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Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Simulation and Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 21068

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
National Technological Initiative Center of Excellence in New Manufacturing Technologies, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Interests: mechanical engineering; computational mechanics; computational materials science; advanced manufacturing technology; digital engineering; digital twins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For the development of mechanical engineering and other high-tech industries, the use of Advanced Materials and Advanced Digital and Manufacturing Technology. The basis for development is provided by such scientific fields as Mechanical Engineering, Mathematical Modelling, Computational Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, Numerical Methods, primarily Finite Element Analysis (FEA), Numerical and Computer Simulation, Digital Technology, Digital Engineering, Digital Twins и Advanced Manufacturing Technology, especially Additive Technology.

This Special Issue on Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials focuses on the publication of original research related to:

– the structure, mechanical, electronic, chemical, magnetic, optical properties and various applications of classes of materials such as metals and alloys, polymers, composites, ceramics, glasses and semiconductors, including advanced materials (e.g., nanomaterials, smart materials, biomaterials);

– the technological processes (plastic deformation processes of metal, forming, cutting, moulding, friction stir welding, additive technology, vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding and many others);

– the different finite element modelling approaches, multiscale analysis (from nano-, micro- through meso- to macro-level).

Dr. Alexey Borovkov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • finite element analysis, modelling, simulations and optimizations
  • multiscale analysis
  • construction, polymer, composite materials
  • advanced materials, especially nanomaterials, smart materials, biomaterials
  • advanced manufacturing technology and processes

