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Research and Development in the World Foundry Engineering: Materials, Properties and Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 6421

Special Issue Editors

Department of Foundry Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 7 Towarowa Street, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: cast steel; cast iron; Al alloys; layered castings; heat treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Hail, Saudi Arabia 2. Casting Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, Helwan 11421, Egypt
Interests: metal casting; bimetallic materials; composite coatings; manufactring process; semisolid processing; free Pb solders; heat treatments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foundry engineering is still a strongly developing field of material science and an important branch of the production of metallic materials in the world. In this branch are realized a lot of novel and innovative studies within a framework of research and development works. The results of these studies are published in high-range journals such as Materials and the papers concerning foundry engineering are very popular and usable for many academic scientists and engineering work in many industries. Therefore, given the great potential for development in this field of science and industry, I invite you to submit your valuable articles to this Special Issue entitled “Research and Development in the World Foundry Engineering: Materials, Properties and Applications”, published in the journal Materials. This Special Issue is a continuation of previously published by MDPI with me as Guest Editor the book entitled “Novel Material and Technological Solutions in Foundry Engineering”, ISBN 978-3-0365-4394-9. The scope of this new Special Issue is focused on traditional cast materials such as ferrous alloys, i.e., cast steel or cast iron, and nonferrous metals alloys, i.e., Al, Cu, Mg, Zn and others, as well as bimetallic and composite castings manufactured using different technologies, for example, gravity casting, pressure casting, semi-solid casting, squeeze casting, continuous casting and others.

Once again, I cordially invite you to submit your original research papers or review articles that describe the current state of the art within the scope of this Special Issue “Research and Development in the World Foundry Engineering: Materials, Properties and Applications”.

Prof. Dr. Tomasz Wróbel
Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ramadan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • foundry engineering
  • ferrous and nonferrous alloys
  • foundry technologies
  • solidification and crystallization of metals and alloys
  • macro- and microstructure
  • mechanical properties

