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Special Issue "Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020)"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Eva M. Rubio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, E28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: machining; lightweight materials (magnesium alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys); metal forming technology and processing; sustainable manufacturing; industrial metrology; virtual reality; virtual labs; e-learning; innovation in distance teaching
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ana M. Camacho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, E28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: metal forming (lightweight alloys, advanced high strength steels); additive manufacturing; fused deposition modeling; WAAM; finite element simulation; methodologies for materials selection in manufacturing; virtual labs
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the success of the first two editions and encouraged by the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES), a new edition called “Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society 2020 (SIMES-2020)” is launched as a joint issue of the journals Materials and Applied Sciences.

The first edition collected 48 contributions on emerging methods and technologies, such as those related to additive manufacturing and 3D printing, advances and innovations in manufacturing processes in different areas (machining, forming, molding, welding, and nontraditional manufacturing processes), manufacturing systems (machines, equipment and tooling), metrology and quality in manufacturing, product lifecycle management (PLM) technologies, and risks in manufacturing engineering and society.

The second edition, defined as a Joint Special Issue with the aim of covering the wide range of research lines developed by the members and collaborators of the MES and other researchers within the field of Manufacturing Engineering, collected 39 contributions—29 in Materials and 10 in Applied Sciences.

The main objective of the “Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society 2020 (SIMES 2020)” is to publish outstanding papers presenting cutting-edge advances in the field of Manufacturing Engineering, focusing on materials processing, as well as on experimental and theoretical results within applied sciences.

The Special Issue aims to explore the evolution of traditional manufacturing models toward the new requirements of the Manufacturing Industry 4.0 and how manufacturing professionals should face the resulting competitive challenges, in the context of an ever-increasing use of digital information systems and communication technologies.

Contributions on emerging methods and technologies such as those related to additive manufacturing will have special relevance within this Special Issue, as well as those ones where sustainability and environmental issues play a fundamental role in manufacturing.

The main topics covered by this Special Issue are scientific contributions on the following manufacturing research topics:

  • Additive manufacturing and 3D printing
  • Advances and innovations in manufacturing processes
  • Sustainable and green manufacturing
  • Micro and nanomanufacturing
  • Manufacturing of new materials
  • Manufacturing systems: machines, equipment and tooling
  • Robotics, mechatronics and manufacturing automation
  • Metrology and quality in manufacturing
  • Industry 4.0
  • Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) technologies
  • Design, modeling and simulation in manufacturing engineering
  • Production planning
  • Manufacturing engineering and Society

The above list is not exhaustive, and papers on other topics associated with advances in manufacturing engineering are also welcome.

Especially welcome are all the works with a clear application to the manufacturing field related to processing of materials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers (plastics), semiconductors, magnetic materials, medical implant materials and biological materials, silica and carbon materials, metals and metallic alloys, composites, coatings and films, pigments; application of techniques such as electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, calorimetry and others, to the analysis of manufacturing processes and systems; mechanics of materials; and tribology (friction, lubrication and wear).

It is our pleasure to invite professionals from industry, academic institutions and research centers from around the world to submit their contributions to this Special Issue.

We hope this third edition of the Special Issue is as successful as the first two.

text

Prof. Eva M. Rubio
Prof. Ana M. Camacho
Guest Editors

  • Members of the Manufacturing Engineering Society will benefit from a 15% discount (approx. 280 €) on the article processing charges. If you are not a member yet, please find more information on how to join the society (here). Regular individual member fee 75 €/year, student fee 35 €/year.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Assembly processes
  • Coatings and films
  • Digital manufacturing
  • Forming
  • Friction
  • Green manufacturing
  • Industry 4.0
  • Joining
  • Machining
  • Manufacturing automation
  • Manufacturing systems
  • Mechatronics
  • Metrology

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society 2020 (SIMES-2020)
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123208 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
The Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society 2020 (SIMES-2020) has been launched as a joint issue of the journals “Materials” and “Applied Sciences”. The 17 contributions published in this Special Issue of Materials present cutting-edge advances in [...] Read more.
The Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society 2020 (SIMES-2020) has been launched as a joint issue of the journals “Materials” and “Applied Sciences”. The 17 contributions published in this Special Issue of Materials present cutting-edge advances in the field of Manufacturing Engineering, focusing on additive manufacturing and 3D printing; advances and innovations in manufacturing processes; sustainable and green manufacturing; manufacturing of new materials; manufacturing systems: machines, equipment and tooling; robotics, mechatronics and manufacturing automation; metrology and quality in manufacturing; Industry 4.0; design, modeling and simulation in manufacturing engineering. Among them, this issue highlights that the topic “advances and innovations in manufacturing processes” has collected a large number of contributions, followed by additive manufacturing and 3D printing; sustainable and green manufacturing; metrology and quality in manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Research