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 2341 KiB  
Article
Finite-Element Modeling of the Hysteresis Behavior of Tetragonal and Rhombohedral Polydomain Ferroelectroelastic Structures
by Sviatoslav M. Lobanov and Artem S. Semenov
Materials 2023, 16(2), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020540 - 05 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The influence of the domain structure’s initial topology and its evolution on the hysteresis curves of tetragonal and rhombohedral polydomain structures of ferroelectroelastic materials is studied. Based on the analysis of electrical and mechanical compatibility conditions, all possible variants of representative volume elements [...] Read more.
The influence of the domain structure’s initial topology and its evolution on the hysteresis curves of tetragonal and rhombohedral polydomain structures of ferroelectroelastic materials is studied. Based on the analysis of electrical and mechanical compatibility conditions, all possible variants of representative volume elements of tetragonal and rhombohedral second-rank-domain laminate structures were obtained and used in simulations. Considerable local inhomogeneity of stress and electric fields within the representative volume, as well as domain interaction, necessitates the use of numerical methods. Hysteresis curves for laminated domain patterns of the second rank were obtained using finite-element homogenization. The vector-potential finite-element formulation as the most effective method was used for solving nonlinear coupled boundary value problems of ferroelectroelasticity. A significant anisotropy of the hysteresis properties of domain structures was established both within individual phases and when comparing the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. The proposed approach describes the effects of domain hardening and unloading nonlinearity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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12 pages, 6323 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Analysis of a 40 ft LNG ISO Tank Container
by Du-Yong Lee, Jae-Sang Jo, Antony John Nyongesa and Won-Ju Lee
Materials 2023, 16(1), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010428 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3395
Abstract
The demand for Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has rapidly increased over the past few years. This is because of increasingly stringent environmental regulations to curb harmful emissions from fossil fuels. LNG is one of the clean energy sources that has attracted a great [...] Read more.
The demand for Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has rapidly increased over the past few years. This is because of increasingly stringent environmental regulations to curb harmful emissions from fossil fuels. LNG is one of the clean energy sources that has attracted a great deal of research. In the Republic of Korea, the use of LNG has been implemented in various sectors, including public transport buses, domestic applications, power generation, and in huge marine engines. Therefore, a proper, flexible, and safe transport system should be put in place to meet the high demand. In this work, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed on a domestically developed 40 ft ISO LNG tank using Ansys Mechanical software under low- and high-cycle conditions. The results showed that the fatigue damage factor for all the test cases was much lower than 1. The maximum principal stress generated in the 40 ft LNG ISO tank container did not exceed the yield strength of the calculated material (carbon steel). Maximum principal stress of 123.2 MPa and 107.61 MPa was obtained with low-cycle and high-cycle analysis, respectively, which is 50.28% less than the yield strength of carbon steel. The total number of cycles was greater than the total number of design cycles, and the 40 ft LNG ISO tank container was satisfied with a fatigue life of 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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26 pages, 20697 KiB  
Article
Acetabular Implant Finite Element Simulation with Customised Estimate of Bone Properties
by Dmitriy Soloviev, Leonid Maslov and Mikhail Zhmaylo
Materials 2023, 16(1), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010398 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3019
Abstract
The goal of the study is to analyse the strength and stability of a system comprising the pelvis and a customised implant under functional loads using the finite element method. We considered a technique for assessing the elastic properties of bone tissue via [...] Read more.
The goal of the study is to analyse the strength and stability of a system comprising the pelvis and a customised implant under functional loads using the finite element method. We considered a technique for assessing the elastic properties of bone tissue via computer tomography, constructing finite element models of pelvic bones and a customised endoprosthesis based on the initial geometric models obtained from the National Medical Research Centre for Oncology n.a. N.N. Blokhin (Moscow, Russia). A series of calculations were carried out for the stress-strain state of the biomechanical system during walking, as well as at maximum loads when ascending and descending stairs. The analysis provided conclusions about the strength and stability of the studied device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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9 pages, 3933 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Hydrogen Diffusion in Inhomogeneous Steel Welded Joints
by Andrei I. Rudskoi, Victor A. Karkhin, Egor B. Starobinskii and Sergey G. Parshin
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217686 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Hydrogen is a main factor in cold cracking or hydrogen-induced cracking. The most crack susceptible region of a steel welded joint is the heat affected zone (HAZ). The formulation and functional-analytical solution of the one-dimensional problem of hydrogen diffusion in an inhomogeneous butt-welded [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is a main factor in cold cracking or hydrogen-induced cracking. The most crack susceptible region of a steel welded joint is the heat affected zone (HAZ). The formulation and functional-analytical solution of the one-dimensional problem of hydrogen diffusion in an inhomogeneous butt-welded joint considering weld and joint dimensions and initial hydrogen distribution as well as hydrogen diffusion coefficients and solubilities are presented. It is shown that the peak hydrogen concentration in the HAZ of inhomogeneous joints varies in direct proportion to the initial hydrogen concentration in the weld metal. It is inversely proportional to the ratio of hydrogen solubilities in the weld metal and the HAZ metal and is nonlinear in the diffusion coefficient ratio of these metals. The peak hydrogen concentration in the HAZ can exceed 170% of the average initial concentration in the joint if martensitic steel is welded using low-carbon low-alloy welding consumables. The utilization of austenitic consumables leads to a dramatic reduction in the hydrogen concentration in the HAZ in comparison with the non-austenitic consumables. No direct relationship was found between the hydrogen concentration in the HAZ and the hydrogen evolution from the joint surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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21 pages, 6260 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Finite Element Modeling of Linear Elastic Fatigue Crack Growth
