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Recent Developments on Natural and Synthetic Polymers

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 8532

Special Issue Editor

Advanced Polymer Materials Group, Department of Bioresources and Polymer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: polymer; 3D printing; organ on-a-chip; biomaterial; nanoparticle; hydrogel; rheology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural and synthetic polymers are used in various medical applications due to their valuable properties, such as biocompatibility, good mechanical integrity, biodegradability, and possibility to tune their characteristics for a specific medical interest. Natural polymers (biopolymers) are considered as the first biodegradable biomaterials for biomedical applications. Synthetic biostable polymers of the first generation of biomaterials were chosen to provide mechanical support and minimize the host response of the related biomaterials. The last generation of materials for medical use goes from biomimetic to bioinspired systems with controlled properties and good biological response.

This Special Issue will focus on recent developments regarding the synthesis, properties, and medical applications of various natural and synthetic polymers. New “green and friendly” synthesis routes for polymers are also welcome with respect to their biomedical applications. Characterization methods should also be described and correlated to the target application. Cellulose, silk, collagen, alginates, dextran, starch, and other biopolymers are included in the Special Issue, together with various synthetic polymers. Biological in vitro and in vivo investigation could be taken into account within the papers to have a complete view for these polymeric biomaterials with respect to the biomedical field.

Applications are not limited; therefore, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine are only some potential directions.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Catalin Zaharia
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biopolymer
  • synthetic polymer
  • tissue engineering
  • drug delivery
  • complex characterization

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2665 KiB  
Article
Crosslinking Efficacy and Cytotoxicity of Genipin and Its Activated Form Prepared by Warming It in a Phosphate Buffer: A Comparative Study
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216600 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare the acute and cumulative cytotoxicity of intact (n-GE) and warmed genipin (w-GE), while investigating the differences in crosslinking capabilities of these two genipins by rheological and mechanical tests. The n-GE solution was prepared by [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to compare the acute and cumulative cytotoxicity of intact (n-GE) and warmed genipin (w-GE), while investigating the differences in crosslinking capabilities of these two genipins by rheological and mechanical tests. The n-GE solution was prepared by dissolving genipin powder in a sodium phosphate buffer solution. The w-GE solution was prepared by warming the n-GE solution at 37 °C for 24 h. The mechanical tests for chitosan (CH)/genipin gels showed the crosslinking rate of w-GE was much greater than that of n-GE up until 6 h after preparation, whereas the degree of crosslinking of CH/n-GE gels became higher at 12 h. The ISO 10993-5 standard method, which is established specifically for evaluating cumulative cytotoxicity, determined equivalent IC50 for w-GE (0.173 mM) and n-GE (0.166 mM). On the other hand, custom-made cytotoxicity tests using a WST-8 assay after 1 h of cultivation showed that the acute cytotoxicity of w-GE was significantly higher than that of n-GE at concentrations between 0.1–5 mM. The acute cytotoxicity of w-GE should be taken into consideration in its practical uses, despite the fact that the much faster crosslinking of w-GE is useful as an effective cross linker for in-situ forming gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments on Natural and Synthetic Polymers)
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16 pages, 2898 KiB  
Article
3D Bioprinting of Biosynthetic Nanocellulose-Filled GelMA Inks Highly Reliable for Soft Tissue-Oriented Constructs
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174891 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
Bioink-formulations based on gelatin methacrylate combined with oxidized cellulose nanofibrils are employed in the present study. The parallel investigation of the printing performance, morphological, swelling, and biological properties of the newly developed hydrogels was performed, with inks prepared using methacrylamide-modified gelatins of fish [...] Read more.
Bioink-formulations based on gelatin methacrylate combined with oxidized cellulose nanofibrils are employed in the present study. The parallel investigation of the printing performance, morphological, swelling, and biological properties of the newly developed hydrogels was performed, with inks prepared using methacrylamide-modified gelatins of fish or bovine origin. Scaffolds with versatile and well-defined internal structure and high shape fidelity were successfully printed due to the high viscosity and shear-thinning behavior of formulated inks and then photo-crosslinked. The biocompatibility of 3D-scaffolds was surveyed using human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and high viability and proliferation rates were obtained when in contact with the biomaterial. Furthermore, bioprinting tests were performed with hASCs embedded in the developed formulations. The results demonstrated that the designed inks are a versatile toolkit for 3D bioprinting and further show the benefits of using fish-derived gelatin for biofabrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments on Natural and Synthetic Polymers)
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12 pages, 4688 KiB  
Article
Thermoplastic Polymers with Nanosilver Addition—Microstructural, Surface and Mechanical Evaluation during a 36-Month Deionized Water Incubation Period
Materials 2021, 14(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020361 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Three types of thermoplastic polymers, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polymethyl methacrylate acrylic (PMMA) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), were enriched with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 0.5 wt.% and 1.0 wt.%, respectively. The polymers and the composites were manufactured via injection molding. Regarding the potential [...] Read more.
Three types of thermoplastic polymers, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polymethyl methacrylate acrylic (PMMA) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), were enriched with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 0.5 wt.% and 1.0 wt.%, respectively. The polymers and the composites were manufactured via injection molding. Regarding the potential of these polymers as matrices for long-term use as biomaterials, the aim of this study was to examine their stability in the in vitro conditions during a three-year incubation period in deionized water. In this work, microstructural observations were performed, and mechanical properties were assessed. Surface parameters, such as roughness and contact angle, were comprehensively investigated. The microstructural evaluation showed that the silver additive was homogeneously dispersed in all the examined matrices. The 36-month immersion period indicated no microstructural changes and proved the composites’ stability. The mechanical tests confirmed that the composites retained comparable mechanical properties after the silver incorporation. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength increased during long-term incubation. The addition of silver nanoparticles did not alter the composites’ roughness. The contact angle increased with the rising AgNP content. It was also shown that the materials’ roughness increased with the incubation time, especially for the ABS- and HDPE-based materials. The water environment conditions improved the wettability of the tested materials. However, the silver nanoparticles’ content resulted in the contact angle decreasing during incubation. The conducted studies confirmed that the mechanical properties of all the polymers and composites did not deteriorate; thus, the materials may be considered stable and applicable for long-term working periods in aqueous environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments on Natural and Synthetic Polymers)
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14 pages, 5180 KiB  
Article
Novel Nanocomposites Based on Bacterial Polyester/LDH-SDS Clay for Stem Cells Delivery in Modern Wound Healing Management
Materials 2020, 13(20), 4488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204488 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Nanocomposite materials based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) and modified mineral clay layered double hydroxides (LDH-SDS) were explored as novel nanostructured materials for potential tissue engineering applications. The mineral clay inorganic phase was modified with an anionic long-chain structure of carbon atoms, such as sodium [...] Read more.
Nanocomposite materials based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) and modified mineral clay layered double hydroxides (LDH-SDS) were explored as novel nanostructured materials for potential tissue engineering applications. The mineral clay inorganic phase was modified with an anionic long-chain structure of carbon atoms, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, in order to increase the compatibility between the two phases. The melt intercalation method used for nanocomposite fabrication ensures a good dispersion of the modified LDH-SDS within the polymer matrix without using a toxic solvent (chloroform). The nanocomposites were found to have an intercalated/exfoliated structure with an enhanced Young modulus and increased stiffness. This could allow them to be considered for autologous stem cells dressings in the view of efficient wound healing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments on Natural and Synthetic Polymers)
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