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Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2024 | Viewed by 14184

Special Issue Editors

Head of Department of Materials Science and Physics of Metals, Ufa University of Science and Technology, 32 Zaki Validi Street, 450000 Ufa, Russia
Interests: functional coatings; corrosion; plasma electrolytic processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Head of Department of Metals and Alloys at Extreme Impacts, Ufa University of Science and Technology, 32 Zaki Validi Street, 450000 Ufa, Russia
Interests: metals and alloys; crystal lattices; atomistic simulations; extreme conditions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After our successful first volume of the Special Issue “Design and Applications of Functional Materials”, we decided to make the special issue as a collection on functional materials. Functional materials represent a rapidly growing set of advanced materials and composites, some properties of which (shape, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, color, etc.) are responsive to external stimuli (thermal, electrical, mechanical, light, etc.). Functional materials are found in all classes of materials—ceramics, metals, polymers and organic molecules.

Rapid development of modern technologies creates a constant need for the design of new materials with a set of established and stable functional properties, the full list of which depends on the industrial application. For instance, in the area of engineering and advanced production technologies, such properties include high strength, fracture toughness, light weight, temperature resistance and stability in extreme conditions. New trends in digital chemistry require materials with tailorable interactivity with the environment, environmental sustainability and predictable behavior throughout the entire life cycle. The topic includes, but it is not limited to, advanced manufacturing technologies and engineering, biomedicine, digital and green chemistry, new environmental materials and so on.

The design of materials with a range of necessary functional properties for each separate area is a complex, often multidisciplinary problem, the solution to which is now being addressed by a large number of top scientific communities.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect a coherent set of papers presenting recent advances in the field of design and application of new functional materials that deepen the understanding of the topic, empirically and theoretically providing the opportunity for revealing new and developing existing trends in the field.

Prof. Dr. Evgeny V. Parfenov
Dr. Elena Korznikova
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • functional materials
  • functional coatings
  • composites
  • metals and alloys
  • polymers
  • severe strains
  • crystal lattices
  • design of materials

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 7626 KiB  
Communication
Enhancing Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Ferrous Medium-Entropy Alloy through Cu Addition and Post-Weld Heat Treatment in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Materials 2024, 17(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010181 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 509
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of a high-entropy alloy filler metal coated with copper (Cu) and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the weldability of a ferrous medium-entropy alloy (MEA) in gas tungsten arc welding. The addition of 1-at% Cu had an insignificant effect [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of a high-entropy alloy filler metal coated with copper (Cu) and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the weldability of a ferrous medium-entropy alloy (MEA) in gas tungsten arc welding. The addition of 1-at% Cu had an insignificant effect on the microstructural behaviour, despite a positive mixing enthalpy with other elements. It was observed that a small amount of Cu was insufficient to induce phase separation into the Cu-rich phase and refine the microstructure of the as-welded specimen. However, with an increase in the PWHT temperature, the tensile strength remained mostly consistent, while the elongation significantly increased (elongation of as welded, PWHT700, PWHT800, and PWHT 900 were 19, 43, 55 and 68%, respectively). Notably, the PWHT temperature of 900 °C yielded the most desirable results by shifting the fracture location from the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) to base metal (BM). This was due to significant recrystallisation and homogenised hardness of the cold-rolled BM during PWHT. However, the CGHAZ with coarse grains induced by the welding heat input remained invariant during the PWHT. This study proposes a viable PHWT temperature (900 °C) for enhancing the weldability of cold-rolled ferrous MEA without additional process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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17 pages, 9463 KiB  
Article
Frequency Response Evaluation as Diagnostic and Optimization Tool for Pulsed Unipolar Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process and Resultant Coatings on Zirconium
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247681 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 553
Abstract
This study aims to bridge various diagnostic tools for the development of smart plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technologies. PEO treatments of commercially pure Zr were carried out using the pulsed unipolar polarisation (PUP) regime with frequency sweep in an alkaline phosphate-silicate electrolyte. Methods [...] Read more.
