon Wojciechowski
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237479 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
High impact polystyrene (HIPS) material is widely used for low-strength structural applications. To ensure proper function, dimensional accuracy and porosity are at the forefront of industrial relevance. The dimensional accuracy cylindricity error (CE) and porosity of printed parts are influenced mainly by the [...] Read more.
High impact polystyrene (HIPS) material is widely used for low-strength structural applications. To ensure proper function, dimensional accuracy and porosity are at the forefront of industrial relevance. The dimensional accuracy cylindricity error (CE) and porosity of printed parts are influenced mainly by the control variables (layer thickness, shell thickness, infill density, print speed of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process). In this study, a central composite design (CCD) matrix was used to perform experiments and analyze the complete insight information of the process (control variables influence on CE and porosity of FDM parts). Shell thickness for CE and infill density for porosity were identified as the most significant factors. Layer thickness interaction with shell thickness, infill density (except for CE), and print speed were found to be significant for both outputs. The interaction factors, i.e., shell thickness and infill density, were insignificant (negligible effect) for both outputs. The models developed produced a better fit for regression with an R2 equal to 94.56% for CE, and 99.10% for porosity, respectively. Four algorithms (bald eagle search optimization (BES), particle swarm optimization (PSO), RAO-3, and JAYA) were applied to determine optimal FDM conditions while examining six case studies (sets of weights assigned for porosity and CE) focused on minimizing both CE and porosity. BES and RAO-3 algorithms determined optimal conditions (layer thickness: 0.22 mm; shell thickness: 2 mm; infill density: 100%; print speed: 30 mm/s) at a reduced computation time equal to 0.007 s, differing from JAYA and PSO, which resulted in an experimental CE of 0.1215 mm and 2.5% of porosity in printed parts. Consequently, BES and RAO-3 algorithms are efficient tools for the optimization of FDM parts. Full article
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23 pages, 2235 KiB  
Article
Integration of Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS Methods for Wire Electric Discharge Machining of Titanium (Ti6Al4V) Alloy Using RSM
by Kishan Fuse, Arrown Dalsaniya, Dhananj Modi, Jay Vora, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin, Parth Prajapati, Rakesh Chaudhari and Szymon Wojciechowski
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237408 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
Titanium and its alloys exhibit numerous uses in aerospace, automobile, biomedical and marine industries because of their enhanced mechanical properties. However, the machinability of titanium alloys can be cumbersome due to their lower density, high hardness, low thermal conductivity, and low elastic modulus. [...] Read more.
Titanium and its alloys exhibit numerous uses in aerospace, automobile, biomedical and marine industries because of their enhanced mechanical properties. However, the machinability of titanium alloys can be cumbersome due to their lower density, high hardness, low thermal conductivity, and low elastic modulus. The wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process is an effective choice for machining titanium and its alloys due to its unique machining characteristics. The present work proposes multi-objective optimization of WEDM on Ti6Al4V alloy using a fuzzy integrated multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach. The use of MCDM has become an active area of research due to its proven ability to solve complex problems. The novelty of the present work is to use integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal situation (TOPSIS) to optimize the WEDM process. The experiments were systematically conducted adapting the face-centered central composite design approach of response surface methodology. Three independent factors—pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), and current—were chosen, each having three levels to monitor the process response in terms of cutting speed (VC), material removal rate (MRR), and surface roughness (SR). To assess the relevance and significance of the models, an analysis of variance was carried out. The optimal process parameters after integrating fuzzy AHP coupled with fuzzy TOPSIS approach found were Ton = 40 µs, Toff = 15 µs, and current = 2A. Full article
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26 pages, 1757 KiB  
Article
Study of a Multicriterion Decision-Making Approach to the MQL Turning of AISI 304 Steel Using Hybrid Nanocutting Fluid
by Vineet Dubey, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Prameet Vats, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin and Daniel Chuchala
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237207 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
The enormous use of cutting fluid in machining leads to an increase in machining costs, along with different health hazards. Cutting fluid can be used efficiently using the MQL (minimum quantity lubrication) method, which aids in improving the machining performance. This paper contains [...] Read more.
The enormous use of cutting fluid in machining leads to an increase in machining costs, along with different health hazards. Cutting fluid can be used efficiently using the MQL (minimum quantity lubrication) method, which aids in improving the machining performance. This paper contains multiple responses, namely, force, surface roughness, and temperature, so there arises a need for a multicriteria optimization technique. Therefore, in this paper, multiobjective optimization based on ratio analysis (MOORA), VIseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR), and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are used to solve different multiobjective problems, and response surface methodology is also used for optimization and to validate the results obtained by multicriterion decision-making technique (MCDM) techniques. The design of the experiment is based on the Box–Behnken technique, which used four input parameters: feed rate, depth of cut, cutting speed, and nanofluid concentration, respectively. The experiments were performed on AISI 304 steel in turning with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and found that the use of hybrid nanofluid (Alumina–Graphene) reduces response parameters by approximately 13% in forces, 31% in surface roughness, and 14% in temperature, as compared to Alumina nanofluid. The response parameters are analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), where the depth of cut and feed rate showed a major impact on response parameters. After using all three MCDM techniques, it was found that, at fixed weight factor with each MCDM technique, a similar process parameter was achieved (velocity of 90 m/min, feed of 0.08 mm/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm, and nanoparticle concentration of 1.5%, respectively) for optimum response. The above stated multicriterion techniques employed in this work aid decision makers in selecting optimum parameters depending upon the desired targets. Thus, this work is a novel approach to studying the effectiveness of hybrid nanofluids in the machining of AISI 304 steel using MCDM techniques. Full article
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16 pages, 6440 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Resistance and Surface Bioactivity of Ti6Al4V Alloy after Finish Turning under Ecological Cutting Conditions
by Kamil Leksycki, Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Pawelska, Kamil Ochał, Andrzej Gradzik, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin, Daniel Chuchala and Szymon Wojciechowski
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226917 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
The influence of cooling conditions and surface topography after finish turning of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy on corrosion resistance and surface bioactivity was analyzed. The samples were machined under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) conditions to obtain different surface roughness. The surface topographies [...] Read more.
