Special Issue "Textile-Based Advanced Materials: Construction, Properties and Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Thomas Bechtold
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universität Innsbruck, Research Institute for Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, Dornbirn, Austria
Interests: electrochemical processes; natural colorants; technical and apparel textiles
Dr. Avinash P. Manian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universität Innsbruck, Research Institute for Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics, Dornbirn, Austria
Interests: cellulose fiber science and chemistry; technical applications of textiles; textile coloration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of textiles is not limited only to apparel and fashion, and has applications in many more areas. The sector possesses an array of technologies to physically engineer fibrous materials into structures; to combine disparate materials to create hybrids, composites and blends; and for their chemical treatment. The results find applications in such diverse areas as medicine, physical well-being, sports, smart materials, engineering, energy storage, etc. This Special Issue focuses on such areas. The scope includes methods of construction, chemical processing, property characterizations and validation tests in targeted applications. We welcome both review and experimental articles on the topic.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Bechtold
Dr. Avinash P. Manian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • medical
  • engineering
  • composites
  • smart
  • energy
  • sports
  • ageing

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Textile-Based Advanced Materials: Construction, Properties and Applications”
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245766 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Developments in the science and technology of textiles is not only limited to apparel and fashion [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Effect of Jute Fibres on the Process of MICP and Properties of Biocemented Sand
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235429 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
There has been increasing interest, in the past decade, in bio-mediated approaches to soil improvement for geotechnical applications. Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has been investigated as a potentially sustainable method for the strengthening and stabilisation of soil structures. This paper presents [...] Read more.
There has been increasing interest, in the past decade, in bio-mediated approaches to soil improvement for geotechnical applications. Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has been investigated as a potentially sustainable method for the strengthening and stabilisation of soil structures. This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of jute fibres on both the MICP process and properties of biocemented sand. Ureolytic Sporosarcina pasteurii has been used to produce biocemented soil columns via MICP in the laboratory. Results showed that columns containing 0.75% (by weight of sand) untreated jute fibres had unconfined compressive strengths approximately six times greater on average compared to biocemented sand columns without jute fibres. Furthermore, efficiency of chemical conversion was found to be higher in columns containing jute fibres, as measured using ion chromatography. Columns containing jute had calcimeter measured CaCO3 contents at least three times those containing sand only. The results showed that incorporation of jute fibres into the biocemented sand material had a beneficial effect, resulting in stimulation of bacterial activity, thus sustaining the MICP process during the twelve-day treatment process. This study also explores the potential of jute fibres in self-healing MICP systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Piezo-Sensitive Fabrics from Carbon Black Containing Conductive Cellulose Fibres for Flexible Pressure Sensors
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225150 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
The design of flexible sensors which can be incorporated in textile structures is of decisive importance for the future development of wearables. In addition to their technical functionality, the materials chosen to construct the sensor should be nontoxic, affordable, and compatible with future [...] Read more.
The design of flexible sensors which can be incorporated in textile structures is of decisive importance for the future development of wearables. In addition to their technical functionality, the materials chosen to construct the sensor should be nontoxic, affordable, and compatible with future recycling. Conductive fibres were produced by incorporation of carbon black into regenerated cellulose fibres. By incorporation of 23 wt.% and 27 wt.% carbon black, the surface resistance of the fibres reduced from 1.3 × 1010 Ω·cm for standard viscose fibres to 2.7 × 103 and 475 Ω·cm, respectively. Fibre tenacity reduced to 30–50% of a standard viscose; however, it was sufficient to allow processing of the material in standard textile operations. A fibre blend of the conductive viscose fibres with polyester fibres was used to produce a needle-punched nonwoven material with piezo-electric properties, which was used as a pressure sensor in the very low pressure range of 400–1000 Pa. The durability of the sensor was demonstrated in repetitive load/relaxation cycles. As a regenerated cellulose fibre, the carbon-black-incorporated cellulose fibre is compatible with standard textile processing operations and, thus, will be of high interest as a functional element in future wearables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dielectric Characterization of Non-Conductive Fabrics for Temperature Sensing through Resonating Antenna Structures
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061271 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Seamless integration of electronics within clothing is key for further development of efficient and convenient wearable technologies. Therefore, the characterization of textile and fabric materials under environmental changes and other parametric variations is an important requirement. To our knowledge, this paper presents for [...] Read more.