This study aims to bridge various diagnostic tools for the development of smart plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technologies. PEO treatments of commercially pure Zr were carried out using the pulsed unipolar polarisation (PUP) regime with frequency sweep in an alkaline phosphate-silicate electrolyte. Methods of in situ impedance spectroscopy and electrical transient analysis were used for the process diagnostics under the video imaging of the PEO. Two cutoff frequencies, 170–190 Hz and 620–650 Hz, were identified for the PEO-assisted charge transfer process. An equivalent circuit for the metal–oxide–electrolyte system under PUP PEO conditions was developed; from the capacitance values, two geometrical dielectric barriers were evaluated: a thinner 0.5–1 µm inner layer of the coating and a thicker 4–6 µm outer layer. These estimates were in agreement with the coating cross-sectional morphology. Based on comparing the results obtained using different techniques, the frequencies at which the uniform coatings with the best protective properties were formed were identified. For the selected electrolyte system and polarisation regime, these frequencies ranged from 2 to 5 kHz where the overall circuit reactance was minimal; therefore, the power factor was as close to one as possible. This opens the possibilities for the optimization of the pulsed PEO process and online control of unobservable surface characteristics, e.g., the thickness of the coating layers, thus contributing towards the development of smart PEO technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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26 pages, 6354 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Performance and Comfort Properties of Fire-Protective Material by Using Inherently Fire-Retardant Fibers and Knitting Structures
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237347 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 739
Abstract
This paper investigates the development of fabric materials using several blends of inherently fire-resistant (FR) fibers and various knitted structures. The samples are evaluated with respect to their performance and comfort-related properties. Inherently fire-resistant fibers, e.g., Nomex, Protex, carbon and FR viscose, were [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the development of fabric materials using several blends of inherently fire-resistant (FR) fibers and various knitted structures. The samples are evaluated with respect to their performance and comfort-related properties. Inherently fire-resistant fibers, e.g., Nomex, Protex, carbon and FR viscose, were used to develop different structures of knitted fabrics. Cross-miss, cross-relief, and vertical tubular structures were knitted by using optimum fiber blend proportions and combinations of stitches. Several important aspects of the fabric samples were investigated, e.g., their physical, mechanical and serviceability performance. Thermo-physiological and tactile/touch-related comfort properties were evaluated in addition to flame resistance performance. An analysis of mechanical performance indicated that the knitted structure has a significant influence on the tensile strength, bursting strength and pilling resistance. The cross-relief structure proved to be the strongest followed by the cross-miss and vertical tubular structures. The FR station suits made from 70:30 Protex/Nomex exhibited the best combination of tensile and bursting strength; therefore, this material is recommended for making a stable and durable station suit. Interestingly, it was also concluded from the experimental study that knitted samples with a cross-relief structure exhibit the best fire-resistance performance. Fiber blends of 70:30 Protex/Nomex and 70:30 Nomex/carbon were found to be optimum in terms of overall performance. The best flame resistance was achieved with Nomex:carbon fiber blends. These results were confirmed with vertical flammability tests, TGA, DTGA and cone calorimetry analysis. The optimization of blend composition as well as knitting structure/architecture is a crucial finding toward designing the best FR station suit in terms of mechanical, dimensional, thermal, thermo-physiological and flame resistance performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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25 pages, 6240 KiB  
Article
Improved Dimethyl Ether Production from Syngas over Aerogel Sulfated Zirconia and Cu-ZnO(Al) Bifunctional Composite Catalysts
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237328 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 586
Abstract
This work is dedicated to the study of the effect of the synthesis conditions (drying and calcination) of sulfated zirconia on the final catalytic behavior of bifunctional composite catalysts prepared by the physical mixing of the sulfated zirconia (methanol dehydration catalyst) with Cu/ZnO/Al [...] Read more.