The influence of cooling conditions and surface topography after finish turning of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy on corrosion resistance and surface bioactivity was analyzed. The samples were machined under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) conditions to obtain different surface roughness. The surface topographies of the processed samples were assessed and measured using an optical profilometer. The produced samples were subjected to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and corrosion potential tests (Ecorr) in the presence of simulated body fluid (SBF). The surface bioactivity of the samples was assessed on the basis of images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The inspection of the surfaces of samples after turning under dry and MQL conditions revealed unevenly distributed precipitation of hydroxyapatite compounds (Ca/P) with a molar ratio in the range of 1.73–1.97. Regardless of the cutting conditions and surface roughness, the highest values of Ecorr ~0 mV were recorded on day 7 of immersion in the SBF solution. The impedance characteristics showed that, compared to the MQL conditions, surfaces machined under dry conditions were characterized by greater resistance and the presence of a passive layer on the processed surface. The main novelty of the paper is the study of the effect of ecological machining conditions, namely, dry and MQL cutting on the corrosion resistance and surface bioactivity of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after finish turning. The obtained research results have practical significance. They can be used by engineers during the development of technological processes for medical devices made of Ti6Al4V alloy to obtain favorable functional properties of these devices. Full article
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18 pages, 55275 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Modeling of Material Removal Rate in Wire-EDM of Silicon Particle Reinforced Al6061 Composite
by Deepak Doreswamy, Anupkumar M. Bongale, Marcin Piekarski, Arunkumar Bongale, Satish Kumar, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin and Krzysztof Nadolny
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216420 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
The mechanical, physical and interfacial properties of aluminum alloys are improved by reinforcing the silicon carbide particles (SiCp). Machinability of such alloys by traditional methods is challenging due to higher tool wear and surface roughness. The objective of research is to [...] Read more.
The mechanical, physical and interfacial properties of aluminum alloys are improved by reinforcing the silicon carbide particles (SiCp). Machinability of such alloys by traditional methods is challenging due to higher tool wear and surface roughness. The objective of research is to investigate the machinability of SiCp reinforced Al6061 composite by Wire-Electrical Discharge Machining (wire-EDM). The effect of wire-EDM parameters namely current (I), pulse-on time (Ton), wire-speed (Ws), voltage (Iv) and pulse-off time (Toff) on material removal rate (MRR) is investigated and their settings are optimized for achieving the high MRR. The experiments are designed by using Taguchi L16 orthogonal arrays. The MRR obtained at different experiments are analyzed using statistical tools. It is observed that all the chosen process parameters showed significant influence of on the MRR with contribution of 27.39%, 22.08%, 21.32%, 15.76% and 12.94% by I, Iv, Toff, Ton and Ws, respectively. At optimum settings, the Wire-EDM resulted in MRR of 65.21 mg/min and 62.41 mg/min for samples with 4% and 8% SiCp. The results also indicated reinforcing SiCp upto 8% showed marginally low influence on MRR. Microstructural investigation of the cut surface revealed the presence of craters with wave pattern on its surface. The top surface of the crater is featured by the recast layers connecting adjacent craters. Further, the statistical model is developed using linear regression to predict the MRR (?2—73.65%) and its predicting accuracy is verified by the confirmation trials. The statistical model is useful for predicting the MRR for different settings of the process parameters. The optimized settings can be used to improve the machining productivity by increasing the MRR while machining of Al6061-SiCp (upto 8 wt. %) alloy by wire-EDM industries. Full article
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22 pages, 7000 KiB  
Article
Towards Analysis and Optimization for Contact Zone Temperature Changes and Specific Wear Rate of Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced from Recycled Waste
by Aydın Güneş, Emin Salur, Abdullah Aslan, Mustafa Kuntoğlu, Khaled Giasin, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Hayrettin Düzcükoğlu and Ömer Sinan Şahin
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185145 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Tribological properties are important to evaluate the in-service conditions of machine elements, especially those which work as tandem parts. Considering their wide range of application areas, metal matrix composites (MMCs) serve as one of the most significant materials equipped with desired mechanical properties [...] Read more.