Seamless integration of electronics within clothing is key for further development of efficient and convenient wearable technologies. Therefore, the characterization of textile and fabric materials under environmental changes and other parametric variations is an important requirement. To our knowledge, this paper presents for the first time the evaluation of dielectric characterization over temperature for non-conductive textiles using resonating structures. The paper describes the effects of temperature variations on the dielectric properties of non-conductive fabrics and how this can be derived from the performance effects of a simple microstrip patch antenna. Organic cotton was chosen as the main substrate for this research due to its broad presence in daily clothing. A dedicated measurement setup is developed to allow reliable and repeatable measurements, isolating the textile samples from external factors. This work shows an approximately linear relation between temperature and textile’s dielectric constant, giving to fabric-based antennas temperature sensing properties with capability up to 1 degree Celsius at millimeter-wave frequencies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Modification of Polyester-Fabric with Hydrogels and Silver Nanoparticles: Photochemical Versus Gamma Irradiation Methods
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203284 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
A Gamma irradiation and photochemical crosslinking/grafting of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (poly(HEMA-co-PEGMA)) hydrogels onto polyethyleneterephtalate fabric (PET) surfaces were evaluated, in order to obtain a hydrophilic homogeneous coating onto PET fabrics. The materials were characterized by FTIR-ATR, SEM, EDS, [...] Read more.
A Gamma irradiation and photochemical crosslinking/grafting of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (poly(HEMA-co-PEGMA)) hydrogels onto polyethyleneterephtalate fabric (PET) surfaces were evaluated, in order to obtain a hydrophilic homogeneous coating onto PET fabrics. The materials were characterized by FTIR-ATR, SEM, EDS, and thermal analysis. Furthermore, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were loaded by in situ reduction of AgNO3, and its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was determined. Results showed a ticker coating of hydrogel using gamma radiation and stronger in deep modification of the fibers; however, by the photochemical method, a thin coating with good coverage of PET surface was obtained. The differences in hydrophilicity, thermal properties, and antibacterial activity of the coated fabrics by using both methods were rather small. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Textile Display with AMOLED Using a Stacked-Pixel Structure on a Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabric Substrate
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12122000 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
An active-mode organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display on a fabric substrate is expected to be a prominent textile display for e-textile applications. However, the large surface roughness of the fabric substrate limits the aperture ratio—the area ratio of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) [...] Read more.
An active-mode organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display on a fabric substrate is expected to be a prominent textile display for e-textile applications. However, the large surface roughness of the fabric substrate limits the aperture ratio—the area ratio of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) to the total pixel area. In this study, the aperture ratio of the AMOLED panel fabricated on the polyethylene terephthalate fabric substrate was enhanced by applying a stacked-pixel structure, in which the OLED was deposited above the organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) pixel circuit layer. The stacked pixels were achieved using the following three key technologies. First, the planarization process of the fabric substrate was performed by sequentially depositing a polyurethane and photo-acryl layer, improving the surface roughness from 10 μm to 0.3 μm. Second, a protection layer consisting of three polymer layers, a water-soluble poly-vinyl alcohol, dichromated-polyvinylalcohol (PVA), and photo acryl, formed by a spin-coating processes was inserted between the OTFT circuit and the OLED layer. Third, a high mobility of 0.98 cm2/V∙s was achieved at the panel scale by using hybrid carbon nano-tube (CNT)/Au (5 nm) electrodes for the S/D contacts and the photo-acryl (PA) for the gate dielectric, enabling the supply of a sufficiently large current (40 μA @ VGS = −10 V) to the OLED. The aperture ratio of the AMOLED panel using the stacked-pixel structure was improved to 48%, which was about two times larger than the 19% of the side-by-side pixel, placing the OLED just beside the OTFTs on the same plane. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyethylene Terephthalate Textiles Enhance the Structural Maturation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111805 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have the potential to serve as a model for human cardiomyocytes. However, hiPSC-CMs are still considered immature. CMs differentiated from hiPSCs more resemble fetal than adult cardiomyocytes. Putative factors enhancing maturation include in vitro culture duration, culture [...] Read more.
Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have the potential to serve as a model for human cardiomyocytes. However, hiPSC-CMs are still considered immature. CMs differentiated from hiPSCs more resemble fetal than adult cardiomyocytes. Putative factors enhancing maturation include in vitro culture duration, culture surface topography, and mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are traditionally cultured on glass surfaces coated with extracellular matrix derivatives such as gelatin. hiPSC-CMs are flat and round and their sarcomeres are randomly distributed and unorganized. Morphology can be enhanced by culturing cells on surfaces providing topographical cues to the cells. In this study, a textile based-culturing method used to enhance the maturation status of hiPSC-CMs is presented. Gelatin-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based textiles were used as the culturing surface for hiPSC-CMs and the effects of the textiles on the maturation status of the hiPSC-CMs were assessed. The hiPSC-CMs were characterized by analyzing their morphology, sarcomere organization, expression of cardiac specific genes, and calcium handling. We show that the topographical cues improve the structure of the hiPSC-CMs in vitro. Human iPSC-CMs grown on PET textiles demonstrated improved structural properties such as rod-shape structure and increased sarcomere orientation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Shear-Induced Deformation of Reinforcing Textiles by Optical Measurement Devices
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071029 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
When fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) components are designed, it is very important to ensure that textiles are formed into complex 3D geometries without folds, and that the reinforcing structure is oriented appropriately. Most research in this context is focused on finite element (FE) forming [...] Read more.
When fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) components are designed, it is very important to ensure that textiles are formed into complex 3D geometries without folds, and that the reinforcing structure is oriented appropriately. Most research in this context is focused on finite element (FE) forming simulations and the required characterization of textile reinforcements. However, the early stage of the design of FRPs, where kinematic draping simulations are used, is barely considered. In particular, the need for a critical shear angle for the execution and evaluation of kinematic draping simulations is often neglected. This paper presents an extended picture frame test stand with an optical device recording shear-induced deformations with the help of a laser line emitter. Associated hardware and software for detecting and quantifying the fold formation during a picture frame test were developed. With the additional recorded information, a material-specific critical shear angle can be determined, material behaviors can be compared, and FE-based simulation methods can be evaluated. This innovative test stand and the associated software tools will help engineers to decide on suitable materials and improve transparency in the early stages of the design process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Behaviors of Flax Fiber-Reinforced Composites at Different Strain Rates and Rate-Dependent Constitutive Model
Materials 2019, 12(6), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060854 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Flax fiber-reinforced composites (FFRCs) exhibit excellent environmentally friendly qualities, such as light weight, low cost, recyclability, and excellent mechanical properties. Understanding the dynamic mechanical behavior of FFRCs could broaden their potential applications in lightweight, crashworthy, and impact-critical structures. This study presents a study [...] Read more.
Flax fiber-reinforced composites (FFRCs) exhibit excellent environmentally friendly qualities, such as light weight, low cost, recyclability, and excellent mechanical properties. Understanding the dynamic mechanical behavior of FFRCs could broaden their potential applications in lightweight, crashworthy, and impact-critical structures. This study presents a study on the fabrication of FFRCs by vacuum-assisted resin infusion. The dynamic stress–strain responses of the fabricated specimens at strain rates ranging from 0.006 s 1 to 2200 s 1 were evaluated using quasi-static tests and the Split–Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The results indicated that the FFRC exhibited superior strain rate sensitivity. Final deformation photographs and scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the damage evolution of the FFRC specimens, as well as various failure mechanisms, including fiber–matrix debonding, fiber pull-out, and fiber fracture at different strain rates. On the basis of the experimental results, a simplified Johnson–Cook model was established to describe the strain-rate dependent constitutive model of FFRC. The validation of the suggested constitutive model was embedded in the finite element simulations and could well repeat the strain wave observed from the experiment results. Finally, the quasi-static compression and drop-hammer impact of pyramidal lattice structures with FFRC cores were investigated both numerically and experimentally, proving the effectiveness of the simplified Johnson–Cook model. This study could potentially contribute to a deeper understanding of the dynamic mechanical behavior of FFRCs and provide fundamental experimental data for future engineering applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Preparation and Characterization of Polyacrylonitrile-Polyaniline (PAN/PANI) Fibers
Materials 2019, 12(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040664 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
The paper presents a method of modifying polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers using polyaniline (PANI). The PAN fibers were doped with polyaniline that was obtained in two different ways. The first consisted of doping a spinning solution with polyaniline that was synthesized in an aqueous [...] Read more.
The paper presents a method of modifying polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers using polyaniline (PANI). The PAN fibers were doped with polyaniline that was obtained in two different ways. The first consisted of doping a spinning solution with polyaniline that was synthesized in an aqueous solution (PAN/PANI blended), and the second involved the synthesis of polyaniline directly in the spinning solution (PAN/PANI in situ). The obtained fibers were characterized by the methods: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Analysis of the results showed strong interactions between the nitrile groups of polyacrylonitrile and polyaniline in the PAN/PANI in situ fibers. The results of mechanical strength tests indicated that the performance of the PAN/PANI mixture significantly improved the mechanical parameters of polyaniline, although these fibers had a weaker strength than the unmodified PAN fibers. The fibers obtained as a result of the addition of PANI to PAN were dielectric, whereas the PANI-synthesized in situ were characterized by a mass-specific resistance of 5.47 kΩg/cm2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Uniaxial Tensile Behavior of Carbon Textile Reinforced Mortar
Materials 2019, 12(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030374 - 25 Jan 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
This paper investigates the effects of the reinforcement ratio, volume fraction of steel fibers, and prestressing on the uniaxial tensile behavior of carbon textile reinforced mortar (CTRM) through uniaxial tensile tests. The results show that the tensile strength of CTRM specimens increases with [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the effects of the reinforcement ratio, volume fraction of steel fibers, and prestressing on the uniaxial tensile behavior of carbon textile reinforced mortar (CTRM) through uniaxial tensile tests. The results show that the tensile strength of CTRM specimens increases with the reinforcement ratio, however the textile–matrix bond strength becomes weaker and debonding can occur. Short steel fibers are able to improve the mechanical properties of the entire CTRM composite and provide additional “shear resistant ability” to enhance the textile– matrix bond strength, resulting in finer cracks with smaller spacing and width. Investigations into the fracture surfaces using an optical microscope clarify these inferences. Increases in first-crack stress and tensile strength are also observed in prestressed TRM specimens. In this study, the combination of 1% steel fibers and prestressing at 15% of the ultimate tensile strength of two-layer textiles is found to be the optimum configuration, producing the highest first-crack stress and tensile strength and the most reasonable multi-cracking pattern. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing the Dyeability of Polyimide Fibers with the Assistance of Swelling Agents
Materials 2019, 12(3), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030347 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Polyimide (PI) fibers have outstanding thermal stability and mechanical properties, but are difficult to dye with disperse and basic dyes. In this work, it was proposed to use N-methylformanilide (MFA), phenoxyisopropanol (PIP), and acetophenone (AP) as swelling agents to enhance the dyeability of [...] Read more.