by Abdulnaser M. Alshoaibi and Abdullateef H. Bashiri
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217632 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
This paper proposed an efficient two-dimensional fatigue crack growth simulation program for linear elastic materials using an incremental crack growth procedure. The Visual Fortran programming language was used to develop the finite element code. The adaptive finite element mesh was generated using the [...] Read more.
This paper proposed an efficient two-dimensional fatigue crack growth simulation program for linear elastic materials using an incremental crack growth procedure. The Visual Fortran programming language was used to develop the finite element code. The adaptive finite element mesh was generated using the advancing front method. Stress analysis for each increment was carried out using the adaptive mesh finite element technique. The equivalent stress intensity factor is the most essential parameter that should be accurately estimated for the mixed-mode loading condition which was used as the onset criterion for the crack growth. The node splitting and relaxation method advances the crack once the failure mechanism and crack direction have been determined. The displacement extrapolation technique (DET) was used to calculate stress intensity factors (SIFs) at each crack extension increment. Then, these SIFs were analyzed using the maximum circumferential stress theory (MCST) to predict the crack propagation trajectory and the fatigue life cycles using the Paris’ law model. Finally, the performance and capability of the developed program are shown in the application examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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16 pages, 3807 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Current Density on the Anomalous Codeposition of Ternary Fe-Co-Ni Alloy Coatings
by Shuai Zhang, Jing Yu, Zhengda Liu, Yanjun Yin and Chenfeng Qiao
Materials 2022, 15(17), 6141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176141 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Gradient-structured ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy coatings electrodeposited on steel substrates at various current densities from chloride baths were numerically and experimentally investigated. The electrodeposition process, considering hydrogen evolution and hydrolysis reaction, was modelled using the finite element method (FEM) and was based on the [...] Read more.
Gradient-structured ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy coatings electrodeposited on steel substrates at various current densities from chloride baths were numerically and experimentally investigated. The electrodeposition process, considering hydrogen evolution and hydrolysis reaction, was modelled using the finite element method (FEM) and was based on the tertiary current distribution. The experimentally tested coating thickness and elemental contents were used to verify the simulation model. Although there was a deviation between the simulation and experiments, the numerical model was still able to predict the variation trend of the coating thickness and elemental contents. The influence of the current density on the coating characterization was experimentally studied. Due to hydrogen evolution, the coating surface exhibited microcracks. The crack density on the coating surface appeared smaller with increasing applied current density. The XRD patterns showed that the deposited coatings consisted of solid-solution phases α-Fe and γ (Fe, Ni) and the metallic compound Co3Fe7; the current density in the present studied range had a small influence on the phase composition. The grain sizes on the coating surface varied from 15 nm to 20 nm. The microhardness of the deposited coatings ranged from 625 HV to 655 HV. Meanwhile, the average microhardness increased slightly as the current density increased from 5 A/dm2 to 10 A/dm2 and then decreased as the current density further increased. Finally, the degree of anomaly along with the metal ion and hydrogen atom concentrations in the vicinity of the cathodic surface were calculated to investigate the anomalous codeposition behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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17 pages, 6547 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation and Comparative Analysis of Aluminium Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Silicon Nitride, Eggshell and Magnesium
by Dhanenthiran Mohan, Balamurugan Chinnasamy, Senthil Kumar Naganathan, Nagaprasad Nagaraj, LetaTesfaye Jule, Bayissa Badassa, Krishnaraj Ramaswamy, Parthiban Kathirvel, Gunasekaran Murali and Nikolai Ivanovich Vatin
Materials 2022, 15(17), 6098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176098 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
In today’s scenario, composite materials play a vital role in automobile, aerospace, and defence sectors because of their higher strength, light weight and other mechanical properties. Aluminium alloy Al6082 is a medium strength alloy with good corrosion resistance properties; hence, it is used [...] Read more.
In today’s scenario, composite materials play a vital role in automobile, aerospace, and defence sectors because of their higher strength, light weight and other mechanical properties. Aluminium alloy Al6082 is a medium strength alloy with good corrosion resistance properties; hence, it is used for high-stress applications, bridges, cranes, etc. The present work focuses on comparing the mechanical properties of Al6082 and Al6082 with the addition of silicon nitride, magnesium, and bio waste of eggshells. Samples of Al6082 reinforced with 2% of silicon nitride (Si3N4), 5% of eggshell, and 1% magnesium reinforcements were prepared using the crucible casting process. Mechanical properties were evaluated through hardness test, tensile test and compressive tests, which varied with the additives of reinforcement materials. The results showed that the reinforced materials could increase mechanical properties. Further, it will be analysed by the machining parameters involved through the CNC turning process. Analysis of variance from optimisation technique shows a noteworthy increment of material removal rate (MRR) and significant decrement in surface roughness (Ra) and machining time compared to standard aluminium. Additionally, the analysis of mechanical testing has been predicted with the outcomes of stresses and displacements using the ANSYS platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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23 pages, 6089 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mass on the Dynamic Characteristics of Single- and Double-Layered Graphene-Based Nano Resonators