Tribological properties are important to evaluate the in-service conditions of machine elements, especially those which work as tandem parts. Considering their wide range of application areas, metal matrix composites (MMCs) serve as one of the most significant materials equipped with desired mechanical properties such as strength, density, and lightness according to the place of use. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the wear performance of these materials to obtain a longer life and to overcome the possible structural problems which emerge during the production process. In this paper, extensive discussion and evaluation of the tribological performance of newly produced spheroidal graphite cast iron-reinforced (GGG-40) tin bronze (CuSn10) MMCs, including optimization, statistical, graphical, and microstructural analysis for contact zone temperature and specific wear rate, are presented. For this purpose, two levels of production temperature (400 and 450 °C), three levels of pressure (480, 640, and 820 MPa), and seven different samples reinforced by several ingredients (from 0 to 40 wt% GGG-40, pure CuSn10, and GGG-40) were investigated. According to the obtained statistical results, the reinforcement ratio is remarkably more effective on contact zone temperature and specific wear rate than temperature and pressure. A pure CuSn10 sample is the most suitable option for contact zone temperature, while pure GGG-40 seems the most suitable material for specific wear rates according to the optimization results. These results reveal the importance of reinforcement for better mechanical properties and tribological performance in measuring the capability of MMCs. Full article
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14 pages, 1780 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Pressure and Output Parameters in Belt Grinding of Steels and Nickel Alloy
by Nelli Vladimirovna Syreyshchikova, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Munish Kumar Gupta, Krzysztof Nadolny, Khaled Giasin, Muhammad Aamir and Shubham Sharma
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164704 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Belt grinding of flat surfaces of typical parts made of steel and alloys, such as grooves, shoulders, ends, and long workpieces, is a good alternative to milling. Several factors can influence the belt grinding process of flat surfaces of metals, such as cutting [...] Read more.
Belt grinding of flat surfaces of typical parts made of steel and alloys, such as grooves, shoulders, ends, and long workpieces, is a good alternative to milling. Several factors can influence the belt grinding process of flat surfaces of metals, such as cutting speed and pressure. In this work, the importance of pressure in the belt grinding was investigated in terms of technological and experimental aspects. The grinding experiments were performed on structural alloy steel 30KhGSN2/30KhGSNA, structural carbon steel AISI 1045, corrosion-resistant and heat-resistant stainless steel AISI 321, and heat-resistant nickel alloy KHN77TYuR. The performance of the grinding belt was investigated in terms of surface roughness, material removal rate (MRR), grinding belt wear, performance index. Estimated indicators of the belt grinding process were developed: cutting ability; reduced cutting ability for belt grinding of steels and heat-resistant alloy. It was found that with an increase in pressure p, the surface roughness of the processed surface Ra decreased while the tool wear VB and MRR increased. With a decrease in plasticity and difficulty of machinability, the roughness, material removal rate, reduced cutting capacity (Performance index) qper, material removal Q decreased, and the tool wear VB increased. The obtained research results can be used by technologists when creating belt grinding operations for steels and alloys to ensure the required performance is met. Full article
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18 pages, 8848 KiB  
Article
Multi-Perspective Analysis of Building Orientation Effects on Microstructure, Mechanical and Surface Properties of SLM Ti6Al4V with Specific Geometry
by Wentong Cai, Qinghua Song, Hansong Ji and Munish Kumar Gupta
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164392 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Building orientation is important in selective laser melting (SLM) processes. Current studies only focus on the horizontal and vertical building orientations without considering different modes of horizontal orientations. In fact, for horizontal orientation, different surfaces of the sample that contact the substrate will [...] Read more.
Building orientation is important in selective laser melting (SLM) processes. Current studies only focus on the horizontal and vertical building orientations without considering different modes of horizontal orientations. In fact, for horizontal orientation, different surfaces of the sample that contact the substrate will affect the heat transfer mode and efficiency, and in turn affect the microstructure and material properties. In this paper, the effect of two modes of horizontal building orientations on microstructure, mechanical and surface properties of SLM Ti6Al4V was studied. Current research about building orientation is deficient because the geometry of samples or test surfaces are not strictly defined, which seriously influences the results due to their different heat transfer efficiency and mode. Therefore, the geometry of the samples and test surfaces were clearly defined, and its necessity was proved in this study. To achieve the research goal, three test samples were prepared: sample SLM-PB-S with the building orientation parallel to the substrate and the shorter side L1 contacts it, sample SLM-PB-L with the building orientation parallel to the substrate and the longer side L2 contacts it and sample SLM-VB with the building orientation vertical to the substrate. Subsequently, the microstructure, grain information, densification, residual stress, micro-hardness, tensile properties and surface topography of different samples were analyzed and compared. In the results, SLM-PB-S exhibited denser microstructure and better mechanical properties than SLM-PB-L, including smaller grain size, stronger texture, higher density, micro-hardness, tensile strength, plasticity and better surface quality. It originates from a higher cooling rate and shorter scanning time between layers during SLM-PB-S fabrication, leading to finer grains, lower porosity and better interlayer metallurgical bonding, thus resulting in better material properties. This study can provide a reference to select the proper building orientation in SLM. Full article
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25 pages, 15962 KiB  
Article
Tribological Aspects, Optimization and Analysis of Cu-B-CrC Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy
by Üsame Ali Usca, Mahir Uzun, Mustafa Kuntoğlu, Serhat Şap, Khaled Giasin and Danil Yurievich Pimenov
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154217 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Tribological properties of engineering components are a key issue due to their effect on the operational performance factors such as wear, surface characteristics, service life and in situ behavior. Thus, for better component quality, process parameters have major importance, especially for metal matrix [...] Read more.
