Special Issue "Mechanical Properties and Applications of Advanced Ceramics"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Structure Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lidija Ćurković
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lucica 1, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: advanced ceramics; nanomaterials; corrosion mechanisms; wear mechanisms; mechanical characterization; sintering; microstructural characterization of ceramics; manufacturing; forming of ceramics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Irena Žmak
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lucica 1, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: advanced ceramics; nanomaterials; composites; modelling; neural networks; corrosion mechanisms; wear mechanisms; mechanical characterization; sintering; microstructural characterization of ceramics; manufacturing; forming of ceramics

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Various industrial processes require the application of advanced materials that are resistant to corrosion and wear, in order to prevent or decrease losses due to wear, reduce the downtime of the equipment that is in contact with an aggressive environment, as well as to increase efficiency and process quality. Therefore, the production of inorganic non-metallic materials, such as advanced ceramics, is economically very important, and it is one of the most attractive economical branches in developed countries. Numerous possibilities for the application of ceramic products are based on the specific properties of ceramic materials. Chemical, mechanical, and tribological properties of advanced ceramics depend on several parameters, such as chemical composition, microstructure, and surface condition, which are the most influential parameters. The chemical composition of ceramic materials varies significantly from simple compounds to mixtures of many complex phases. The proper selection of raw materials and the optimization of the sintering process are also very important steps.

Advanced ceramics, as a new class of ceramic materials with a unique combination of corrosion and wear resistance and high-temperature stability, have a growing application potential for the wear and corrosion protection of different working parts in mining and mineral industries. These working parts have to withstand a continuous flow of hard abrasive particles, often in highly corrosive environments, flowing at high velocities and pressures.

This Special Issue will focus on mechanical properties, resistance to various wear mechanisms, and the factors that affect the chemical stability (i.e., corrosion) of various types of advanced ceramics. It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Topics on all aspects of corrosion, wear, and mechanical properties of advanced ceramics are suitable for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome. We look forward to your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Lidija Ćurković
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Irena Žmak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced ceramics
  • application
  • manufacturing
  • sintering
  • structure
  • characterization
  • mechanical properties
  • modelling
  • corrosion
  • wear