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Article
Determining Surface Topography of a Dressed Grinding Wheel Using Bio-Inspired DNA-Based Computing
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081899 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
Grinding is commonly used for machining parts made of hard or brittle materials with the intent of ensuring a better surface finish. The material removal ability of a grinding wheel depends on whether the wheel surface is populated with a sufficiently high number [...] Read more.
Grinding is commonly used for machining parts made of hard or brittle materials with the intent of ensuring a better surface finish. The material removal ability of a grinding wheel depends on whether the wheel surface is populated with a sufficiently high number of randomly distributed active abrasive grains. This condition is ensured by performing dressing operations at regular time intervals. The effectiveness of a dressing operation is determined by measuring the surface topography of the wheel (regions and their distributions on the grinding wheel work surface where the active abrasive grains reside). In many cases, image processing methods are employed to determine the surface topography. However, such procedures must be able to remove the regions where the abrasive grains do not reside while keeping, at the same time, the regions where the abrasive grains reside. Thus, special kinds of image processing techniques are needed to distinguish the non-grain regions from the grain regions, which requires a heavy computing load and long duration. As an alternative, in the framework of the “Biologicalisation in Manufacturing” paradigm, this study employs a bio-inspiration-based computing method known as DNA-based computing (DBC). It is shown that DBC can eliminate non-grain regions while keeping grain regions with significantly lower computational effort and time. On a surface of size 706.5 μm in the circumferential direction and 530 μm in the width direction, there are about 7000 potential regions where grains might reside, as the image processing results exhibit. After performing DBC, this number is reduced to about 300 (representing a realistic estimate). Thus, the outcomes of this study can help develop an intelligent image processing system to optimize dressing operations and thereby, grinding operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Single-Stroke Attachment of Sheets to Tube Ends Made from Dissimilar Materials
Materials 2021, 14(4), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040815 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 461
Abstract
This paper presents a new joining method by a forming process for attaching sheets to tube ends. The process consists of two different forming stages carried out sequentially in a single stroke. Firstly, the free tube end is flared by compression with a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new joining method by a forming process for attaching sheets to tube ends. The process consists of two different forming stages carried out sequentially in a single stroke. Firstly, the free tube end is flared by compression with a contoured die, then is squeezed (indented) against the sheet surface to create a mechanical interlocking. The new process is carried out at an ambient temperature and, in contrast to existing joining by forming operations based on tube expansion, it avoids seal welds, tube protrusions above the sheet surfaces, and machining of grooves on the sheet holes to obtain the form-fit joints. The paper starts by analyzing the process deformation mechanics and its main operating variables and finishes by presenting examples that demonstrate its effectiveness for attaching sheets to tube ends made from polyvinylchloride and aluminum. Experimental and numerical simulation work provides support to the presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Effect of Copper Sulfate and Sulfuric Acid on Blind Hole Filling of HDI Circuit Boards by Electroplating
Materials 2021, 14(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010085 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Here, in a certain high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board, the effect of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid on the filling effect of a blind hole with a certain diameter and depth was investigated by making a blind hole using a CO [...] Read more.
Here, in a certain high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board, the effect of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid on the filling effect of a blind hole with a certain diameter and depth was investigated by making a blind hole using a CO2 laser drilling machine, filling the blind hole via electroplating by simulating the electroplating line in a Halin cell, and observing the cross-section of a micro blind hole after polishing using metallographic microscope, as well as the effect of hole filling, are evaluated. The results show that, under the conditions of a certain plating solution formula and electroplating parameters (current density and electroplating time), the sag degree decreases with the increase in the copper sulfate concentration. When the concentration of copper sulfate increases from 210 g/L to 225 g/L, the filling effect is good and the sag degree is about 0. However, with the increase in sulfuric acid concentration, the sag increases gradually. When the sulfuric acid concentration is 25–35 g/L, both the sag and copper coating thickness are in a small range. Under appropriate electroplating conditions, a better blind hole filling effect can be obtained. The volume of blind hole has a certain effect on the diffusion and exchange of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, as well as on the concentration distribution of additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Behavioural Study of the Force Control Loop Used in a Collaborative Robot for Sanding Materials
Materials 2021, 14(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010067 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
The rise of collaborative robots urges the consideration of them for different industrial tasks such as sanding. In this context, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate the feasibility of using collaborative robots in processing operations, such as orbital sanding. For the [...] Read more.
The rise of collaborative robots urges the consideration of them for different industrial tasks such as sanding. In this context, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate the feasibility of using collaborative robots in processing operations, such as orbital sanding. For the demonstration, the tools and working conditions have been adjusted to the capacity of the robot. Materials with different characteristics have been selected, such as aluminium, steel, brass, wood, and plastic. An inner/outer control loop strategy has been used, complementing the robot’s motion control with an outer force control loop. After carrying out an explanatory design of experiments, it was observed that it is possible to perform the operation in all materials, without destabilising the control, with a mean force error of 0.32%. Compared with industrial robots, collaborative ones can perform the same sanding task with similar results. An important outcome is that unlike what might be thought, an increase in the applied force does not guarantee a better finish. In fact, an increase in the feed rate does not produce significant variation in the finish—less than 0.02 µm; therefore, the process is in a “saturation state” and it is possible to increase the feed rate to increase productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Design of Industrial Standards for the Calibration of Optical Microscopes