Tribological properties of engineering components are a key issue due to their effect on the operational performance factors such as wear, surface characteristics, service life and in situ behavior. Thus, for better component quality, process parameters have major importance, especially for metal matrix composites (MMCs), which are a special class of materials used in a wide range of engineering applications including but not limited to structural, automotive and aeronautics. This paper deals with the tribological behavior of Cu-B-CrC composites (Cu-main matrix, B-CrC-reinforcement by 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt.%). The tribological characteristics investigated in this study are the coefficient of friction, wear rate and weight loss. For this purpose, four levels of sliding distance (1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 m) and four levels of applied load (10, 15, 20 and 25 N) were used. In addition, two levels of sliding velocity (1 and 1.5 m/s), two levels of sintering time (1 and 2 h) and two sintering temperatures (1000 and 1050 °C) were used. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array was used to statistically analyze the aforementioned input parameters and to determine their best levels which give the desired values for the analyzed tribological characteristics. The results were analyzed by statistical analysis, optimization and 3D surface plots. Accordingly, it was determined that the most effective factor for wear rate, weight loss and friction coefficients is the contribution rate. According to signal-to-noise ratios, optimum solutions can be sorted as: the highest levels of parameters except for applied load and reinforcement ratio (2500 m, 10 N, 1.5 m/s, 2 h, 1050 °C and 0 wt.%) for wear rate, certain levels of all parameters (1000 m, 10 N, 1.5 m/s, 2 h, 1050 °C and 2.5 wt.%) for weight loss and 1000 m, 15 N, 1 m/s, 1 h, 1000 °C and 0 wt.% for the coefficient of friction. The comprehensive analysis of findings has practical significance and provides valuable information for a composite material from the production phase to the actual working conditions. Full article
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16 pages, 3546 KiB  
Article
Cubic Lattice Structures of Ti6Al4V under Compressive Loading: Towards Assessing the Performance for Hard Tissue Implants Alternative
by Sahil Dhiman, Malkeet Singh, Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Marjan Bahraminasab, Danil Yurievich Pimenov and Tadeusz Mikolajczyk
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143866 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
Porous Lattice Structure (PLS) scaffolds have shown potential applications in the biomedical domain. These implants’ structural designs can attain compatibility mechanobiologically, thereby avoiding challenges related to the stress shielding effect. Different unit cell structures have been explored with limited work on the fabrication [...] Read more.
Porous Lattice Structure (PLS) scaffolds have shown potential applications in the biomedical domain. These implants’ structural designs can attain compatibility mechanobiologically, thereby avoiding challenges related to the stress shielding effect. Different unit cell structures have been explored with limited work on the fabrication and characterization of titanium-based PLS with cubic unit cell structures. Hence, in the present paper, Ti6Al4V (Ti64) cubic PLS scaffolds were analysed by finite element (FE) analysis and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) technique. PLS of the rectangular shape of width 10 mm and height 15 mm (ISO: 13314) with an average pore size of 600–1000 μm and structure porosity percentage of 40–70 were obtained. It has been found that the maximum ultimate compressive strength was found to be 119 MPa of PLS with a pore size of 600 μm and an overall relative density (RD) of 57%. Additionally, the structure’s failure begins from the micro-porosity formed during the fabrication process due to the improper melting along a plane inclined at 45 degree. Full article
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21 pages, 4676 KiB  
Article
Predictive Modelling and Multi-Objective Optimization of Surface Integrity Parameters in Sustainable Machining Processes of Magnesium Alloy
by Mohd Danish, Saeed Rubaiee and Hassan Ijaz
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133547 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Magnesium alloys are widely used in numerous engineering applications owing to their superior structural characteristics. However, the machining of magnesium alloy is challenging because of its poor machinability characteristics. Therefore, this paper investigates the machining of magnesium alloys under different sustainable cooling conditions. [...] Read more.
Magnesium alloys are widely used in numerous engineering applications owing to their superior structural characteristics. However, the machining of magnesium alloy is challenging because of its poor machinability characteristics. Therefore, this paper investigates the machining of magnesium alloys under different sustainable cooling conditions. The machining was performed by varying cutting velocity, feed rate, and depth of cut under dry and cryogenic cooling conditions. The primary focus of the paper is to develop a predictive model for surface roughness under different machining environments. The models developed were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental results, with only 0.3 to 1.6% error. Multi-objective optimization were also performed so that the best surface finish together with high material removal rate could be achieved. Furthermore, the various parameters of surface integrity (i.e., surface roughness, micro-hardness, micro-structures, crystallite size, and lattice strain) were also investigated. Full article
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17 pages, 30863 KiB  
Article
On Coolant Flow Rate-Cutting Speed Trade-Off for Sustainability in Cryogenic Milling of Ti–6Al–4V
by Asif Iqbal, Guolong Zhao, Hazwani Suhaimi, Malik Muhammad Nauman, Ning He, Juliana Zaini and Wei Zhao
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123429 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Application of cryogenic fluids for efficient heat dissipation is gradually becoming part and parcel of titanium machining. Not much research is done to establish the minimum quantity of a cryogenic fluid required to sustain a machining process with respect to a given material [...] Read more.