by Manisha Makwana, Ajay M. Patel, Ankit D. Oza, Chander Prakash, Lovi Raj Gupta, Nikolai Ivanovich Vatin and Saurav Dixit
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165551 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Graphene has been widely and extensively used in mass sensing applications. The present study focused on exploring the use of single-layer graphene (SLG) and double-layer graphene (DLG) as sensing devices. The dynamic analysis of SLG and DLG with different boundary conditions (BDs) and [...] Read more.
Graphene has been widely and extensively used in mass sensing applications. The present study focused on exploring the use of single-layer graphene (SLG) and double-layer graphene (DLG) as sensing devices. The dynamic analysis of SLG and DLG with different boundary conditions (BDs) and length was executed using the atomistic finite element method (AFEM). SLG and DLG sheets were modelled and considered as a space–frame structure similar to a 3D beam. Spring elements (Combin14) were used to identify the interlayer interactions between two graphene layers in the DLG sheet due to the van der Waals forces. Simulations were carried out to visualize the behavior of the SLG and DLG subjected to different BDs and when used as mass sensing devices. The variation in frequency was noted by changing the length and applied mass of the SLGs and DLGs. The quantity of the frequency was found to be highest in the armchair SLG (6, 6) for a 50 nm sheet length and lowest in the chiral SLG (16, 4) for a 20 nm sheet length in the bridged condition. When the mass was 0.1 Zg, the frequency for the zigzag SLG (20, 0) was higher in both cases. The results show that the length of the sheet and the various mass values have a significant impact on the dynamic properties. The present research will contribute to the ultra-high frequency nano-resonance applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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19 pages, 5476 KiB  
Article
Analytical and Numerical Investigation of the Behavior of Engineered Cementitious Composite Members under Shear Loads
by Preethy Mary Arulanandam, Madappa VR Sivasubramnaian, Maheswaran Chellapandian, Gunasekaran Murali and Nikolai Ivanovich Vatin
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134640 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
This research discusses the performance of engineered cementitious composite (ECC) beams with and without transverse reinforcements using thorough analytical and finite element (FE) approaches under shear. The overall goal of this investigation was to assess the impact of various design characteristics, such as [...] Read more.
This research discusses the performance of engineered cementitious composite (ECC) beams with and without transverse reinforcements using thorough analytical and finite element (FE) approaches under shear. The overall goal of this investigation was to assess the impact of various design characteristics, such as (i) shear span-to-effective depth ratio, (ii) transverse reinforcement ratio, etc., on the shear behavior of ECC beams. Nonlinear three-dimensional (3-D) FE analysis was performed with the commercial software ABAQUS to simulate the shear performance of ECC beams by employing the material properties obtained from the damage plasticity model. The correctness of the proposed FE model was validated with the benchmark experiments available in the literature. The developed FE model accurately computed the ECC beam’s overall load–deflection behavior and failure modes. In addition, the provision available in the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) A-method was successfully employed to assess the shear load-carrying capacity of ECC beams. Furthermore, the effects of transverse reinforcement (pw) and shear span-to-depth ratio (a/d) on the behavior of ECC beams were also investigated. From a detailed parametric study, it was understood that a decreased a/d ratio exhibits enhanced load-carrying capacity for beams with and without stirrups for a particular cross-section. It was also observed that for the entire a/d ratio, the amount of stirrups had no substantial effect on the load-carrying capability of ECC beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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13 pages, 5215 KiB  
Article
The Uncertainty Propagation for Carbon Atomic Interactions in Graphene under Resonant Vibration Based on Stochastic Finite Element Model
by Jiajia Shi, Liu Chu, Chao Ma and Robin Braun
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103679 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Graphene is one of the most promising two-dimensional nanomaterials with broad applications in many fields. However, the variations and fluctuations in the material and geometrical properties are challenging issues that require more concern. In order to quantify uncertainty and analyze the impacts of [...] Read more.
Graphene is one of the most promising two-dimensional nanomaterials with broad applications in many fields. However, the variations and fluctuations in the material and geometrical properties are challenging issues that require more concern. In order to quantify uncertainty and analyze the impacts of uncertainty, a stochastic finite element model (SFEM) is proposed to propagate uncertainty for carbon atomic interactions under resonant vibration. Compared with the conventional truss or beam finite element models, both carbon atoms and carbon covalent bonds are considered by introducing plane elements. In addition, the determined values of the material and geometrical parameters are expanded into the related interval ranges with uniform probability density distributions. Based on the SFEM, the uncertainty propagation is performed by the Monte Carlo stochastic sampling process, and the resonant frequencies of graphene are provided by finite element computation. Furthermore, the correlation coefficients of characteristic parameters are computed based on the database of SFEM. The vibration modes of graphene with the extreme geometrical values are also provided and analyzed. According to the computed results, the minimum and maximum values of the first resonant frequency are 0.2131 and 16.894 THz, respectively, and the variance is 2.5899 THz. The proposed SFEM is an effective method to propagate uncertainty and analyze the impacts of uncertainty in the carbon atomic interactions of graphene. The work in this paper provides an important supplement to the atomic interaction modeling in nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Finite Element Analysis and Simulation of Materials)
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