Materials 2021, 14(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010029 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
One of the most important fields of study in material science is surface characterization. This topic is currently a field of growing interest as many functional properties depend on the surface texture. In this paper the authors, after a short a review of [...] Read more.
One of the most important fields of study in material science is surface characterization. This topic is currently a field of growing interest as many functional properties depend on the surface texture. In this paper the authors, after a short a review of different methods for surface topography characterization and the determination of the traceability problems that arise in this type of measurements, propose four different designs of material standards that can be used to calibrate the most common optical measuring instruments used for these tasks, such as measuring microscopes, metallurgical microscopes, confocal microscopes, focus variation microscopes, etc. The authors consider that the use of this type of standards (or others similar to them) could provide a step forward in assuring metrological traceability for different metrological characteristics that enables a more precise measurement of surface features with optical measuring instruments. In addition, authors expect that this work could lay the groundwork for the development of custom standards with specialized features tuned to gain a better metrological control when measuring specific geometrical surface properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Machinability of INCONEL718 Alloy with a Porous Microstructure Produced by Laser Melting Powder Bed Fusion at Higher Energy Densities
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245730 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
Products produced by additive manufacturing (AM) seek to exploit net shape manufacturing by eliminating or minimizing post-process stages such as machining. However, many applications which include turbo machinery components with tight dimensional tolerances and a smooth surface finish will require at least a [...] Read more.
Products produced by additive manufacturing (AM) seek to exploit net shape manufacturing by eliminating or minimizing post-process stages such as machining. However, many applications which include turbo machinery components with tight dimensional tolerances and a smooth surface finish will require at least a light machine finishing stage. This paper investigates the machinability of the additively fabricated INCONEL718 (IN718) alloy produced by laser melting powder bed fusion (LM-PBF) with different levels of spherical porosity in the microstructure. The literature suggests that the band width for laser energy density, which combines the various scan process parameters to obtain a low spherical type porosity in the LM-PBF IN718 alloy (~1%), has wide breadth. With the increasing laser energy density and above a threshold, there is a rapid increase in the spherical pore size. In this paper, three tube samples each with different levels of spherical porosity were fabricated by varying the laser energy density for LM-PBF of the IN718 alloy within the stable and higher energy density range and the porosity measured. A low laser energy density was avoided due to balling up, which promotes highly irregular lack of fusion defects and poor consolidation within the alloy microstructure. An orthogonal turning test instrumented, with a three-component dynamometer to measure the cutting forces, was performed on AM produced IN718 tube samples under light cut conditions to simulate a finish machining process. The orthogonal turning tests were also performed on a tube sample obtained from the wrought extruded stock. The machining process parameters, which were studied include varying the cutting speed at three levels, at a fixed feed and under dry cut conditions for a short duration to avoid the tool wear. The results obtained were discussed and a notable finding was the higher rate of built-up-edge formation on the tool tip from the AM samples with a higher porosity and especially at a higher cutting speed. The paper also discusses the mechanisms that underpin the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Hemp-Fibre Biocomposites Fabricated with Biobased and Regular Epoxy Resins
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245720 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 488
Abstract
Bio- and green composites are mainly used in non-structural automotive elements like interior panels and vehicle underpanels. Currently, the use of biocomposites as a worthy alternative to glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in structural applications still needs to be fully evaluated. In the current [...] Read more.
Bio- and green composites are mainly used in non-structural automotive elements like interior panels and vehicle underpanels. Currently, the use of biocomposites as a worthy alternative to glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in structural applications still needs to be fully evaluated. In the current study, the development of a suited biocomposites started with a thorough review of the available raw materials, including both reinforcement fibres and matrix materials. Based on its specific properties, hemp appeared to be a very suitable fibre. A similar analysis was conducted for the commercially available biobased matrix materials. Greenpoxy 55 (with a biocontent of 55%) and Super Sap 100 (with a biocontent of 37%) were selected and compared with a standard epoxy resin. Tensile and three-point bending tests were conducted to characterise the hemp-based biocomposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Direct Generation of High-Aspect-Ratio Structures of AISI 316L by Laser-Assisted Powder Deposition
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245670 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
The effect of process parameters and the orientation of the cladding layer on the mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel components manufactured by laser metal deposition (LMD) was investigated. High aspect-ratio walls were manufactured with layers of a 4.5 mm wide single-cladding track [...] Read more.