Application of cryogenic fluids for efficient heat dissipation is gradually becoming part and parcel of titanium machining. Not much research is done to establish the minimum quantity of a cryogenic fluid required to sustain a machining process with respect to a given material removal rate. This article presents an experimental investigation for quantifying the sustainability of milling a commonly used titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) by varying mass flow rates of two kinds of cryogenic coolants at various levels of cutting speed. The three cooling options tested are dry (no coolant), evaporative cryogenic coolant (liquid nitrogen), and throttle cryogenic coolant (compressed carbon dioxide gas). The milling sustainability is quantified in terms of the following metrics: tool damage, fluid cost, specific cutting energy, work surface roughness, and productivity. Dry milling carried out the at the highest level of cutting speed yielded the worst results regarding tool damage and surface roughness. Likewise, the evaporative coolant applied with the highest flow rate and at the lowest cutting speed was the worst performer with respect to energy consumption. From a holistic perspective, the throttle cryogenic coolant applied at the highest levels of mass flow rate and cutting speed stood out to be the most sustainable option. Full article
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18 pages, 6440 KiB  
Article
Optimization Study on Surface Roughness and Tribological Behavior of Recycled Cast Iron Reinforced Bronze MMCs Produced by Hot Pressing
by Aydın Güneş, Ömer Sinan Şahin, Hayrettin Düzcükoğlu, Emin Salur, Abdullah Aslan, Mustafa Kuntoğlu, Khaled Giasin and Danil Yurievich Pimenov
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123364 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Surface roughness reflects the quality of many operational parameters, namely service life, wear characteristics, working performance and tribological behavior of the produced part. Therefore, tribological performance is critical for the components used as tandem parts, especially for the MMCs (Metal Matrix Composites) which [...] Read more.
Surface roughness reflects the quality of many operational parameters, namely service life, wear characteristics, working performance and tribological behavior of the produced part. Therefore, tribological performance is critical for the components used as tandem parts, especially for the MMCs (Metal Matrix Composites) which are a unique class of materials having extensive application areas such as aerospace, aeronautics, marine engineering and the defense industry. Current work covers the optimization study of production parameters for surface roughness and tribological indicators of newly produced cast iron reinforced bronze MMCs. In this context, two levels of temperature (400 and 450 °C), three levels of pressure (480, 640 and 820 MPa) and seven levels of reinforcement ratios (60/40, 70/30, 80/20, 90/10, 100/0 of GGG40/CuSn10, pure bronze-as received and pure cast iron-as received) are considered. According to the findings obtained by Taguchi’s signal-to-noise ratios, the reinforcement ratio has a dominant effect on surface roughness parameters (Ra and Rz), the coefficient of friction and the weight loss in different levels. In addition, 100/0 reinforced GGG40/CuSn10 gives minimum surface roughness, pure cast iron provides the best weight loss and pure bronze offers the desired coefficient of friction. The results showed the importance of material ingredients on mechanical properties by comparing a wide range of samples from starting the production phase, which provides a perspective for manufacturers to meet the market supply as per human requirements. Full article
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19 pages, 5181 KiB  
Article
Surface Roughness Evaluation in Thin EN AW-6086-T6 Alloy Plates after Face Milling Process with Different Strategies
by Daniel Chuchala, Michal Dobrzynski, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Kazimierz A. Orlowski, Grzegorz Krolczyk and Khaled Giasin
Materials 2021, 14(11), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113036 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
Lightweight alloys made from aluminium are used to manufacture cars, trains and planes. The main parts most often manufactured from thin sheets requiring the use of milling in the manufacturing process are front panels for control systems, housing parts for electrical and electronic [...] Read more.
Lightweight alloys made from aluminium are used to manufacture cars, trains and planes. The main parts most often manufactured from thin sheets requiring the use of milling in the manufacturing process are front panels for control systems, housing parts for electrical and electronic components. As a result of the final phase of the manufacturing process, cold rolling, residual stresses remain in the surface layers, which can influence the cutting processes carried out on these materials. The main aim of this study was to verify whether the strategy of removing the outer material layers of aluminium alloy sheets affects the surface roughness after the face milling process. EN AW-6082-T6 aluminium alloy thin plates with three different thicknesses and with two directions relative to the cold rolling process direction (longitudinal and transverse) were analysed. Three different strategies for removing the outer layers of the material by face milling were considered. Noticeable differences in surface roughness 2D and 3D parameters were found among all machining strategies and for both rolling directions, but these differences were not statistically significant. The lowest values of Ra = 0.34 µm were measured for the S#3 strategy, which asymmetrically removed material from both sides of the plate (main and back), for an 8-mm-thick plate in the transverse rolling direction. The highest values of Ra = 0.48 µm were measured for a 6-mm-thick plate milled with the S#2 strategy, which symmetrically removed material from both sides of the plate, in the longitudinal rolling direction. However, the position of the face cutter axis during the machining process was observed to have a significant effect on the surface roughness. A higher surface roughness was measured in the areas of the tool point transition from the up-milling direction to the down-milling direction (tool axis path) for all analysed strategies (Ra = 0.63–0.68 µm). The best values were obtained for the up-milling direction, but in the area of the smooth execution of the process (Ra = 0.26–0.29 µm), not in the area of the blade entry into the material. A similar relationship was obtained for analysed medians of the arithmetic mean height (Sa) and the root-mean-square height (Sq). However, in the case of the S#3 strategy, the spreads of results were the lowest. Full article
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17 pages, 2147 KiB  
Article
Establishing the Relationship between Cutting Speed and Output Parameters in Belt Grinding on Steels, Aluminum and Nickel Alloys: Development of Recommendations
by Nelli Vladimirovna Syreyshchikova, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Munish Kumar Gupta, Krzysztof Nadolny, Khaled Giasin and Shubham Sharma
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081974 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
This paper presents the research results of one of the main technological parameters of belt grinding, i.e., the cutting speed while machining corrosion- and heat-resistant, structural carbon and structural alloy steels, aluminum, and heat-resistant nickel alloys. Experimental and analytical methods are used to [...] Read more.