This work is dedicated to the study of the effect of the synthesis conditions (drying and calcination) of sulfated zirconia on the final catalytic behavior of bifunctional composite catalysts prepared by the physical mixing of the sulfated zirconia (methanol dehydration catalyst) with Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 (CZA; methanol synthesis catalyst). The main objective was to optimize the CZA-ZrO2/SO42− composite catalyst for its use in the direct production of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Sulfated zirconia aerogel (AZS) and xerogel (XZS) were prepared using the sol–gel method using different solvent evacuation conditions and calcination temperatures, while the Cu-ZnO(Al) catalyst was synthesized using the coprecipitation procedure. The effectivity of CZA-ZrO2/SO42− composite catalysts for the direct production of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas was evaluated in a flow reactor at 250 °C and 30 bar total pressure. The characterization of the sulfated zirconia aerogels and xerogels using different techniques showed that the mesoporous aerogel (AZS0.5300) exhibited the best textural and acidic properties due to the gel drying under supercritical conditions and calcination at 300 °C. As a result, the composite catalyst CZA-AZS0.5300 exhibited seven times higher DME production than its xerogel-containing counterpart (364 vs. 52 μmolDME·min−1·gcat−1). This was attributed to its well-matched metal surface, mesoporous structure, optimal crystallite size and, most importantly, its higher acidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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19 pages, 6922 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of the Pt-CNT Composite under Uniaxial Deformation: Tension and Compression
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114140 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Composite materials are gaining increasing attention from researchers worldwide due to their ability to offer tailored properties for various technical challenges. One of these promising fields is metal matrix composites, including carbon-reinforced metals and alloys. These materials allow for the reduction of density [...] Read more.
Composite materials are gaining increasing attention from researchers worldwide due to their ability to offer tailored properties for various technical challenges. One of these promising fields is metal matrix composites, including carbon-reinforced metals and alloys. These materials allow for the reduction of density while simultaneously enhancing their functional properties. This study is focused on the Pt-CNT composite, its mechanical characteristics, and structural features under uniaxial deformation depending on temperature and mass fractions of carbon nanotube (CNT). The mechanical behavior of platinum reinforced with carbon nanotubes of diameters varying in the interval 6.62–16.55 Å under uniaxial tension and compression deformation has been studied by the molecular dynamics method. Simulations for tensile and compression deformations have been done for all specimens at different temperatures (viz. 300 K, 500 K, 700 K, 900 K, 1100 K, and 1500 K). The calculated mechanical characteristics allow us to conclude that, compared to pure platinum, the Young’s modulus increased by about 60%. The results indicate that yield and tensile strength values decreases with increase in temperature for all simulation blocks. This increase was due to the inherent high axial rigidity of CNTs. In this work, these characteristics are calculated for the first time for Pt-CNT. It can be concluded that CNTs can be an effective reinforcing material for composites based on a metal matrix under tensile strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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18 pages, 12282 KiB  
Article
Influence of PEO Electrolyzer Geometry on Current Density Distribution and Resultant Coating Properties on Zr-1Nb Alloy
Materials 2023, 16(9), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16093377 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the study of the current density distribution effect on plasma electrolytic oxidation process and resultant coatings on a Zr-1Nb alloy. The influence of the distance between the plates simultaneously placed into an electrolyzer was evaluated to assess the [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to the study of the current density distribution effect on plasma electrolytic oxidation process and resultant coatings on a Zr-1Nb alloy. The influence of the distance between the plates simultaneously placed into an electrolyzer was evaluated to assess the throwing power of the PEO process. The current density on the facing surfaces of the plates decreases when the distance between them shrinks. This current density has a notable impact on the resultant PEO coating in terms of the surface morphology parameters and electrochemically evaluated corrosion resistance. The influence of this effect is low on the stages of anodizing and spark discharges (60–120 s of the PEO), and significantly increases on the stage of microarc discharges (120–360 s of the PEO). The coating obtained with a smaller distance between the plates, while having the same coating thickness as the others, exhibits higher wear resistance. New correlations between the current density, diffusion coefficient, time constant of nucleation and the coating thickness in the middle of the facing samples were established; in addition, a correlation of the coating morphology in this area with the roughness parameters RPc, RSm was shown. This study contributes to the development of optimized PEO processes for the simultaneously coated several devices of complex shape, e.g., orthopedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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24 pages, 13320 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Smart PEO-Coatings Impregnated with Corrosion Inhibitors on the Protective Properties of AlMg3 Aluminum Alloy
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062215 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
The protective coating with a self-organized microtubular structure was formed using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on AlMg3 aluminum alloy in the tartrate-fluoride electrolyte. This protective layer was further modified using corrosion inhibitors of the azole group (1,2,4-triazole, benzotriazole) and polymer material (polyvinilidene fluoride, [...] Read more.