The effect of process parameters and the orientation of the cladding layer on the mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel components manufactured by laser metal deposition (LMD) was investigated. High aspect-ratio walls were manufactured with layers of a 4.5 mm wide single-cladding track to study the microstructure and mechanical properties along the length and the height of the wall. Samples for the tensile test (according to ASTM E-8M-04) were machined from the wall along both the direction of the layers and the direction perpendicular to them. Cross-sections of the LMD samples were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The orientation of the growing grain was observed. It was associated with the thermal gradient through the building part. A homogeneous microstructure between consecutive layers and some degree of microporosity was observed by SEM. Uniaxial tension tests were performed on samples extracted from the wall in perpendicular and parallel directions. Results for ultimate tensile strength were similar in both cases and with the wrought material. The σ0.2 were similar in both cases but slightly superior to the wrought material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Assessment of Gradient-Based Algorithm for Surface Determination in Multi-Material Gap Measurements by X ray Computed Tomography
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245650 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 465
Abstract
X-ray computed tomography is one of the most promising measurement techniques for the dimensional evaluation of industrial components. However, the inherent complexity of this technology also involves important challenges. One of them is to develop surface determination algorithms capable of providing measurement results [...] Read more.
X-ray computed tomography is one of the most promising measurement techniques for the dimensional evaluation of industrial components. However, the inherent complexity of this technology also involves important challenges. One of them is to develop surface determination algorithms capable of providing measurement results with better accuracy in any situation—for example, for single and multi-material parts, inner and outer geometries, with and without image artefacts, etc.—and reducing user influence. The surface determination is particularly complex in the case of multi-material parts, especially when they are separated by small air gaps. In previous works, two gradient-based algorithms were presented, that showed less measurement variability throughout the whole part, and reduced the computational cost and operator influence compared to threshold-based algorithms. This work focuses on the evaluation of the performance of these algorithms when used in a scenario so complex that parts of it are made of one or more materials (metal–metal and polymer–metal) with gaps inside. For this purpose, a set of multi-material reference standards is used. The presented gradient-based algorithms show measurement errors comparable to commercial threshold-based algorithms, but with the capability of obtaining accurate measurements in smaller gaps, apart from reducing the user influence on the measurement process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Cold Expansion Process with Multiple Balls—Numerical Simulation and Comparison with Single Ball and Tapered Mandrels
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235536 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
Cold expansion technology is an extended method used in aeronautics to increase fatigue life of holes and hence extending inspection intervals. During the cold expansion process, a mechanical mandrel is forced to pass along the hole generating compressive residual hoop stresses. The most [...] Read more.
Cold expansion technology is an extended method used in aeronautics to increase fatigue life of holes and hence extending inspection intervals. During the cold expansion process, a mechanical mandrel is forced to pass along the hole generating compressive residual hoop stresses. The most widely accepted geometry for this mandrel is the tapered one and simpler options like balls have generally been rejected based on the non-conforming residual hoop stresses derived from their use. In this investigation a novelty process using multiple balls with incremental interference, instead of a single one, was simulated. Experimental tests were performed to validate the finite element method (FEM) models and residual hoop stresses from multiple balls simulation were compared with one ball and tapered mandrel simulations. Results showed that the use of three incremental balls significantly reduced the magnitude of non-conforming residual hoop stresses and the extension of these detrimental zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Comparison of Different Parameters to Evaluate Delamination in Edge Trimming of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastics (BFRP)
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235326 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 493
Abstract
Delamination is one of the main problems that occur when machining fiber-reinforced composite materials. In this work, Types I and II of delamination are studied separately in edge trimming of basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP). For this purpose, one-dimensional and area delamination parameters [...] Read more.
Delamination is one of the main problems that occur when machining fiber-reinforced composite materials. In this work, Types I and II of delamination are studied separately in edge trimming of basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP). For this purpose, one-dimensional and area delamination parameters are defined. One-dimensional parameters (Wa and Wb) allow to know average fibers length while the analysis of area delamination parameters (Sd) allow to evaluate delamination density. To study delamination, different tests are carried out modifying cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed per tooth and depth of cut) and material characteristics (fiber volume fraction and fiber orientation). Laminates with a lower fiber volume fraction do not present delamination. Attending to one-dimensional parameters it can be concluded that Type II delamination is more important than Type I and that a high depth of cut generates higher values of delamination parameters. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to study area parameters. Although delamination has a random nature, for each depth of cut, more influence variables in area delamination are firstly, feed per tooth and secondly, cutting speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Prediction of Mechanical Properties by Artificial Neural Networks to Characterize the Plastic Behavior of Aluminum Alloys
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225227 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
In metal forming, the plastic behavior of metallic alloys is directly related to their formability, and it has been traditionally characterized by simplified models of the flow curves, especially in the analysis by finite element simulation and analytical methods. Tools based on artificial [...] Read more.