Polyimide (PI) fibers have outstanding thermal stability and mechanical properties, but are difficult to dye with disperse and basic dyes. In this work, it was proposed to use N-methylformanilide (MFA), phenoxyisopropanol (PIP), and acetophenone (AP) as swelling agents to enhance the dyeability of PI fibers. The PI fibers treated with swelling agents were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, tensile testing, and crystalline analysis. It was found that the swelling agents penetrated into the PI fibers in amounts greater than 10% (pertaining to the weight of PI fibers). The swelling agents did not really swell the PI fibers, but broke the interaction forces between the PI macromolecules. With the assistance of swelling agent, the PI fibers could be dyed with disperse and basic dyes in strong color strengths. AP exhibited the best performance for enhancing the dyeability of PI fibers, followed by MFA and PIP. The dyed PI fibers were found to have good colorfastness to washing. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Sustainable Use of Nanomaterials in Textiles and Their Environmental Impact
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225134 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
At present, nanotechnology is a priority in research in several nations due to its massive capability and financial impact. However, due to the uncertainties and abnormalities in shape, size, and chemical compositions, the existence of certain nanomaterials may lead to dangerous effects on [...] Read more.
At present, nanotechnology is a priority in research in several nations due to its massive capability and financial impact. However, due to the uncertainties and abnormalities in shape, size, and chemical compositions, the existence of certain nanomaterials may lead to dangerous effects on the human health and environment. The present review includes the different advanced applications of nanomaterials in textiles industries, as well as their associated environmental and health risks. The four main textile industry fields using nanomaterials, nanofinishing, nanocoatings, nanofibers, and nanocomposites, are analyzed. Different functional textiles with nanomaterials are also briefly reviewed. Most textile materials are in direct and prolonged contact with our skin. Hence, the influence of carcinogenic and toxic substances that are available in textiles must be comprehensively examined. Proper recognition of the conceivable benefits and accidental hazards of nanomaterials to our surroundings is significant for pursuing its development in the forthcoming years. The conclusions of the current paper are anticipated to increase awareness on the possible influence of nanomaterial-containing textile wastes and the significance of better regulations in regards to the ultimate disposal of these wastes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Textile-Integrated Thermocouples for Temperature Measurement
Materials 2020, 13(3), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030626 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The integration of conductive materials in textiles is key for detecting temperature in the wearer´s environment. When integrating sensors into textiles, properties such as their flexibility, handle, and stretch must stay unaffected by the functionalization. Conductive materials are difficult to integrate into textiles, [...] Read more.
The integration of conductive materials in textiles is key for detecting temperature in the wearer´s environment. When integrating sensors into textiles, properties such as their flexibility, handle, and stretch must stay unaffected by the functionalization. Conductive materials are difficult to integrate into textiles, since wires are stiff, and coatings show low adhesion. This work shows that various substrates such as cotton, cellulose, polymeric, carbon, and optical fiber-based textiles are used as support materials for temperature sensors. Suitable measurement principles for use in textiles are based on resistance changes, optical interferences (fiber Bragg grating), or thermoelectric effects. This review deals with developments in the construction of temperature sensors and the production of thermocouples for use in textiles. The operating principle of thermocouples is based on temperature gradients building up between a heated and a cold junction of two conductors, which is converted to a voltage output signal. This work also summarizes integration methods for thermocouples and other temperature-sensing techniques as well as the manufacture of conductive materials in textiles. In addition, textile thermocouples are emphasized as suitable and indispensable elements in sensor concepts for smart textiles. Full article
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