This paper presents the research results of one of the main technological parameters of belt grinding, i.e., the cutting speed while machining corrosion- and heat-resistant, structural carbon and structural alloy steels, aluminum, and heat-resistant nickel alloys. Experimental and analytical methods are used to establish the dependence of the output parameters of surface belt grinding on the cutting speed and tool characteristics. An analytical model, considering the physical and mechanical properties of the grinding belt (strength depending on the base and bond; the thermal conductivity; the type of grinding operation) and the machined material, is created to determine the belt grinding speed. The output parameters, such as the arithmetic mean of the surface roughness (Ra) and the material removal rate (MRR) during the belt grinding of steels, heat-resistant and light alloys, have been studied. Based on the empirical dependencies of the belt grinding parameters, the model was developed for the selection and setting of the cutting speed of belt grinding for the aforementioned alloys, taking into account the type of operation, the type of the machined material, and the main characteristics of the sanding belt. Full article
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20 pages, 4285 KiB  
Article
Parametric Optimization for Improving the Machining Process of Cu/Mo-SiCP Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy
by Emine Şap, Üsame Ali Usca, Munish Kumar Gupta, Mustafa Kuntoğlu, Murat Sarıkaya, Danil Yurievich Pimenov and Mozammel Mia
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081921 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
The features of composite materials such as production flexibility, lightness, and excellent strength put them in the class of materials that attract attention in various critical areas, i.e., aerospace, defense, automotive, and shipbuilding. However, the machining of composite materials displays challenges due to [...] Read more.
The features of composite materials such as production flexibility, lightness, and excellent strength put them in the class of materials that attract attention in various critical areas, i.e., aerospace, defense, automotive, and shipbuilding. However, the machining of composite materials displays challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining structural integrity. In this study, Cu/Mo-SiCP composite materials were produced by powder metallurgy with varied reinforcement ratios and then their machinability was investigated. In machinability experiments, the process parameters were selected as cutting speed (vC), feed rate (f), depth of cut (aP), and reinforcement ratio (RR). Two levels of these parameters were taken as per the Taguchi’s L8 orthogonal array, and response surface methodology (RSM) is employed for parametric optimization. As a result, the outcomes demonstrated that RR = 5%, f = 0.25 mm/rev, aP = 0.25 mm, vC = 200 m/min for surface roughness, RR = 0%, f = 0.25 mm/rev and aP = 0.25 mm and vC = 200 m/min for flank wear and RR = 0%, f = 0.25 mm/rev, aP = 0.25 mm, vC = 150 m/min for cutting temperature for cutting temperature and flank wear should be selected for the desired results. In addition, ANOVA results indicate that reinforcement ratio is the dominant factor on all response parameters. Microscope images showed that the prominent failure modes on the cutting tool are flank wear, built up edge, and crater wear depending on reinforcement ratio. Full article
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22 pages, 25000 KiB  
Article
Investigations on the Effect of Layers’ Thickness and Orientations in the Machining of Additively Manufactured Stainless Steel 316L
by Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Saqib Anwar, Ali M. Al-Samhan, Abdullah AlFaify and Mustafa M. Nasr
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071797 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
Laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is a family of modern technologies, in which functional, complex (3D) parts are formed by selectively melting the metallic powders layer-by-layer based on fusion. The machining of L-PBF parts for improving their quality is a difficult task. This [...] Read more.
Laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is a family of modern technologies, in which functional, complex (3D) parts are formed by selectively melting the metallic powders layer-by-layer based on fusion. The machining of L-PBF parts for improving their quality is a difficult task. This is because different component orientations (L-PBF-layer orientations) produce different quality of machined surface even though the same cutting parameters are applied. In this paper, stainless steel grade SS 316L parts from L-PBF were subjected to the finishing (milling) process to study the effect of part orientations. Furthermore, an attempt is made to suppress the part orientation effect by changing the layer thickness (LT) of the parts during the L-PBF process. L-PBF parts were fabricated with four different layer thicknesses of 30, 60, 80 and 100 μm to see the effect of the LT on the finish milling process. The results showed that the layer thickness of 60 μm has significantly suppressed the part orientation effect as compared to the other three-layer thicknesses of 30, 80 and 100 μm. The milling results showed that the three-layer thickness including 30, 80 and 100 μm presented up to a 34% difference in surface roughness among different part orientations while using the same milling parameters. In contrast, the layer thickness of 60 μm showed uniform surface roughness for the three-part orientations having a variation of 5–17%. Similarly, the three-layer thicknesses 30, 80 and 100 μm showed up to a 25%, 34% and 56% difference of axial force (Fa), feed force (Ff) and radial force (Fr), respectively. On the other hand, the part produced with layer thickness 60 μm showed up to 11%, 25% and 28% difference in cutting force components Fa, Ff and Fr, respectively. The three-layer thicknesses 30, 80 and 100 μm in micro-hardness were found to vary by up to 14.7% for the three-part orientation. Negligible micro-hardness differences of 1.7% were revealed by the parts with LT 60 μm across different part orientations as compared to 6.5–14% variations for the parts with layer thickness of 30, 80 and 100 μm. Moreover, the parts with LT 60 μm showed uniform and superior surface morphology and reduced edge chipping across all the part orientations. This study revealed that the effect of part orientation during milling becomes minimum and improved machined surface integrity is achieved if the L-PBF parts are fabricated with a layer thickness of 60 μm. Full article
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27 pages, 6167 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Cutting-Tool Coating on the Surface Roughness and Hole Dimensional Tolerances during Drilling of Al6061-T651 Alloy
by Hamza A. Al-Tameemi, Thamir Al-Dulaimi, Michael Oluwatobiloba Awe, Shubham Sharma, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Ugur Koklu and Khaled Giasin
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071783 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 3159
Abstract
Aluminum alloys are soft and have low melting temperatures; therefore, machining them often results in cut material fusing to the cutting tool due to heat and friction, and thus lowering the hole quality. A good practice is to use coated cutting tools to [...] Read more.