In metal forming, the plastic behavior of metallic alloys is directly related to their formability, and it has been traditionally characterized by simplified models of the flow curves, especially in the analysis by finite element simulation and analytical methods. Tools based on artificial neural networks have shown high potential for predicting the behavior and properties of industrial components. Aluminum alloys are among the most broadly used materials in challenging industries such as aerospace, automotive, or food packaging. In this study, a computer-aided tool is developed to predict two of the most useful mechanical properties of metallic materials to characterize the plastic behavior, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. These prognostics are based on the alloy chemical composition, tempers, and Brinell hardness. In this study, a material database is employed to train an artificial neural network that is able to make predictions with a confidence greater than 95%. It is also shown that this methodology achieves a performance similar to that of empirical equations developed expressly for a specific material, but it provides greater generality since it can approximate the properties of any aluminum alloy. The methodology is based on the usage of artificial neural networks supported by a big data collection about the properties of thousands of commercial materials. Thus, the input data go above 2000 entries. When the relevant information has been collected and organized, an artificial neural network is defined, and after the training, the artificial intelligence is able to make predictions about the material properties with an average confidence greater than 95%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Effect of WEDM Process Parameters on Surface Morphology of Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214943 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
Nickel–titanium shape memory alloys (SMAs) have started becoming popular owing to their unique ability to memorize or regain their original shape from the plastically deformed condition by means of heating or magnetic or mechanical loading. Nickel–titanium alloys, commonly known as nitinol, have been [...] Read more.
Nickel–titanium shape memory alloys (SMAs) have started becoming popular owing to their unique ability to memorize or regain their original shape from the plastically deformed condition by means of heating or magnetic or mechanical loading. Nickel–titanium alloys, commonly known as nitinol, have been widely used in actuators, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices, and many other applications, including in the biomedical, aerospace, and automotive fields. However, nitinol is a difficult-to-cut material because of its versatile specific properties such as the shape memory effect, superelasticity, high specific strength, high wear and corrosion resistance, and severe strain hardening. There are several challenges faced when machining nitinol SMA with conventional machining techniques. Noncontact operation of the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process between the tool (wire) and workpiece significantly eliminates the problems of conventional machining processes. The WEDM process consists of multiple input parameters that should be controlled to obtain great surface quality. In this study, the effect of WEDM process parameters on the surface morphology of nitinol SMA was studied using 3D surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. 3D surface analysis results indicated a higher value of surface roughness (SR) on the top of the work surface and a lower SR on the bottom portion of the work surface. The surface morphology of the machined sample obtained at optimized parameters showed a reduction in microcracks, micropores, and globules in comparison with the machined surface obtained at a high discharge energy level. EDX analysis indicated a machined surface free of molybdenum (tool electrode). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
Sustainable Ecocements: Chemical and Morphological Analysis of Granite Sawdust Waste as Pozzolan Material
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214941 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
The processes focused on stone cutting generate a large volume of waste. Small size waste, silt/clay, is not used and goes to landfill. However, the composition of these wastes makes them useful for adding to cements and for use in construction. In the [...] Read more.
The processes focused on stone cutting generate a large volume of waste. Small size waste, silt/clay, is not used and goes to landfill. However, the composition of these wastes makes them useful for adding to cements and for use in construction. In the present paper, 10% Ordinary Portland cement is replaced by 10% waste from granite sawmill, which is studied to obtain sustainable ecological cement. This replacement provides advantages from the morphological and chemical point of view at the cements. The waste has a particle size that does not exceed 15 µm and that when replacing in the cement, after the hydration reaction, generates structures where Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) gels and double layered hydroxide compounds (LDH) are reaction products formed in high concentration. These products develop stable phases in the structures over long time periods such one year, which was the time frame used in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Article
SLM Manufacturing Redesign of Cooling Inserts for High Production Steel Moulds and Benchmarking with Other Industrial Additive Manufacturing Strategies
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214843 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
Moulding technologies are remarkably effective for parts requiring high production volumes. Yet cooling the moulds after each injection can cause a significant loss of time. A possibility for reducing the cooling times is to use cooling inserts and conformal cooling strategies. In the [...] Read more.
Moulding technologies are remarkably effective for parts requiring high production volumes. Yet cooling the moulds after each injection can cause a significant loss of time. A possibility for reducing the cooling times is to use cooling inserts and conformal cooling strategies. In the present case, the original inserts of a mould must be substituted because the original material cannot be utilized anymore (toxicity). Will it be technically feasible to achieve a proper cooling only by modifying the inserts? Here, the cooling inserts of high production steel moulds utilized to manufacture ribs for swimming pool sinks’ plastic cages are redesigned, simulated and manufactured, taking advantage of Selective Laser Melting possibilities and without modifying the geometry of the obtained parts, nor the rest of the moulds. The results reveal a reduction in the mould cooling times of up to 8%, while maintaining the same conformation properties, thus leading to important savings of time and some global costs in the production outcomes. The study also benchmarks the production economic limits of this approach compared to other possible strategies, such as the development of full new conformal cooling moulds or the industrial production of the parts with plastic additive manufacturing (multi jet fusion) technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Review