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Titania-Coated Alumina Foam Photocatalyst for Memantine Degradation Derived by Replica Method and Sol-Gel Reaction
Materials 2020, 13(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010227 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the present work, alumina (Al2O3) foam was prepared by the replica method where a polyurethane (PU) foam (30 pores per inch (ppi)) template was impregnated with a 60 wt.% Al2O3 suspension. Sintered Al2O [...] Read more.
In the present work, alumina (Al2O3) foam was prepared by the replica method where a polyurethane (PU) foam (30 pores per inch (ppi)) template was impregnated with a 60 wt.% Al2O3 suspension. Sintered Al2O3 foam was used as substrate for the deposition of sol-gel derived titania (TiO2) film using dip coating. For the preparation of TiO2 sol, titanium(IV) isopropoxide (Ti-iPrOH) was used as the precursor. The common problem of qualification and quantification of a crystalline coating on a highly porous 3D substrate with an uneven surface was addressed using a combination of different structural characterization methods. Using Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) and synchrotron Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) on bulk and powdered Al2O3 foam and TiO2-coated Al2O3 foam samples, it was determined Al2O3 foam crystallizes to corundum and coating to anatase, which was also confirmed by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) revealed the structural and microstructural properties of the substrate and coating. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to clarify the evolution of the porous microstructure. The Al2O3-TiO2 composite was evaluated as a photocatalyst candidate for the degradation of the micropollutant medication memantine. The degradation rate was monitored using a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp operating at electromagnetic (EM) wavelength of 365 nm. The photocatalytic activity of sol-gel-derived TiO2 film immobilized on the Al2O3 foam was compared with commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles, P25-Degussa, in the form of a suspension. The levels of memantine were monitored by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). The efficiency and rate of the memantine photodegradation by suspended TiO2 nanoparticles is higher than the TiO2-coated Al2O3 foam. But, from the practical point of view, TiO2-coated Al2O3 foam is more appropriate as a valuable photocatalytic composite material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties and Applications of Advanced Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Room-Temperature Creep Behavior and Its Correlation with Length Scale of a Litao3 Single Crystal by Spherical Nanoindentation
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244213 - 15 Dec 2019
Abstract
Relying on nanoindentation technology, the room-temperature creep behavior of a LiTaO3 single crystal in the typical orientation (01 1 ¯ 2), i.e., Y-42° plane was investigated. Three kinds of spherical tips with the radii of 0.76, 2.95 and 9.8 μm were respectively [...] Read more.
Relying on nanoindentation technology, the room-temperature creep behavior of a LiTaO3 single crystal in the typical orientation (01 1 ¯ 2), i.e., Y-42° plane was investigated. Three kinds of spherical tips with the radii of 0.76, 2.95 and 9.8 μm were respectively applied to detect nanoindentation length scale effect on creep deformation at both elastic and plastic regions. Superficially, both creep displacement and rate were nearly linearly increased with increasing holding depth and independent of tip size, which could be ascribed to the simultaneously enlarged holding strain and deformation volume beneath the indenter. At a similar holding strain, creep deformation, i.e., creep strain and strain rate were more pronounced under smaller spherical tips. Strain rate sensitivities of creep flows under different spherical tips and holding strains were also estimated. The potential room-temperature creep mechanism of LiTaO3 under high shear compression stress was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties and Applications of Advanced Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Functionally Step-Variable Graded Plate Under In-Plane Compression
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244090 - 07 Dec 2019
Abstract
A study of the pre- and post-buckling state of square plates built from functionally graded materials (FGMs) and pure ceramics is presented. In contrast to the theoretical approach, the structure under consideration contains a finite number of layers with a step-variable change in [...] Read more.
A study of the pre- and post-buckling state of square plates built from functionally graded materials (FGMs) and pure ceramics is presented. In contrast to the theoretical approach, the structure under consideration contains a finite number of layers with a step-variable change in mechanical properties across the thickness. An influence of ceramics content on a wall and a number of finite layers of the step-variable FGM on the buckling and post-critical state was scrutinized. The problem was solved using the finite element method and the asymptotic nonlinear Koiter’s theory. The investigations were conducted for several boundary conditions and material distributions to assess the behavior of the plate and to compare critical forces and post-critical equilibrium paths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties and Applications of Advanced Ceramics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
TiN-Nanoparticulate-Reinforced ZrO2 for Electrical Discharge Machining
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172789 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study presents a fabrication route for an electrically conductive ZrO2–TiN ceramic nanocomposite with a nanoscale TiN phase occupying ≤30 vol% to improve the mechanical reinforcement of the zirconia matrix, and at the same time provide electrical conductivity to facilitate electro-discharge [...] Read more.
This study presents a fabrication route for an electrically conductive ZrO2–TiN ceramic nanocomposite with a nanoscale TiN phase occupying ≤30 vol% to improve the mechanical reinforcement of the zirconia matrix, and at the same time provide electrical conductivity to facilitate electro-discharge machining (EDM). The TiN nanoparticles were incorporated into a 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) powder, either by admixing a TiN nanopowder (MCP) or by using in-situ synthesis (ISS) via the forced hydrolysis of a titanyl sulphate aqueous solution and the direct nitriding of as-synthesized titania nanoparticles, followed by consolidation and rapid sintering in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) system. The initial phase composition and crystal structure of the as-synthesized powders and the sintered samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray difraction (XRD). The influence of the different fabrication routes on the microstructural evolution, electrical and mechanical properties, and affinity for EDM were assessed using TEM, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM, Vickers indentation, electrical conductivity measurements, and profilometry. The MCP synthesis route resulted in finer microstructures that are less prone to microstructural inhomogeneities; however, using the ISS route, it was possible to fabricate electrically conductive Y-TZP nanocomposites containing only 15 vol% of the TiN nanoparticulate phase. Both synthesis routes resulted in an increase of the fracture toughness with an increase of the TiN phase due to the nanoparticulate TiN reinforcement of the Y-TZP ceramic matrix via crack-bridging toughening mechanisms. As both synthesis routes yielded Y-TZP nanocomposites capable of successful EDM machining at a TiN content of ≥30 vol% for the MCP and ≥ 15 vol% TiN for the ISS, a possible mechanism was developed based on the microstructure evolution and grain growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties and Applications of Advanced Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Additives on Stability of Alumina—Waste Alumina Suspension for Slip Casting: Optimization Using Box-Behnken Design
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111738 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The green machining of alumina (Al2O3) green bodies generates a certain amount of waste alumina powder. Waste alumina ceramic powder should be disposed of as non-hazardous waste in a legally compliant manner. The influence of additives on the stability [...] Read more.
The green machining of alumina (Al2O3) green bodies generates a certain amount of waste alumina powder. Waste alumina ceramic powder should be disposed of as non-hazardous waste in a legally compliant manner. The influence of additives on the stability of 70 wt.% (≈40 vol.%) alumina—waste alumina water-based suspension was investigated in the presented research. A Box-Behnken three-factor response surface design was used for the preparation of stable highly-concentrated suspensions with the addition of three additives. The optimal amount of each additive was selected according to the obtained results of minimal apparent viscosity: 0.05 wt.% Tiron as dispersant, 0.1 wt.% poly (vinyl alcohol) as binder and 0.2 wt.% magnesium aluminate spinel as abnormal grain growth inhibitor. The analysis of variance was used to identify the contribution of each additive. The zeta potential and sedimentations tests were performed to confirm the suspension stability measurements at different pH values. Alumina particles were optimally dispersed at pH values between 8 and 11. According to the results, the investigated composition of 20 wt.% waste alumina powder (weight content, dry alumina powder), with the addition of optimal amounts of additives, shows a possible application in the production of ceramics by slip casting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties and Applications of Advanced Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Cavitation Wear of Basalt-Based Glass Ceramic
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091552 - 12 May 2019
Abstract
This paper examines the possibility of using basalt-based glass ceramics for construction of structural parts of equipment in metallurgy and mining. An ultrasonic vibration method with a stationary sample pursuant to the ASTM G32 standard was used to evaluate the possibility of the [...] Read more.
This paper examines the possibility of using basalt-based glass ceramics for construction of structural parts of equipment in metallurgy and mining. An ultrasonic vibration method with a stationary sample pursuant to the ASTM G32 standard was used to evaluate the possibility of the glass ceramic samples application in such operating conditions. As the starting material for synthesis of samples, olivine–pyroxene basalt from the locality Vrelo–Kopaonik Mountain (Serbia) was used. In order to obtain pre-determined structure and properties of basalt-based glass ceramics, raw material preparation methods through the sample crushing, grinding, and mechanical activation processes have been examined together with sample synthesis by means of melting, casting, and thermal treatment applied for the samples concerned. The mass loss of samples in function of the cavitation time was monitored. Sample surface degradation level was quantified using the image analysis. During the test, changes in sample morphology were monitored by means of the scanning electronic microscopy method. The results showed that basalt-based glass ceramics are highly resistant to cavitation wear and can be used in similar exploitation conditions as a substitute for other metal materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties and Applications of Advanced Ceramics)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Author: MD RAHIM BIN SAHAR FS
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