Aluminum alloys are soft and have low melting temperatures; therefore, machining them often results in cut material fusing to the cutting tool due to heat and friction, and thus lowering the hole quality. A good practice is to use coated cutting tools to overcome such issues and maintain good hole quality. Therefore, the current study investigates the effect of cutting parameters (spindle speed and feed rate) and three types of cutting-tool coating (TiN/TiAlN, TiAlN, and TiN) on the surface finish, form, and dimensional tolerances of holes drilled in Al6061-T651 alloy. The study employed statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) to evaluate the contribution of each of the input parameters on the measured hole-quality outputs (surface-roughness metrics Ra and Rz, hole size, circularity, perpendicularity, and cylindricity). The highest surface roughness occurred when using TiN-coated tools. All holes in this study were oversized regardless of the tool coating or cutting parameters used. TiN tools, which have a lower coating hardness, gave lower hole circularity at the entry and higher cylindricity, while TiN/TiAlN and TiAlN seemed to be more effective in reducing hole particularity when drilling at higher spindle speeds. Finally, optical microscopes revealed that a built-up edge and adhesions were most likely to form on TiN-coated tools due to TiN’s chemical affinity and low oxidation temperature compared to the TiN/TiAlN and TiAlN coatings. Full article
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16 pages, 5284 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cryogenic Grinding on Fatigue Life of Additively Manufactured Maraging Steel
by Arunachalam S. S. Balan, Kannan Chidambaram, Arun V. Kumar, Hariharan Krishnaswamy, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin and Krzysztof Nadolny
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051245 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is replacing conventional manufacturing techniques due to its ability to manufacture complex structures with near-net shape and reduced material wastage. However, the poor surface integrity of the AM parts deteriorates the service life of the components. The AM parts should [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is replacing conventional manufacturing techniques due to its ability to manufacture complex structures with near-net shape and reduced material wastage. However, the poor surface integrity of the AM parts deteriorates the service life of the components. The AM parts should be subjected to post-processing treatment for improving surface integrity and fatigue life. In this research, maraging steel is printed using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process and the influence of grinding on the fatigue life of this additively manufactured material was investigated. For this purpose, the grinding experiments were performed under two different grinding environments such as dry and cryogenic conditions using a cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheel. The results revealed that surface roughness could be reduced by about 87% under cryogenic condition over dry grinding. The fatigue tests carried out on the additive manufactured materials exposed a substantial increase of about 170% in their fatigue life when subjected to cryogenic grinding. Full article
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22 pages, 7347 KiB  
Article
Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Ceramic Pastes: Mathematical Modeling and In Situ Shaping Retention Approach
by Fuwen Hu, Tadeusz Mikolajczyk, Danil Yurievich Pimenov and Munish Kumar Gupta
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051137 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6554
Abstract
Extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D) printing methods are preferred and emerging approaches for freely digital fabrication of ceramics due to ease of use, low investment, high utilization of materials, and good adaptability to multi-materials. However, systematic knowledge still lacks an explanation for what is their [...] Read more.
Extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D) printing methods are preferred and emerging approaches for freely digital fabrication of ceramics due to ease of use, low investment, high utilization of materials, and good adaptability to multi-materials. However, systematic knowledge still lacks an explanation for what is their 3D printability. Moreover, some uncontrollable factors including extrudate shape retention and nonuniform drying inevitably limit their industrial applications. The purpose of this research was to present a new shaping retention method based on mathematical synthesis modeling for extrusion-based 3D-printing of ceramic pastes. Firstly, the steady-state equilibrium equation of the extrusion process was derived to provide clearer theoretical indications than purely experimental methods. Furthermore, a mathematical description framework was synthesized to better understand the extrusion-based 3D-printing of ceramic pastes from several realms: pastes rheology, extrudability, shape-holdability, and drying kinetics. Secondly, for eliminating shaping drawbacks (e.g., deformation and cracks) originating from non-digital control factors, we put forward a digital shape-retention technology inspired by the generalized drying kinetics of porous materials, which was different from existing retention solutions, e.g., freezing retention, thermally induced gelation, and using removable support structures. In addition, we developed an in situ hot air flow drying device easily attached to the nozzle of existing 3D printers. Confirmatory 3D-printing experiments of thin-walled cone-shape benchmark parts and the fire arrowhead-like object clearly demonstrated that the presented shape-retention method not only upgraded layer-by-layer forming capability but also enabled digital control of extrudate solidification. In addition, many more experimental results statistically showed that both fully solid parts and purely thin-wall parts had higher dimensional accuracy and better surface quality than the offline drying method. The 3D printed ceramic products with complex profiled surfaces conceivably demonstrated that our improved extrusion-based 3D-printing process of ceramic pastes has game-changing potentials beyond the traditional craftsmanship capacity. Full article
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19 pages, 4697 KiB  
Article
Between-the-Holes Cryogenic Cooling of the Tool in Hole-Making of Ti-6Al-4V and CFRP
by Asif Iqbal, Guolong Zhao, Juliana Zaini, Munish Kumar Gupta, Muhammad Jamil, Ning He, Malik Muhammad Nauman, Tadeusz Mikolajczyk and Danil Yurievich Pimenov
Materials 2021, 14(4), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040795 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Lightweight materials are finding plentiful applications in various engineering sectors due to their high strength-to-weight ratios. Hole-making is an inevitable requirement for their structural applications, which is often marred by thermal damages of the drill causing unacceptable shortening of tool life. Efficient cooling [...] Read more.