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2692 KiB  
Article
Prediction of the Secondary Arms Spacing Based on Dendrite Tip Kinetics and Cooling Rate
Materials 2024, 17(4), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040865 - 13 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 326
Abstract
Secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) is one of the most important factors affecting macrosegregation and mechanical properties in solidification processes. Predicting SDAS is one of the major parameters in foundry technology. In order to predict the evolution of microstructures during the solidification process, [...] Read more.
Secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) is one of the most important factors affecting macrosegregation and mechanical properties in solidification processes. Predicting SDAS is one of the major parameters in foundry technology. In order to predict the evolution of microstructures during the solidification process, we proposed a simple model which predicted the secondary dendrite arm spacing based solely on the tip velocity (related to the tip supersaturation) and cooling rate. The model consisted of a growing cylinder inside a liquid cylindrical envelope. Two important hypotheses were made: (1) Initially the cylinder radius was assumed to equal the dendrite tip radius and (2) the cylindrical envelope had a fixed radius in the order of the dendrite tip diffusion length. The numerical model was tested against experiments using various Pb–Sn alloys for a fixed temperature gradient. The results were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in terms of SDAS and dendrite tip velocity prediction. This simple model is naturally destined to be implemented as a sub-grid model in volume-averaging models to predict the local microstructure, which in turn directly controls the mushy zone permeability and macrosegregation phenomena. Full article
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13 pages, 16053 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Possibility of Using Selected Tools and Algorithms in the Classification and Recognition of Type of Microstructure
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216837 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 592
Abstract
The aim of this research was to develop a solution based on existing methods and tools that would allow the automatic classification of selected images of cast iron microstructures. As part of the work, solutions based on artificial intelligence were tested and modified. [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to develop a solution based on existing methods and tools that would allow the automatic classification of selected images of cast iron microstructures. As part of the work, solutions based on artificial intelligence were tested and modified. Their task is to assign a specific class in the analyzed microstructure images. In the analyzed set, the examined samples appear in various zoom levels, photo sizes and colors. As is known, the components of the microstructure are different. In the examined photo, there does not have to be only one type of precipitate in each photo that indicates the correct microstructure of the same type of alloy, different shapes may appear in different amounts. This article also addresses the issue of data preparation. In order to isolate one type of structure element, the possibilities of using methods such as HOG (histogram of oriented gradients) and thresholding (the image was transformed into black objects on a white background) were checked. In order to avoid the slow preparation of training data, our solution was proposed to facilitate the labeling of data for training. The HOG algorithm combined with SVM and random forest were used for the classification process. In order to compare the effectiveness of the operation, the Faster R-CNN and Mask R-CNN algorithms were also used. The results obtained from the classifiers were compared to the microstructure assessment performed by experts. Full article
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14 pages, 2307 KiB  
Article
The Influence of 3D Printing Core Construction (Binder Jetting) on the Amount of Generated Gases in the Environmental and Technological Aspect
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165507 - 08 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
This article presents the findings of a study focusing on the gas generation of 3D-printed cores fabricated using binder-jetting technology with furfuryl resin. The research aimed to compare gas emission levels, where the volume generated during the thermal degradation of the binder significantly [...] Read more.
This article presents the findings of a study focusing on the gas generation of 3D-printed cores fabricated using binder-jetting technology with furfuryl resin. The research aimed to compare gas emission levels, where the volume generated during the thermal degradation of the binder significantly impacts the propensity for gaseous defects in foundries. The study also investigated the influence of the binder type (conventional vs. 3D-printed dedicated binder) and core construction (shell core) on the quantity of gaseous products from the BTEX group formed during the pouring of liquid foundry metal into the cores. The results revealed that the emitted gas volume during the thermal decomposition of the organic binder depended on the core sand components and binder type. Cores produced using conventional methods emitted the least gases due to lower binder content. Increasing Kaltharz U404 resin to 1.5 parts by weight resulted in a 37% rise in gas volume and 27% higher benzene emission. Adopting shell cores reduced gas volume by over 20% (retaining sand with hardener) and 30% (removing sand with hardener), presenting an eco-friendly solution with reduced benzene emissions and core production costs. Shell cores facilitated the quicker removal of gaseous binder decomposition products, reducing the likelihood of casting defects. The disparity in benzene emissions between 3D-printed and vibratory-mixed solid cores is attributed to the sample preparation process, wherein 3D printing ensured greater uniformity. Full article
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13 pages, 5183 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Effect of Ti Addition to Zinc Bath on Kinetics of Growth of Alloy Layer Formed in Process of Hot-Dip Galvanisation on Steel Substrate
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134773 - 01 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
Faced with the raw material crisis in Zn resources, researchers are facing the challenge of developing technology for producing zinc coatings that are thinner than those that have been produced to date. This would make it possible to reduce Zn consumption in the [...] Read more.