The protective coating with a self-organized microtubular structure was formed using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on AlMg3 aluminum alloy in the tartrate-fluoride electrolyte. This protective layer was further modified using corrosion inhibitors of the azole group (1,2,4-triazole, benzotriazole) and polymer material (polyvinilidene fluoride, PVDF). X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the obtained oxide coatings. The presence of the inhibitor in the PEO-layer was confirmed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The level of corrosion protection of formed coatings as well as the effect of loaded inhibitors on the anticorrosion efficiency was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and localized scanning techniques (SVET/SIET). The coating impregnation with corrosion inhibitors of the azole group significantly improves the corrosion characteristics of the material. Impregnation of the base PEO-layer with 1,2,4-triazole during 24 h results in a 36 times increase in the impedance modulus measured at the lowest frequency (|Z|f=0.1Hz). Additional sealing of impregnated coating with polymer improves the corrosion stability of the treated material. On the base of the obtained data, the optimal way of protective inhibitor- and polymer-containing formation using surface treatment was suggested. The best barrier properties were established for hybrid coatings obtained by the immersion of a PEO-coated sample in 1,2,4-triazole solution for 24 h and following spraying the PVDF solution. The value of |Z|f=0.1Hz for this protective layer increased by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the base PEO-layer. The three-stage mechanism of corrosion inhibition of the sample with smart inhibitor-containing coating was established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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17 pages, 9130 KiB  
Article
Effect of High-Pressure Torsion and Annealing on the Structure, Phase Composition, and Microhardness of the Ti-18Zr-15Nb (at. %) Alloy
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041754 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
The Ti-18Zr-15Nb shape memory alloys are a new material for medical implants. The regularities of phase transformations during heating of this alloy in the coarse-grained quenched state and the nanostructured state after high-pressure torsion have been studied. The specimens in quenched state (Q) [...] Read more.
The Ti-18Zr-15Nb shape memory alloys are a new material for medical implants. The regularities of phase transformations during heating of this alloy in the coarse-grained quenched state and the nanostructured state after high-pressure torsion have been studied. The specimens in quenched state (Q) and HPT state were annealed at 300–550 °C for 0.5, 3, and 12 h. The α-phase formation in Ti-18Zr-15Nb alloy occurs by C-shaped kinetics with a pronounced peak near 400–450 °C for Q state and near 350–450 °C for HPT state, and stops or slows down at higher and lower annealing temperatures. The formation of a nanostructured state in the Ti-18Zr-15Nb alloy as a result of HPT suppresses the β→ω phase transformation during low-temperature annealing (300–350 °C), but activates the β→α phase transformation. In the Q-state the α-phase during annealing at 450–500 °C is formed in the form of plates with a length of tens of microns. The α-phase formed during annealing of nanostructured specimens has the appearance of nanosized particle-grains of predominantly equiaxed shape, distributed between the nanograins of β-phase. The changes in microhardness during annealing of Q-specimens correlate with changes in phase composition during aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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19 pages, 10661 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Packaging Design for Molded Expanded Polystyrene Cushion
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041723 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
A molded expanded polystyrene (EPS) cushion is a flexible, closed-cell foam that can be molded to fit any packing application and is effective at absorbing shock. However, the packaging waste of EPS cushions causes pollution to landfills and the environment. Despite being known [...] Read more.