Lightweight materials are finding plentiful applications in various engineering sectors due to their high strength-to-weight ratios. Hole-making is an inevitable requirement for their structural applications, which is often marred by thermal damages of the drill causing unacceptable shortening of tool life. Efficient cooling of the tool is a prime requirement for enhancing the process viability. The current work presents a novel technique of cooling only the twist drill between drilling of holes with no effect of the applied cryogenic coolant transferred to the work material. The technique is applied in the drilling of two commonly used high-strength lightweight materials: carbon fibers reinforced polymer (CFRP) and an alloy of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V). The efficacy of the cooling approach is compared with those of conventionally applied continuous cryogenic cooling and no-cooling. The effectiveness is quantified in terms of tool wear, thrust force, hole quality, specific cutting energy, productivity, and consumption of the cryogenic fluid. The experimental work leads to a finding that between-the-holes cryogenic cooling possesses a rich potential in curbing tool wear, reducing thrust force and specific energy consumption, and improving hole quality in drilling of CFRP. Regarding the titanium alloy, it yields a much better surface finish and lesser consumption of specific cutting energy. Full article
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13 pages, 2560 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of Minimum Quantity Castor-Palm Oil Mixtures in Hard-Milling Operation
by Binayak Sen, Munish Kumar Gupta, Mozammel Mia, Danil Yurievich Pimenov and Tadeusz Mikołajczyk
Materials 2021, 14(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010198 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
The necessity to progress towards sustainability has inspired modern researchers to examine the lubrication and cooling effects of vegetable oils on conventional metal cutting operations. Consequently, as an eco-friendly vegetable product, castor oil can be the right choice as Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) [...] Read more.
The necessity to progress towards sustainability has inspired modern researchers to examine the lubrication and cooling effects of vegetable oils on conventional metal cutting operations. Consequently, as an eco-friendly vegetable product, castor oil can be the right choice as Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) base fluid. Nonetheless, the high viscosity of castor oil limits its flowability and restricts its industrial application. Conversely, palm oil possesses superior lubricity, as well as flowability characteristics. Hence, an attempt has been made to improve the lubrication behavior of castor oil. Here, six castor-palm mixtures (varying from 1:0.5–1:3) were utilized as MQL-fluid, and the values of machining responses viz. average surface roughness, specific cutting energy, and tool wear were evaluated. Furthermore, an integrated Shannon’s Entropy-based Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) framework was employed for selecting the most suitable volume ratio of castor-palm oil mixture. The rank provided by the TOPSIS method confirmed that 1:2 was the best volume ratio for castor-palm oil mixture. Afterward, a comparative analysis demonstrated that the best castor-palm volume fraction resulted in 8.262 and 16.146% lowering of surface roughness, 5.459 and 7.971% decrement of specific cutting energy, 2.445 and 3.155% drop in tool wear compared to that of castor and palm oil medium, respectively. Full article
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22 pages, 11740 KiB  
Article
Milling of Graphene Reinforced Ti6Al4V Nanocomposites: An Artificial Intelligence Based Industry 4.0 Approach
by Mustafa M. Nasr, Saqib Anwar, Ali M. Al-Samhan, Mageed Ghaleb and Abdulmajeed Dabwan
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245707 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
The studies about the effect of the graphene reinforcement ratio and machining parameters to improve the machining performance of Ti6Al4V alloy are still rare and incomplete to meet the Industry 4.0 manufacturing criteria. In this study, a hybrid adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) [...] Read more.
The studies about the effect of the graphene reinforcement ratio and machining parameters to improve the machining performance of Ti6Al4V alloy are still rare and incomplete to meet the Industry 4.0 manufacturing criteria. In this study, a hybrid adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with a multi-objective particle swarm optimization method is developed to obtain the optimal combination of milling parameters and reinforcement ratio that lead to minimize the feed force, depth force, and surface roughness. For achieving this, Ti6Al4V matrix nanocomposites reinforced with 0 wt.%, 0.6 wt.%, and 1.2 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are produced. Afterward, a full factorial approach was used to design experiments to investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and graphene nanoplatelets ratio on machining behaviour. After that, artificial intelligence based on ANFIS is used to develop prediction models as the fitness function of the multi-objective particle swarm optimization method. The experimental results showed that the developed models can obtain an accurate estimation of depth force, feed force, and surface roughness with a mean absolute percentage error of 3.87%, 8.56%, and 2.21%, respectively, as compared with experimentally measured outputs. In addition, the developed artificial intelligence models showed 361.24%, 35.05%, and 276.47% less errors for depth force, feed force, and surface roughness, respectively, as compared with the traditional mathematical models. The multi-objective optimization results from the new approach indicated that a cutting speed of 62 m/min, feed rate of 139 mm/min, and GNPs reinforcement ratio of 1.145 wt.% lead to the improved machining characteristics of GNPs reinforced Ti6Al4V matrix nanocomposites. Henceforth, the hybrid method as a novel artificial intelligent method can be used for optimizing the machining processes with complex relationships between the output responses. Full article
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