Faced with the raw material crisis in Zn resources, researchers are facing the challenge of developing technology for producing zinc coatings that are thinner than those that have been produced to date. This would make it possible to reduce Zn consumption in the hot-dip galvanisation process. The study included an experiment that involved dip galvanising steel samples in baths of different Ti concentrations; this process was carried out at 450 °C and 550 °C. The use of this additive made it possible to reduce the growth of the alloy layer in the obtained zinc coatings. Using an optical microscope, observations were made of the microstructures of the resulting coatings, which made it possible to determine the thickness of the alloy layer in the coating. Thanks to the use of scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis, however, it was possible to plot the chemical composition of the studied coatings and accurately observe the morphology of the formed phases. An intermetallic Zn-Fe-Ti phase was observed in the coatings formed in a Ti-added bath, which can affect the growth inhibition of the alloy layer in the zinc coating. Full article
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17 pages, 9032 KiB  
Article
Analyze the Wear Mechanism of the Longwall Shearer Haulage System
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083090 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The wear characteristics and related mechanisms of the Longwall Shearer Haulage System were investigated. Wear is one of the main reasons for failures and downtimes. This knowledge can help solve engineering problems. The research was carried out at a laboratory station and a [...] Read more.
The wear characteristics and related mechanisms of the Longwall Shearer Haulage System were investigated. Wear is one of the main reasons for failures and downtimes. This knowledge can help solve engineering problems. The research was carried out at a laboratory station and a test stand. The publication presents the results of tribological tests carried out in laboratory conditions. The aim research was to select the alloy intended for casting the toothed segments of the haulage system. The track wheel was made by the forging method using steel 20H2N4A. Haulage System was tested on the ground using a longwall shearer. Selected toothed segments were subjected to tests on this stand. The cooperation of the track wheel and toothed segments in the tootbar were analyzed by a 3D scanner. Debris chemical composition was also appointed, as well as mass loss of toothed segments. The developed solution toothed segment an increase in the service life of the track wheel in real conditions. The results of the research also contribute to reducing the operating costs of the mining process. Full article
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11 pages, 8412 KiB  
Article
A Novel Approach of Optimum Time Interval Estimation for Al-7.5Si/Al-18Si Liquid–Liquid Bimetal Casting in Sand and Metallic Moulds
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083004 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 899
Abstract
This work describes a novel approach for Al-7.5Si/Al-18Si liquid–liquid bimetal casting in sand and metallic moulds. The aim of the work is to facilitate and develop a simple procedure to produce an Al-7.5Si/Al-18Si bimetallic material with a smooth gradient interface structure. The procedure [...] Read more.
This work describes a novel approach for Al-7.5Si/Al-18Si liquid–liquid bimetal casting in sand and metallic moulds. The aim of the work is to facilitate and develop a simple procedure to produce an Al-7.5Si/Al-18Si bimetallic material with a smooth gradient interface structure. The procedure involves the theoretical calculation of total solidification time (TST) of the first liquid metal (M1), pouring the liquid metal (M1), and allowing it to solidify; then, before complete solidification, the second liquid metal (M2) is introduced into the mould. This novel approach has been proven to produce Al-7.5Si/Al-18Si bimetal materials using liquid–liquid casting. The optimum time interval of Al-7.5Si/Al-18Si bimetal casting with modulus of cast Mc ≤ 1 was estimated based on subtracting 5–15 s or 1–5 s from TST of M1 for sand and metallic moulds, respectively. Future work will involve determining the appropriate time interval range for castings having modulus ≥ 1 using the current approach. Full article
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16 pages, 3813 KiB  
Article
A Novel Hydro-Thermal Synthesis of Nano-Structured Molybdenum-Iron Intermetallic Alloys at Relatively Low Temperatures
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072736 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Nano-structured Mo/Fe intermetallics were synthesized from precursors that contained 72/28% and 30/70% molar ratios of Mo/Fe, which were given as precursors A and B, respectively. These precursors were prepared from the co-precipitation of aqueous hot solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate (AHM) and ferrous [...] Read more.
Nano-structured Mo/Fe intermetallics were synthesized from precursors that contained 72/28% and 30/70% molar ratios of Mo/Fe, which were given as precursors A and B, respectively. These precursors were prepared from the co-precipitation of aqueous hot solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate (AHM) and ferrous oxalate. The dry precipitates were thermally treated using TG-DSC to follow up their behavior during roasting, in an Ar atmosphere of up to 700 °C (10° K/min). The TG profile showed that 32.5% and 55.5% weight losses were measured from the thermal treatment of precursors A and B, respectively. The DSC heat flow profile showed the presence of endothermic peaks at 196.9 and 392.5–400 °C during the thermal decomposition of the AHM and ferrous oxalate, respectively. The exothermic peak that was detected at 427.5 °C was due to the production of nano-sized iron molybdate [Fe2(MoO4)3]. An XRD phase analysis indicated that iron molybdate was the only phase that was identified in precursor A, while iron molybdate and Fe2O3 were produced in precursor B. Compacts were made from the pressing of the nano-sized precursors, which were roasted at 500 °C for 3 h. The roasted compacts were isothermally reduced in H2 at 600–850 °C using microbalance, and the O2 weight loss that resulted from the reduction reactions was continuously recorded as a function of time. The influence of the reduction temperature and precursor composition on the reduction behavior of the precursors was studied and discussed. The partially and completely reduced compacts were examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), a reflected light microscope (RLM), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS). Depending on the precursor composition, the reduction reactions of the [Fe2(MoO4)3] and Fe2O3 proceeded through the formation of intermediate lower oxides, prior to the production of the MO/Fe intermetallic alloys. Based on the intermediate phases that were identified and characterized at the early, intermediate, and final reduction degrees, chemical reaction equations were given to follow up the formation of the MoFe and MoFe3 intermetallic alloys. The mechanism of the reduction reactions was predicted from the apparent activation energy values (Ea) that were computed at the different reduction degrees. Moreover, mathematical formulations that were derived from the gas–solid reaction model were applied to confirm the reduction mechanisms, which were greatly dependent on the precursor composition and reduction temperature. However, it can be reported that nano-structured MoFe and MoFe3 intermetallic alloys can be successfully fabricated via a gas–solid reaction technique at lower temperatures. Full article
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