A molded expanded polystyrene (EPS) cushion is a flexible, closed-cell foam that can be molded to fit any packing application and is effective at absorbing shock. However, the packaging waste of EPS cushions causes pollution to landfills and the environment. Despite being known to cause pollution, this sustainable packaging actually has the potential to reduce this environmental pollution because of its reusability. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the accurate design parameter that can be emphasized in producing a sustainable design of EPS cushion packaging. An experimental method of drop testing and design simulation analysis was conducted. The effectiveness of the design parameters was also verified. Based on the results, there are four main elements that necessitate careful consideration: rib positioning, EPS cushion thickness, package layout, and packing size. These parameter findings make a significant contribution to sustainable design, where these elements were integrated directly to reduce and reuse packaging material. Thus, it has been concluded that 48 percent of the development cost of the cushion was decreased, 25 percent of mold modification time was significantly saved, and 27 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction was identified. The findings also aided in the development of productive packaging design, in which these design elements were beneficial to reduce environmental impact. These findings had a significant impact on the manufacturing industry in terms of the economics and time of the molded expanded polystyrene packaging development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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21 pages, 9022 KiB  
Article
Near-Infrared (NIR) Silver Sulfide (Ag2S) Semiconductor Photocatalyst Film for Degradation of Methylene Blue Solution
Materials 2023, 16(1), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010437 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
A silver sulfide (Ag2S) semiconductor photocatalyst film has been successfully synthesized using a solution casting method. To produce the photocatalyst films, two types of Ag2S powder were used: a commercialized and synthesized powder. For the commercialized powder (CF/comAg2 [...] Read more.
A silver sulfide (Ag2S) semiconductor photocatalyst film has been successfully synthesized using a solution casting method. To produce the photocatalyst films, two types of Ag2S powder were used: a commercialized and synthesized powder. For the commercialized powder (CF/comAg2S), the Ag2S underwent a rarefaction process to reduce its crystallite size from 52 nm to 10 nm, followed by incorporation into microcrystalline cellulose using a solution casting method under the presence of an alkaline/urea solution. A similar process was applied to the synthesized Ag2S powder (CF/syntAg2S), resulting from the co-precipitation process of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and thiourea. The prepared photocatalyst films and their photocatalytic efficiency were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The results showed that the incorporation of the Ag2S powder into the cellulose films could reduce the peak intensity of the oxygen-containing functional group, which indicated the formation of a composite film. The study of the crystal structure confirmed that all of the as-prepared samples featured a monoclinic acanthite Ag2S structure with space group P21/C. It was found that the degradation rate of the methylene blue dye reached 100% within 2 h under sunlight exposure when using CF/comAg2S and 98.6% for the CF/syntAg2S photocatalyst film, and only 48.1% for the bare Ag2S powder. For the non-exposure sunlight samples, the degradation rate of only 33–35% indicated the importance of the semiconductor near-infrared (NIR) Ag2S photocatalyst used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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14 pages, 6414 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Dimple Microtextured Copper Substrate on Performance of Sn-0.7Cu Solder Alloy
Materials 2023, 16(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010096 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
This paper elucidates the influence of dimple-microtextured copper substrate on the performance of Sn-0.7Cu solder alloy. A dimple with a diameter of 50 µm was produced by varying the dimple depth using different laser scanning repetitions, while the dimple spacing was fixed for [...] Read more.