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Review
EMG Characterization and Processing in Production Engineering
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245815 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Electromyography (EMG) signals are biomedical signals that measure electrical currents generated during muscle contraction. These signals are strongly influenced by physiological and anatomical characteristics of the muscles and represent the neuromuscular activities of the human body. The evolution of EMG analysis and acquisition [...] Read more.
Electromyography (EMG) signals are biomedical signals that measure electrical currents generated during muscle contraction. These signals are strongly influenced by physiological and anatomical characteristics of the muscles and represent the neuromuscular activities of the human body. The evolution of EMG analysis and acquisition techniques makes this technology more reliable for production engineering applications, overcoming some of its inherent issues. Taking as an example, the fatigue monitoring of workers as well as enriched human–machine interaction (HMI) systems used in collaborative tasks are now possible with this technology. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the current implementation of EMG technology within production engineering, its weaknesses, opportunities, and synergies with other technologies, with the aim of developing more natural and efficient HMI systems that could improve the safety and productivity within production environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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Review
Sustainability in the Aerospace, Naval, and Automotive Supply Chain 4.0: Descriptive Review
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245625 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
The search for sustainability in the Supply Chain (SC) is one of the tasks that most concerns business leaders in all manufacturing sectors because of the importance that the Supply Chain has as a transversal tool and due to the leading role that [...] Read more.
The search for sustainability in the Supply Chain (SC) is one of the tasks that most concerns business leaders in all manufacturing sectors because of the importance that the Supply Chain has as a transversal tool and due to the leading role that it has been playing lately. Of all the manufacturing sectors, this study focuses on the aerospace, shipbuilding, and automotive sectors identified as transport. The present study carries out a descriptive review of existing publications in these three sectors in relation to the sustainability of the Supply Chain in its 4.0 adaptation as an update in matters that are in constant evolution. Among the results obtained, Lean practices are common to the three sectors, as well as different technologies focused on sustainability. Furthermore, the results show that the automotive sector is the one that makes the greatest contribution in this sense through collaborative programs that can be very useful to the other two sectors, thus benefiting from the consequent applicable advantages. Meanwhile, the Aerospace and Shipbuilding sectors do not seem to be working on promoting a sustainable culture in the management of the Supply Chain or on including training programs for their personnel in matters related to Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of Manufacturing Engineering Society-2020 (SIMES-2020))
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