This paper elucidates the influence of dimple-microtextured copper substrate on the performance of Sn-0.7Cu solder alloy. A dimple with a diameter of 50 µm was produced by varying the dimple depth using different laser scanning repetitions, while the dimple spacing was fixed for each sample at 100 µm. The dimple-microtextured copper substrate was joined with Sn-0.7Cu solder alloy using the reflow soldering process. The solder joints’ wettability, microstructure, and growth of its intermetallic compound (IMC) layer were analysed to determine the influence of the dimple-microtextured copper substrate on the performance of the Sn-0.7Cu solder alloy. It was observed that increasing laser scan repetitions increased the dimples’ depth, resulting in higher surface roughness. In terms of soldering performance, it was seen that the solder joints’ average contact angle decreased with increasing dimple depth, while the average IMC thickness increased as the dimple depth increased. The copper element was more evenly distributed for the dimple-micro-textured copper substrate than its non-textured counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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20 pages, 10550 KiB  
Article
Influence of Polyformaldehyde Monofilament Fiber on the Engineering Properties of Foamed Concrete
Materials 2022, 15(24), 8984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15248984 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Foamed concrete is considered a green building material, which is porous in nature. As a result, it poses benefits such as being light in self-weight, and also has excellent thermal insulation properties, environmental safeguards, good fire resistance performance, and low cost. Nevertheless, foamed [...] Read more.
Foamed concrete is considered a green building material, which is porous in nature. As a result, it poses benefits such as being light in self-weight, and also has excellent thermal insulation properties, environmental safeguards, good fire resistance performance, and low cost. Nevertheless, foamed concrete has several disadvantages such as low strength, a large amount of entrained air, poor toughness, and being a brittle material, all of which has restricted its usage in engineering and building construction. Hence, this study intends to assess the potential utilization of polypropylene fibrillated fiber (PFF) in foamed concrete to enhance its engineering properties. A total of 10 mixes of 600 and 1200 kg/m3 densities were produced by the insertion of four varying percentages of PFF (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The properties assessed were splitting tensile, compressive and flexural strengths, workability, porosity, water absorption, and density. Furthermore, the correlations between the properties considered were also evaluated. The outcomes reveal that the foamed concrete mix with 4% PFF attained the highest porosity, with approximately 13.9% and 15.9% for 600 and 1200 kg/m3 densities in comparison to the control specimen. Besides, the mechanical properties (splitting tensile, compressive and flexural strengths) increased steadily with the increase in the PFF percentages up to the optimum level of 3%. Beyond 3%, the strengths reduced significantly due to poor PFF dispersal in the matrix, leading to a balling effect which causes a degraded impact of scattering the stress from the foamed concrete vicinity to another area of the PFF surface. This exploratory investigation will result in a greater comprehension of the possible applications of PFF in LFC. It is crucial to promote the sustainable development and implementation of LFC materials and infrastructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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Review

Jump to: Research

30 pages, 7656 KiB  
Review
Plasma Electrolytic Modification of Zirconium and Its Alloys: Brief Review
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165543 - 09 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
The review focuses on the surface modification of Zr and its alloys, which is necessary to expand the applications of these kinds of materials. Data on the properties of pure zirconium and its alloys are presented. Since surface engineering and the operation of [...] Read more.
The review focuses on the surface modification of Zr and its alloys, which is necessary to expand the applications of these kinds of materials. Data on the properties of pure zirconium and its alloys are presented. Since surface engineering and the operation of the above materials are in most cases associated with the formation of oxide coatings, information on the characteristics of ZrO2 is given. In addition, attention is paid to phasing in the zirconium–oxygen system. It is noted that the most effective method of surface engineering of Zr and its alloys is plasma electrolytic modification (PEM) technology. Specific examples and modes of modification are described, and the reached results are analyzed. The relevance, novelty and originality of the review are determined by the insufficient knowledge about a number of practical features concerning the formation of functional oxide coatings on Zr and some of its alloys by the technology of PEM. In particular, the information on the phase composition and possibilities of stabilization of the tetragonal and cubic modifications of ZrO2, the effects of the component composition of electrolyte solutions and electrolyte suspensions, and the specifics of the treatment of additive shaping and deformed materials are rather contradictory. This review aims to collect recent advances and provide insights into the trends in the modification of Zr and its alloys, promote the formulation of practical recommendations and assess the development prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Functional Materials, Volume II)
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